Skip to main content

Full text of "Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony ..."

See other formats


Google 


This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  Hbrary  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 

to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 

to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 

are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  maiginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 

publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  liave  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 
We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  fivm  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attributionTht  GoogXt  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liabili^  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.   Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at|http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/| 


2  ^ 


I 


ALDmMAN  UBRARY 


2  ^ 


I 


ALOKMilAN  LIBRAIIY 


IPSWICH 

IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY 

COLONY 


VOLUME  II. 


A  HISTORY  OF  THE  TOWN  FROM 

1700  TO  1917 


By  Thomas  franklin  Waters 

PuESiDiirr  OF  TBS  Ipswich  Hutorical  Socistt 


The  Ipswich  Historical  Society 

IPSWICH,  MASS. 
1917 


F 


COPYRIGHT  19]  7 
BY  THOMAS  FRANKLIN  WATERS 


NEWCOMB  A  GAUSS,  PRINTERS 
SALIM,  MASS. 


PREFACE 


The  first  volume  of  Ipswich  history,  entitled  Ipswich  in 
the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony,  1633-1700,  was  published  in 
1905.  It  was  received  with  so  much  favor  that  I  have  been 
encouraged  to  continue  my  study  and  research  to  the  present 
day.  To  the  end  that  the  book  may  be  interesting  to  many 
readers,  beside  students  of  history,  and  may  be  something 
more  than  a  series  of  disconnected  annals,  the  topical  method, 
followed  in  the  first  volume,  has  been  continued. 

I  have  endeavored  to  portray  as  graphically  as  possible 
the  changing  life  of  the  commimity  in  successive  periods,  in 
the  common  course  of  Town  affairs  and  in  critical  periods  of 
Colonial  and  National  existence,  and  have  not  hesitated  to 
make  frequent  excursions  into  the  contemporaneous  history 
of  other  towns  to  secure  illustrative  material. 

The  churches  have  had  such  an  important  place,  that  their 
history  has  been  made  a  prominent  feature,  and  as  their  rec- 
ords are  liable  to  destruction  or  loss,  copious  abstracts  have 
been  made  that  the  essential  facts  may  be  preserved.  The 
extensive  fisheries  and  commerce,  which  formerly  employed 
many  men  and  gave  thrilling  and  romantic  interest  to  the 
daily  life  but  are  now  almost  forgotten,  have  received  care- 
ful study.  The  history  of  the  schools,  especially  that  of  the 
old  Grammar  School,  and  the  Ipswich  Seminary,  so  widely 
famous  in  its  day,  has  been  told  at  length. 

The  field  of  Ipswich  genealogy,  however,  is  so  vast  and  in- 
tricate and  so  much  material  for  students  is  so  readily  avail- 
able in  the  published  Vital  Statistics  and  in  the  family  his- 

(Ui) 


iv  PREP  ACE. 

tories,  that  it  has  not  been  entered.  Neither  has  there  been 
any  attempt  to  compile  the  list  of  Revolutionary  soldiers  and 
sailors,  as  the  cojnplete  record  of  service  is  easily  found  in 
the  bulky  volumes  published  by  the  Commonwealth.  But  I 
have  made  the  narrative  of  the  French  and  Indian  War  as 
complete  as  possible,  with  copious  extracts  from  the  unpub- 
lished records  in  the  Massachusetts  Archives,  and  have  en- 
deavored to  compile  an  accurate  record  of  the  Ipswich  volun- 
teers in  the  Civil  War. 

The  topographical  studies,  which  constituted  Part  II  of 
Volume  I,  have  been  continued  in  the  Publications  of  the 
Ipswich  Historical  Society,  I^o.  XV,  The  Old  Bay  Road,  No. 
XVI-XVII,  Candlewood,  No.  XVIII,  Jeffrey's  Neck  and 
The  Way  Thereto,  and  No.  XIX,  Ipswich  Village  and  The 
Old  Rowley  Road.  Brief  sketches  of  these  localities  appear 
in  Chapter  XXXII,  Along  Some  Old  Roads. 

T.  F.  W. 
Ipswich,  October,  1917. 


CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CHAPTER  I. 
The  Beginnings  op  the  18th  Century^      ....        1 

CHAPTER  TI. 
Queen  Anne's  War, 31 

CHAPTER  III. 
Some  Great  Funerals, 54 

CHAPTER  IV. 

Inns  and  Inn  Keepers  and  the  Traffic  in  Strong 

Drink, 66 

CHAPTER  V. 
Laws,  Courts  and  Judges, 90 

CHAPTER  VI. 

Division  in  the  Parish.    The  Hamlet.    Linebrook. 

The  Great  Awakening.    The  South  Parish,     .     110 

CHAPTER  VII. 
Colonial  Currenot  and  the  Ijand  Bank,        .  .     139 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

The  French  and  Indian  or  Seven  Years  War,  1755- 
1762  AND  The  Acadians  in  Ipswich,    .     .   ' .     .     166 

CHAPTER  IX. 
Slaves,  Servants  and  Apprentices,        210 

CHAPTER  X. 
Fishing  and  Commerce  in  the  18th  Century,    .  230 

CHAPTER  XI. 
Trades  and  Bmpix)tments  in  the  18th  Century,  250 

CHAPTER  XII. 
ScHOOiA  AND  School  Masters  op  the  18th  Century,    274 

(V) 


VI  CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

CHAPTER  XIII. 
The  Breach  with  Great  Britain, 293 

CHAPTER  XIV. 
The  Revolutionary  War,        316 

CHAPTER  XV. 
After  the  Revoldtion, 361 

CHAPTER  XVI. 
The  Poor  and  the  Stranger  within  the  Gates,      .     386 

CHAPTER  XVII. 
The  New  Centdry.    Wars  and  Rumors  of  Wars,     .     403 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 

The  First  Church  after  1747,    ...?...     439 

CHAPTER  XIX. 
The  Linebrook  Church,  1746, 452 

CHAPTER  XX. 
The  South  Church,  1747, 460 

CHAPTER  XXI. 
The  Baptist  Church,  1806,  484 

CHAPTER  XXII. 
The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  1822,        .     .     .     497 

CHAPTER  XXIII. 
Schools  and  School  Teachers  in  the  19th  Century,    513 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 

The  Ipswich  Ac-4J)emy,  later  known  as  the  Ipswich 

Female  Seminary,        538 

CHAPTER  XXV. 
Ipswich,  Seventy-Five  Years  Ago,         576 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 
Shipping  and  Sailors  of  the  19th  Century,       .     .     600 

CHAPTER  XXVII. 
The  Textile  Industry, 626 

CHAPTER  XXVIII. 
The  Unitarian  Church,  1830, 642 


CONTENTS.  Vll 

PAOB 

CHAPTER  XXIX. 
The  PEOTESTA?fT  Episcopal  Church, 647 

CHAPTEE  XXX. 
The  Civil  Was,  1861-1865, 65(8 

CHAPTER  XXXI. 

Some  Public  Utilities,  Eoads  and  Bridges,  Fire  De- 
partment, Water  and  Light, 694 

CHAPTER  XXXII. 
Along  Some  Old  Roads, 707 

CHAPTER  XXXIII. 
Ipswich,  Then  and  Now,        744 

APPENDIX  I. 

A  List  of  Soldiers  and  Sailors  credited  to  Ipswich 

in  the  French  and  Indian  War, 775 

APPENDIX  II. 

Narrative  op  the  Wreck  op  the  ship,  'TDorchester,^' 

Captain  Epen  Caldwell, 783 

APPENDIX  IIL 

The  Roll  op  Ipswich  Soldiers  and  Sailors  in  the 
Civil  War,  the  Spanish  War,  1898,  and  on  the 
Mexican  Frontier,  1916, 788 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 


PAGE 

Bank  Bill,  Ipswich  Land  Bank,      .......  159 

Gkn.  Washington's  Obdes  to  Col.  Wade, 347 

The  Fibst  Pabish  Meeting  House,  1847, 449 

The  Meeting  House  of  the  Linebbook  Chubch,  1848,  452 

The  Meeting  House  of  the  South  Chubch,  1837,    .    .  469 

The  Meeting  House  of  the  Baptist  Chubch,  1898,  48  i 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Chubch, 497 

Eunice  Caldwell  Cowles 573 

John  Phelps  Cowles, 574 

The    Ship   Malay,       623 

The   Ship   Highlandeb,       625 

Ipswich  Mills  about  1882, 636 

Foot  bbidge  and  wateb-way  half  a  centuby  ago,      .    .  636 

Ipswich  Mills,   1917,       .    • 640 

The  Pbotestant  Episcopal  Chubch, 647 

Fbactional  Cubbency  issued  by  the  Union  Stobe  in 

the  Civil  Wab, 683 

The  Caleb  Wabneb  Homestead      695 

The  besidbnce  of  Mb.  A.  Stoby  Bbown, 707 

The  besidence  of  Mb.  Henby  Bbown, 709 

The  summeb  home  of  Mb.  Henby  L.  Dawes,      ....  710 

The  bbsidenoe  of  Miss  Claba  Bebtha  Dobson — ^Wind 

Mux   Hill, .    ,    .    .  711 

BiTEBBEND,   THE   BESIDBNCE  OF   Mb.    GEOBGE   E.    BaBNABD,  713 

FaIBVIEW,  THE  BESIDENCE  OF  MBS.  CHABLES  A.  CAMPBELL,  714 

The  summeb  home  of  Mbs.  Daniel  Fulleb  Appleton,  715 

SUNSWICH,  the  summeb  HOME  OF  Mb.  BaYABD  TuCKEB- 

MAN,          .      .      . 716 

New  House,  the  summeb  home  of  Mb.  Fbanois  B. 

Appleton,       717 

Applefield,  the  summeb   home  of  Mbs.   Chables   S. 

tuckebman, 718 

The  Co^aqe,  the  besidbnce  of  Miss  Bhoda  F.  Kins- 
man,           ....  720 


X  LIST   OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

The  Jebemiah  Kinsman  House, 721 

The  residence  of  Mb.  James  H.  Pboctob, 722 

The  Brown  Homestead  on  the  Aroilla  Farm,      ...  731 

The  summer  home  of  Mrs.  Francis  B.  Harrington,  732 

The  summer  home  of  Mrs.  Joseph  Lord, 734 

The  summer  home  of  Dr.  Joseph  L.  Goodale,  .  .  .  736 
Thatch  Banks,  the  summer  home  of  Mr.  Augustus  N. 

Rantoul,        •, , 738 

The   summer   home   of  Mr.   Richard   T.   Crane,   Jr., 

Castle  Hill, 740 

Inglisby,  the  summer  home  of  the  late  Charles  P. 

Searle,        i    ,    .    .    .  741 

The  Robert   Paine   Homestead    now    owned   by   Mr. 

Robert   G.    Dodge,       743 

The  James  Appleton  Memorial  Fountain,      ....  759 

The  Benjamin   Stickney  Cable  Memorial  Hospital,  761 


CHAPTER  I. 

The  Beginnings  of  the  18th  Century. 

Ipswich  began  the  new  century  worthily  by  building  a  new 
meeting  house  on  the  sightly  hill  top,  hallowed  by  the  two 
earlier  houses  of  worship.  The  Town  voted  in  January, 
1699-1700,  that  the  new  house  should  be  built  near  the 
building  soon  to  be  vacated,  and  instructed  the  Committee 
to  "levell  the  place  for  the  floor  of  y®  said  new  meeting 
house."  The  work  was  pressed  vigorously  during  the  sum- 
mer and  in  just  a  year.  Judge  Sewall  notes  in  his  Diary  in 
January  1700-1701,  that  he  heard  Rev.  John  Rogers  preach 
the  last  sermon  in  the  old  meeting  house  on  the  lecture  day, 
and  that  on  January  29,  1700-1  "Ipswich  people  meet  the 
first  time  in  their  New  Meeting  House." 

It  was  a  stately  edifice,  sixty-six  feet  long,  sixty  feet  broad 
and  twenty-six  feet  stud.  In  anticipation  of  the  dignity  of 
the  new  meeting  house,  provision  was  made  for  a  new  and 
much  larger  bell.  A  subscription  paper  was  circulated  for 
voluntary  contributions,  which  is  of  great  interest  and  value, 
as  it  introduces  us  to  the  fine  group  of  men  who  were  fore- 
most in  Town  affairs  at  the  turn  of  the  century. 

Feb.  29:  1699-'700  A  copie  of  Subscriptions  as  follows 
For  encouragement  to  all  well  &  publick  spirited  p'sons  for 
procuring  of  a  bigger  Bell  for  y®  good  of  y*  Towne. 

Wee,  whose  names  are  hereafted  mentioned,  doe  promise 
to  pay  toward  a  Bell  of  about  5  or  6^^  weight  as  followeth, 
yiz. 

£.  s.  d.  £.  s.  d. 


John  Appleton 

4- 

0-0 

Symond  Epps 

2-10-0 

Jn'.  Wain  Wright 

6- 

0-0 

Sam"  Appleton 

2-  0-0 

Fran*  Wainwright 

3- 

0-0 

Jn"  Kogers 

5-  0-0 

Jn»  Whipple 

2- 

0-0 

Andrew  Burdley 

0-  3-0 

(1) 


IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 


James  Bumum  2-  0-0 

FAw\  Brag  0-10-0 

Nehemiah  Jewett  0-12-0 

Jn*»  Lampson  0-10-0 

jSTath^  Knowlton  0-12-0 

Doc'  Philemon  Dane  0-  6-0 

Sam"  Hart  0-12-0 

Isaac  Appleton  0-  6-0 

Jn*»  Adams  Sen.  0-10-0 

Tho'.  Jacobs  0-  6-0 

Jn*»  Harris  Marsh.  ^  0-10-0 

Joseph  Fuller  0-10-0 

Richard  Smith  0-  6-0 

Edward  IS'ealand  0-  6-0 

Phillip  Fowler  0-18-0 

Rob*  Kinsman  0-18-0 

Jn^  Pen^y  0-12-0 

Joseph  Whipple  Jr.  1-  0-0 

Jacob  Perkins  Tai^^  0-  6-0 

Xath^  Adams  Sen.  0-  6-0 

Sam"  Smith  0-  3-0 

Elihu  Wardel  0-10-0 

Jn**  Denison  0-  6-0 

Tho"  Lull  Sen.  0-  6-0 


Jn**  Whipple,  farmer.  0-10-0 

Jacob  Boarman  0-10-0 

W°*  Goodhue,  farmer  0-  6-0 

Jn*»Pottar  0-  6-0 

W""  Baker  0-  3-0 

Tho».  Smith  0-  3-0 

Michael  Farley  1-10-0 

Mathew  Perkins  0-  6-0 

Caleb  Kimball  0-  3-0 

Dillingham  Caldwell  0-  3-0 

Jn^  Shatswell  0-  6-0 

Daniell  Rogers  0-12-0 

Dan'l  Rindg  1-  0-0 

Francis  Crompton  1-  0-0 

Joseph  Calliffe  0-  9-0 

Jn^  Appleton  Jun.  0-12-0 
Andrew  Diamond  toward  a 


Pulpit  cush*^ 
T^icholas  Wallis 
Edm*  Herd 
Robert  Lord 
Widow  Straw 
W^idow  Pottar 
Robert  Wallis 


2-  0-0 
0-12-0 
0-  8-0 
0-10-0 
0-  6-0 
0-  3-0 
0-  6-0 


The  old  bell  was  sold  to  the  people  of  Marblehead  for 
£37-10s  and  Col.  John  Wainwright  was  requested  in  April, 
1700  to  procure  the  new  one,  at  a  cost  of  £72  and  £1  6s.  for 
the  clapper. 

With  the  time  of  leaving  the  old  meeting  house  close  at 
hand,  a  new  resolve  seems  to  have  been  made,  that  the  dis- 
order that  had  disturbed  the  public  worship  for  some  years, 
owing  to  the  wanton  and  perverse  behavior  of  the  boys  and 
young  men,  should  be  effectually  quelled.  They  were  seated 
by  the  Town  Committee  in  long  rows  on  the  benches  reserved 
for  them  in  the  gallery  or  in  other  less  desirable  locations, 
and  as  they  grew  restive  under  the  long  prayers  and  longer 
sermons,  they  turned  naturally  to  mischief.  The  Records 
and  Files  of  the  old  Quarter  Sessions  Court  reveal  their  mis- 
doings.   Edward  Cogswell,  a  lad  of  some  sixteen  years,  pro- 

*  Marshal. 


THB   BEOINIONCMS    OF   THB    18tH    OBNTUBY.  8 

voked  the  lad  in  front  of  him,  pulling  his  new  hat,  telling 
him  he  was  such  a  pretty  fellow  he  didn't  need  such  adorn- 
ing and  the  like,  and  Thomas  Bragg  at  last  landed  a  blow 
upon  his  tormentor's  nose  witii  dire  effect.  The  same  Cogs- 
well, as  witnesses  testified,  was  idle  in  sermon  time,  "going 
from  one  gallerie  to  another,  very  idle,  with  a  stick  in  his 
hand,  going  from  seate  to  seate,  talking  and  laughing  with 
boys."  (1670).  Complaint  was  made  against  Thomas  Mentor 
in  1673. 

That  he  carried  himself  very  irreverently  and  most  un- 
christianly  upon  the  Sabbath  days  in  the  time  of  worship,  by 
setting  with  his  hat  upon  his  head  in  the  time  of  worship, 
by  taking  of  maids  by  the  aprons  as  they  came  in  to  the 
meeting  house  in  the  time  of  worship,  by  putting  his  hand 
in  their  bosoms  and  then  taking  or  snatching  away  their 
posies  or  flowers,  by  laughing  and  allmost  all  the  time  of 
worship,  whispering  with  those  that  are  like  himself  and  also 
with  very  little  boys  to  the  ill  example  of  youth,  and  these 
the  said  Mentor  has  ordinarily  done  and  practised  the  most 
of  the  Sabbaths  of  this  year.  (Sept.  1673). 

Three  young  fellows  were  presented  for  laughing  and 
spitting  in  one  another's  faces,  pricking  one  another  in  the 
legs,  pulling  boys  off  their  seats  and  "heaving  things  into 
the  other  gallery  among  y*  garls  that  sit  there  and  Breaking 
y*  glass  windows."  (May,  1674)  Elizabeth  Hunt,  wife  of 
Samuel,  made  frequent  disturbances  by  her  repeated  shuf- 
fling against  the  chair  of  the  daughter  of  her  neighbor,  so 
that  the  girl  could  hardly  save  herself  from  falling  to  the 
floor;  and  one  Sunday  Thomas  Knowlton,  Jr.,  made  a  bad 
matter  worse  by  calling  out  on  the  Lord's  day  in  prayer 
time,  "Take  notis  of  Gk)odwife  Hunt  that  makes  disturbance 
there." 

For  this,  Knowlton  was  sentenced  to  stand  in  the  meeting 
house  on  the  next  lecture  day  with  a  paper  on  his  breast, 
written  "FOR  DISTURBING  Ye  MEETING"  all  the 
lecture  time  and  pay  costs  and  fees. 

The  gradual  assignment  of  floor  space  on  which  pews  were 
built  by  the  gentry  in  the  latter  part  of  the  century  brought 


4  IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

some  relief,  it  may  be  presumed,  as  families  then  began  to 
sit  together.  But  there  were  many  boys  and  young  men,  who 
belonged  to  the  poorer  families,  and  some  who  were  bound 
out  as  apprentices  or  servants,  and  they  still  sat  together  and 
continued  their  pranks. 

Hence  the  stem  regulations  published  by  the  Committee 
of  the  Town  on  Dec.  26,  1700. 

To  prevent  the  Youth  from  prophaning  y®  Sabbath,  &  their 
misordering  themselves  in  times  of  Grods  Worshipp — It  is 
Ordered  They  shall  sitt  together  in  y®  two  backside  Seats  of 
each  front  Gallery,  which  are  y*  Seats  appointed  for  them — 
and  that  y^  Tything  men  &  others  Desired  with  them  Shall 
take  Turn  by  two  in  a  Day  to  Sit  with  them  to  Inspect  them : 
and  such  as  will  not  be  reclaimed  by  sd  persons  Discounte- 
nanceing  of  their  111  manners  shall  be  complained  of  to  the 
Justices  and  proceeded  with  by  them  as  the  Law  Directs 
unless  said  Justices  shall  Instead  of  fineing  of  them — Im- 
prison such  incorrigible  persons  or  give  them  Corporal!  pun- 
ishment. 

It  is  Ordered  that  y®  young  men  that  are  not  placed  in 
particular  seats  shall  sitt  in  y*  hindemost  fifth  seat  in  y* 
no-west  mens  Gallery  next  to  John  Pottars  &  on  the  so-east 
mens  Gallery  next  Mr.  Appletons  side  of  meeting-house,  and 
shall  be  liable  to  pay  as  a  fine  five  shillings  If  they  occupy 
the  other  seats  yt  persons  are  placed  in  to  be  recovered  as 
aforesd  for  y*  use  aforesaid. 

It  is  ordered  y*  y®  maides  and  Girls  y*  are  not  p'ticularly 
Seated  Shall  sitt  in  y*  two  hindemost  fifth  seats  on  y*  no-west 
Womens  Gallery  next  Jn**  Pottars  &  on  y®  so-east  Women's 
Gallery  next  Mr.  Appletons — . 

It  is  ordered  y^  such  maids  &  Girls  as  y®  s**  seats  will  not 
containe  y*  are  other  where  provided  for  shall  sett  in  y* 
Alleys  below  stairs — exceptin  y®  Alley  in  y*  Middle  of  y® 
Meeting  house  and  before  y*  mens  fust  seate,  which  alley  is 
not  allowed  to  be  lumbred  with  Chairs  &  stools. 

The  Tithing  men  &  Constables  are  Reminded  &  Desired  to 
take  notice  of  &  Informe  agst  such  persons  as  shall  prophane 
y**  Sabbath  betwixt  meetings:  Who  Continue  about  or  in  y* 
meeting  house  at  noone  times :  y*  they  be  proceeded  with  as 
the  Law  Directs  &  requires  and  to  Inspect  such  Youths  as 
run  in  &  Out  in  y®  time  of  Gods  Worship  and  Complaine  to 


THE    BEOlNNIiS^GS    OF    THE    18X11    CENTURY.  6 

their  parents  &  Masters  unless  such  will  be  reclaimed  by 
private  Intimations  given  them. 

The  Committee  l)esir  y*  all  Heads  of  families  would  In- 
forme  &  Warne  their  children  &  Servants  not  disturb 
j"  selves  and  the  Congregation  by  making  more  Noise  y" 
Xeede  in  Goeing  up  &  Uowne  Stairs  in  y®  time  of  y®  Wor- 
shipp  of  God,  which  111  practice  is  very  prejudiciall  to  y* 
Auditory  as  well  as  Disturbant  to  serious  Well  minded  per- 
sons. 

Lt.  Col.]  John  Appleton 
Col.]  John  Wainwright 
Mr.]  Nehemiah  Jewett 
Deacon]  Nath'U  Knowlton 
Serg.]  Sam'U  Hart 
Doctor]  Philemon  Dean 
Mr.]  Daniell  Rogers 

Committee  for  Ipswich. 

At  the  Town  Meeting  in  March,  1700-01  renewed  expres- 
sion of  this  serious  purpose  to  secure  reverent  worship  and 
a  well  ordered  Town  was  made  in  the  appointing  of  twenty- 
one  Tithing  men,  Mr.  Robert  Paine  heading  the  list,  the  son 
of  Elder  Robert  Paine,  a  retired  minister  and  a  citizen  of 
high  standing.  These  men  represented  all  the  diflFerent 
neighborhoods  and  the  outlying  farm  dwellers,  Mr.  John 
Whipple,  farmer,  Lieut,  John  Coggswell,  Mr.  Richard  Walk- 
er, Senior,  Mr.  Benjamin  Marshall,  Mr.  Isaac  Perkins, 
Senior,  Mr.  Jonathan  Lumas,  Mr.  John  Staniford,  Shore- 
bom  Wilson,  Timo^  Pearley,  Mr.  Nathaniel  Adams,  Sen^ 
Alex'  Lovell,  Mr.  Jacob  Davis,  Sergt.  Robert  Lord,  Corp" 
John  Pengrey,  Sergt,  Nath*  Emerson,  John  Day,  Capt.  Dan- 
iel Ringe,  Quar'  Kinsman,  Samuell  Poland,  Thomas  Per- 
rin,  Jr. 

The  boys  apparently  remained  in  a  rebellious  mood,  not- 
withstanding this  formidable  array  of  tithingmen.  On  March 
14,  1709-10,  thirteen  tithingmen  were  chosen  and  it  was 
''Voted  y*  y*  Ty thingmen  take  their  turns  every  Sabbath 
Day  with  ye  assistance  of  a  Neighbor  to  look  after  ye  boys 
y*  y*  Day  may  not  be  prophaned  by  them." 

Tear  by  year  the  misbehavior  of  the  boys  was  a  matter  of 


6  IPSWICH^    IN    THE   MASSAOHUSKTTS    BAY    COLONY. 

public  concern.     The  tidiingmen  seem  to  have  wearied  of 
their  task  as  Sabbath  day  police  by  1716. 

At  the  March  meeting  in  that  year,  Samuel  Graves  was  ap- 
pointed to  look  after  the  boys  on  the  Sabbath,  and  20  shillings 
was  appropriated  as  his  salary,  and  more  explicit  defining  of 
this  duty  was  made  in  March,  1722,  when  the  Town 

Voted,  that  Joseph  Foster  be  impowered  to  have  the 
Inspection  of  the  boys  that  are  disorderly  on  the  Lord's  Day 
&  Lecture  days,  &  to  Correct  them  as  he  shall  judge  meet  & 
necessary  in  Measure  &  upon  well  Executing  that  Trust  for 
the  year  Ensuing,  the  Selectmen  are  impowered  to  allow  him 
twenty  shillings  out  of  the  Town  Treasury. 

Tradition  has  it  that  Mr.  Foster,  or  his  successor,  pouncing 
upon  the  unfortunate  lad,  whom  he  detected  at  his  tricks,  col- 
lared him,  led  him  out  of  the  meeting  house,  administered  the 
birch  freely,  and  restored  him  to  his  place  in  subdued  if  not 
reverent  mood. 

A  Town  clock  was  purchased  in  1702.  The  fear  of  In- 
dian attack  had  disappeared  so  thoroughly  that  the  Town 
voted  to  sell  the  rocks,  that  made  the  fort  around  the  old 
meeting  house,  to  pay  for  the  clock.  Where  the  clock  and 
new  bell  were  placed  is  open  to  conjecture.  The  bell  appar- 
ently was  on  the  roof  in  a  "turret,"  so  called,  but  there  was 
no  belfry,  as  the  Town  voted  on  May  1,  1712 : 

That  Coll.  John.  Appleton  Esq.  &  Capt.  John  Whipple 
be  a  Committee  to  take  care  of  y*  Meeting  house,  to  take 
down  y*  Bell  &  to  build  a  Belfry  to  place  y*  Bell  &  sett  y* 
Turret  y'  on  &  to  fence  ?  y*  roof  of  y*  Meeting  house  when  y* 
Turrett  is  removed — . 

Provision  was  made  for  "a  room  in  the  meeting  house 
upon  the  beams  by  the  clock  for  securing  the  Town's  ammu- 
nition." 

New  regard  for  the  comfort  of  the  horses,  during  the  long 
Sabbath  services,  found  place  as  well,  and  permission  was 
given  to  several  citizens  to  build  sheds,  near  the  present 
Denison  school  and  the  Methodist  meeting  house.  They 
were  modest  structures  however.     Serg.  John  Lampson  was 


TIIJE    BEGINNINGS    OF    THE    18th    CENTURY.  7 

authorized  "to  set  up  a  shed  nine  foot  long  and  nine  foot 
wide." 

But  the  "seating  of  the  meeting'^  was  the  most  delicate 
matter.  A  certain  portion  of  the  floor  space  in  the  old 
meeting  house  had  been  allotted  to  prominent  citizens  as 
early  as  1675,  when  Major  Francis  Wainwright  was  per- 
mitted to  build  a  pew.  Undoubtedly  the  same  privilege  was 
continued  in  the  new  building,  but  comparatively  few  en- 
joyed this  extraordinary  prerogative.  The  old  order  still 
held  for  the  great  majority  of  the  citizens  of  the  Town  and 
they  were  seated  by  the  Committee  appointed  for  this  pur- 
pose, w^ith  the  nicest  regard  for  social  standing,  wealth  or 
official  station.  It  was  a  task  of  embarrassing  difficulty  and 
there  was  constant  pressure  for  special  privileges.  Only  two 
years  after  the  new  meeting  house  was  finished,  the  Com- 
mittee for  seating,  on  23'*  Feb.   1702-3,  granted  liberty  to 

73  men  and  62  women  to  "build  up  y^  hindmost  seats  of  y*' 
several  Galleries  round  sd  house  at  their  cost  &  charge  &  so 
sift  y'  in  untill  removed  by  consent  of  the  Committee  or  par- 
ties Into  some  other  Seetes  or  Removed  by  Death  or  Inhabitt 
any  other  Town  or  p'ecinct. — " 

The  seating  capacity  of  the  new  house  was  taxed  so  se- 
verely in  a  few  years  that  the  Committee  for  seating  granted 
liberty  on  Jan.  26,  1710-11,  to  specified  persons  "to  build 

a  Gallery  over  y*  Stairs  in  y®  So  East  corner  of  sd 
House  att  y'  own  Cost  &  Charge,  always  provided  y*  it  doth 
not  prejudice  y**  passage  up  y^  stairs  &  y**  going  Into  y*  other 
Seats  &  always  provided  y*  If  y®  Towne  shall  see  cause  to 
Erect  or  build  an  upper  Teer  of  Galleries  Then  This  Grant 
to  be  no  obstruction  y^  unto." 

Record  remains  of  the  "seating"  in  March  1719-20  of 

the  most  dignified  portions  of  the  meeting  house.  A  group 
of  old  men  was  placed  at  the  communion  table,  which  stood 

just  in  front  of  and  below  the  pulpit :  Lieut.  Simon  Wood, 
Nathaniel  Lord,  John  Denison,  Joseph  Quilter,  Jonathan 
Lumas,  Serg.  William  Hunt,  Thomas  Dow,  John  Smith  and 
John  Harris.  Lord  and  Lumas  saw  service  in  Kin/2: 
Philip's    War    in    1675.     Dow    and    Denison    were    both 


8  IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

wounded  in  the  Narragansett  fight  in  that  war,  and  Deni- 
son  served  also  in  the  expedition  against  Quebec  in  1690. 
Sergt.  John  Harris  was  also  at  Quebec. 

"The  Men's  Short  fore  seat  in  the  front"  was  also  re- 
served for  the  aged  and  infirm.  Here  sat  John  Grow  who 
died  on  Jan.  9,  1727,  "upward  of  90  years,"  James  Fuller, 
William  Baker,  70  years  old,  Thomas  Treadwell  of  the  Is- 
land farm  of  venerable  age,  «Tohn  Sherwin,  aged  76,  and 
Jeremiah  Jewett.  James  Fuller's  wife  and  William  Baker's 
wife  were  assigned  to  the  "Women's  short  fore  seat  front." 
Behind  these  sat  the  long  rows  of  substantial  citizens  and 
their  wives.  In  the  men's  second  seat  were  Mr.  John  Apple- 
ton,  Capt^  Isaac  Appleton,  Mr.  James  Bum  am,  Mr.  Simon 
Tu  thill,  Capt.  Daniel  Ringe,  Mr.  Samuel  Hart,  Mr.  John 
Pengrye,  Mr.  Joseph  Whipple,  Mr.  Francis  Crumpton  and 
Mr.  Michael  Farley,  every  man  of  them  wearing  his  military 
title  or  Mr.  the  sign  and  title  of  the  gentleman. 

In  the  Women's  front  seat,  on  the  other  side  of  the  alley, 
sat  the  Widow  Wallis,  Widow  Hart,  Mrs.  Sarah  Hart, 
Widow  Baker,  Mrs.  Perkins,  Mrs.  Fowler,  Mrs.  Smith,  Mrs. 
Bumam,  Mrs.  Tuthill,  Mrs.  Appleton,  Mrs.  Clark,  Mrs. 
Fellows. 

The  Men's  third  seat  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Oliver  Apple- 
ton,  Mr.  Isaac  Fellows,  Farmer  John  Brown,  so  called  to 
distinguish  this  important  and  prosperous  citizen  from  the 
disreputable  Glazier  John  Brown,  Sergt.  Robert  Wallis,  Mr. 
Samuel  Wallis,  Nathan*  Adams,  William  Goodhue,  Sergt. 
Caleb  Kimball,  Thomas  Manning,  Daniel  Warner  and  En- 
sign Abraham  Tilton;  and  in  the  Women's  seat  across  the 
alley  were  the  Widow  Agnes  Cowes,  Mrs.  Baker,  Mr.  Oliver 
Appleton's  wife,  the  Widow  Perkins,  Mrs.  Chapman,  Mrs. 
Ringe,  Widow  Birdley,  the  wife  of  Robert  Wallis,  Mrs. 
Denison,  Mrs.  Potter,  W^idow  Foster  and  the  wife  of  Farmer 
John  Brown. 

Five  seats  for  men  were  thus  appointed  and  three  for 
women.     Seats  in  the  gallery  had  been  assigned  years  before. 


THE    BEGINNINGS    OF    THE    18tH    CENTURY.  9 

J^one  might  presume  to  sit  elsewhere,  and  a  seat  of  superior 
dignity  than  the  one  assigned  was  particularly  prohibited  in 
the  Vote  of  the  Town  on  May  25,  1724, — "all  persons  shall 
be  obliged  to  Observe  the  Order  of  the  Committee  .  .  .  and 
shall  not  sit  in  an  higher  seat  than  that  which  shall  be  or- 
dered for  him,  under  a  forfeiture  of  five  shillings  for  each 
offence." 

The  glor^^  of  the  new  meeting  house  was  dimmed,  however, 
bv  one  sorrowful  event.  The  minister  of  the  church,  Rev. 
William  Hubbard,  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  clergymen  of 
his  time,  laid  down  his  task  when  the  old  meeting  house 
was  left.  As  boy  and  man,  he  had  known  the  whole 
history  of  the  Town.  He  had  come  with  his  father,  while 
a  lad  in  his  teens,  to  the  new  settlement.  He  had  been 
graduated  from  Harvard  in  its  first  class  in  1642,  and  in 
1656  he  began  to  preach  as  a  colleague  with  Mr.  Cobbett. 
Forty-seven  years  he  had  ministered  and  few  remained  in 
the  great  congregation  who  had  any  remembrance  of  his 
famous  predecessors.  In  his  own  person,  he  linked  the  new 
century  ^vith  the  very  beginnings  of  the  Town.  The  in- 
firmities of  age  obliged  him  to  give  up  the  active  duties  of 
his  office  on  May  6,  1703  and  he  died  on  Sept.  14,  1704 
at  the  age  of  eighty-three.^ 

Rev.  John  Rogers,  son  of  President  John  Rogers  of  Har- 
vard and  grandson  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Rogers  who  succeeded 
Rev.  Nathaniel  Ward,  a  Harvard  graduate  in  the  class  of 
1684,  had  begim  his  ministry  as  colleague  with  Mr.  Hubbard 
in  1686  in  his  twentieth  year,  but  was  not  ordained  until 
Oct.  12,  1692.  For  a  few  months,  from  August  to  Decem- 
ber, 1702,  he  performed  the  whole  work  of  the  ministry, 
but  on  December  11th,  Rev.  Jabez  Fitch,  a  young  man  of 
thirty  years,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  the  class  of  1694,  and 
then  a  Tutor  in  the  College,  accepted  the  invitation  of  the 
church  to  become  a  colleague  of  Mr.  Rogers  and  for  the  first 
time  in  many  years  a  new  voice  was  heard  in  the  pulpit. 

s  For  sketch  of  his  literary  work,  see  "Ipswich,  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony", 
Vol.  I,  page  153. 


10         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

He  was  ordained  Oct.  24,  1703,  married  Elizabeth  Apple- 
ton,  daughter  of  Col.  John,  June  10,  1704,  and  on  July  7* 
of  the  same  year,  he  bought  of  William  Payne  and  his  wife, 
Elizabeth,  only  daughter  and  heir  of  William  Stewart,  the 
dwelling,  known  in  later  years  as  the  Deacon  Caleb  Lord 
house,*  on  the  comer  of  High  and  Hammatt  Streets,  re- 
cently torn  down.  Here  they  made  their  home  and  here 
were  bom  their  seven  children,  Elizabeth,  John,  James, 
Margaret,  Anne,  another  James  and  Mary. 

The  ministerial  salary  was  a  source  of  constant  difficulty. 
In  accordance  with  the  usual  custom  of  the  times,  it  was 
paid  partly  in  money  and  partly  in  wood  or  produce,  and 
although  payment  of  the  ministerial  rate  was  obligatory  and 
could  be  enforced  by  legal  process,  there  was  frequent 
delay  in  the  payments.  It  was  ordered  on  Dec.  26,  1706, 
by  the  Town, 

That  all  p'sons  y*  are  rated  to  y*  Ministers  Salary  shall 
bring  in  their  respective  rates  at  or  on  y®  last  Tuesday  in 
January  &  y®  first  Tuesday  in  February  next  &  y*  those 
p'sons  y*  do  not  pay  at  on  or  before  said  days  shall  pay  all 
their  rate  in  money  &  such  rates  as  y*  Collectors  are  forced 
to  fetch  shall  have  two  pence  on  y*'  shilling  after  said  day  for 
their  paynes  from  y*  party  so  neglecting. 

For  some  unimaginable  reason,  the  fire  wood  that  was 
promised  was  not  easily  obtained,  and  on  the  same  date,  it 
was  voted  that  ten  pounds  per  annum  be  added  to  Mr.  Bogers's 
salary  "in  consideration  of  want  of  wood  and  to  make  up 
his  salary  equal  with  Mr.  Fitch's,  w®**  was  advanced  also 
upon  consideration  of  wood." 

Apparently  the  ministers  received  their  salary  in  small 
sums,  at  irregular  periods,  and  upon  their  complaint,  the 
Town  voted  on  March  8:  1714-15, 

That  besides  y*'  weekly  contribution  there  [shall  be]  a 
generall  quarterly  contribution  of  y®  Inhabitants  for  y*  paying 

*  Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I,  pages  354-355. 


TUB    BEOINNIKGS    OF   THE    18tH    CENTURY.  11 

of  their  Tax  y'  so  they  may  have  their  Salary  in  greater 
sums. 

Twenty  years  of  increasing  family  expense,  and  constant 

uncertainty  as  to  the  payment  of  his  salary,  exhausted  Mr. 
Fitch's  patience,  and  in  the  summer  of  1724,  he  received 
an  invitation  to  the  pastorate  of  the  church  in  Portsmouth, 
which  he  accepted  on  the  ground  that  the  Town  had  fallen 
short  of  the  original  contract  made  with  him  at  his  settle- 
ment. The  whole  community  was  greatly  stirred.  Not 
since  Rev.  John  Norton  had  removed  from  Ipswich  to  Bos- 
ton in  1656,  had  any  Ipswich  pastorate  been  terminated 
except  by  death.  Never  before  had  the  good  name  of  the 
illustrious  Ipswich  church  been  tarnished  by  the  charge  that 
she  had  not  kept  her  plighted  word  with  her  minister,  and 
it  was  humiliating  to  her  pride,  that  a  minister  brought  the 
accusation. 

On  September  24,  1724,  a  Committee  was  appointed  by 
the  church  and  parish  to  treat  with  Mr.  Fitch  and  inquire 
"wherein  the  Town  or  parish  hath  fallen  short  of  their  con- 
tract with  him  and  Labour  to  persuade  him " 

This  Committee  made  a  lengthy  report  on  October  15***, 
reviewing  the  original  votes  regarding  his  salary,  the  suc- 
cessive votes  of  the  Town  authorizing  the  Selectmen  or  As- 
sessors to  assess  and  tax  the  inhabitants  for  his  support  and 
Mr.  Fitch's  receipts  in  the  Selectmen's  books  in  hie  own  hand, 
"though  the  Receipts  for  some  of  the  payments  bare  date 
some  time  after  the  same  was  due  by  contract."  They  pro- 
ceeded to  declare  that  this  lack  of  promptness  was  offset  by 
the  "improvement  of  a  Parcel  of  Land  at  the  end  of  the 
Town,  nigh  Dow's  comer,"  still  known  as  the  "Parish  Pas- 
ture," "the  Loan  of  a  certain  sum  of  money,"  (afterward 
said  to  have  been  £100)  and  "one  half  of  a  Considerable 
Contribution  the  parish  Cheerfully  Come  Into  the  Last  Tear 
at  his  motion  &  Request."  Although  Mr.  Fitch  assured  the 
Committee  "that  if  the  Parish  would  make  him  a  generous 
offer  he  would  give  it  a  Due  Consideration,"  the  Portsmouth 


12  IPSWICH,    IN    TUB    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

church  invited  a  Council  of  the  Churches  and  Ministers  to 
meet  in  Boston  on  October  27***,  and  advise  regarding  their 
call  to  him  to  become  their  minister,  John  Wainwright  Esq, 
Thomas  Berry  Esq  and  Deacon  Nathaniel  Knowlton  were 
appointed  a  Committee  to  represent  the  Ipswich  church  and 

Use  their  best  Endeavors  to  Clear  up  the  good  name  or 
Reputation  of  the  parish  from  any  Charge  or  Imputation 
which  hath  or  may  be  alledged  against  them  by  the  said  Mr. 
Fitch  ....  and  to  make  it  appear  so  far  as  they  are  able 
that  the  parish  have  and  Still  is  willing  to  give  him  an  Hon- 
orable Support  for  his  preaching  the  Grospel  to  and  among  us. 

This  vote  was  annulled  three  days  afterwards,  on  October 
26*^,  as  it  seemed  unwise  to  lay  the  whole  matter  in  detail 
before  the  Council  and  it  was  voted  that  John  Wainwright 
and  Thomas  Berry  be  instructed  "to  make  all  possible  ob- 
jections against  the  proceeding  of  said  Council  in  Respect 
to  the  affair  of  Mr.  Fitch's  Removal  from  us." 

A  Committee  of  the  Council  seems  to  have  come  to  Ipswich 
to  confer  with  the  church  and  people,  and  a  meeting  had 
been  called  for  November  11*^,  at  which  it  was  voted  "that 
a  messenger  be  sent  to  acquaint  some  Gentlemen  that  were 
in  Town  that  if  they  had  anything  to  offer  to  said  meeting, 
they  were  meet."  Much  debate  ensued  concerning  the  dis- 
mission of  Mr.  Fitch  to  the  Church  of  Christ  in  Portsmouth, 
but  "it  was  passed  unanimously  in  the  Negative."  Fur- 
thermore, it  was  "vot^d  that  we  do  not  see  occasion  to  Leave 
the  Determination  of  the  affair  Relating  to  the  Removal  of 
Mr.  Fitch  to  Portsmouth  to  a  Council  that  we  understand 
^re  acting  in  said  affair,"  and  word  was  sent  to  the  visiting 
Gentlemen  "that  we  have  voted  unanimously  not  to  Dismiss 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Jabez  Fitch."  Notwithstanding  this  action 
by  his  church,  Mr.  Fitch  took  matters  into  his  own  hand 
and  absented  himself  from  his  pulpit  on  Dec.  13,  1724 
and  the  two  following  Sundays,  and  again,  "from  the  be- 
ginning of  March  to  the  beginning  of  May,  1725." 


THE    BEOINNINGS    OF    THE    18tiI    CENTURY.  13 

To  relieve  the  senior  Pastor  from  the  burden  of  carrying 
unaided  the  onerous  requirement  of  the  two  long  Sabbath 
services  and  the  weekly  lecture,  the  Parish  voted  on  January 
6,  1724-5,  that  the  son  of  the  Pastor,  Mr.  Nathaniel  Rogers, 
who  had  been  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1721,  at  the  age 
of  nineteen,  "be  in  nomination  to  assist  the  Rev.  Mr.  John 
Rogers  in  the  work  of  the  ministry,  if  he  be  not  pre-Ingaged," 
and  also  Mr.  Benjamin  Crocker,  a  graduate  of  1713,  and  a 
resident  of  the  Town,  if  Mr.  Rogers  could  not  be  secured. 

The  Parish  met  on  April  7"*,  for  a  "friendly  conference 
with  Mr.  Fitch,'^  but  "nothing  of  an  Agreement  could  be 
obtained,"  and  shortly  after  he  was  installed  in  Portsmouth. 

The  young  Nathaniel  Rogers  seems  to  have  rendered  ac- 
ceptable service,  as  the  Parish  invited  him  on  April  27,  1723 
to  assist  his  father  for  three  months  and  another  invitation 
for  a  similar  period  was  given  in  July.  In  November,  he 
was  invited  to  assist  for  a  month  and  in  December,  to  serve 
for  a  quarter  of  the  next  year,  1726,  and  then  for  another 
month,  and  at  last  in  April,  1726,  two  other  candidates  for 
the  vacancy  appeared,  Charles  Chauncey  and  William 
Welstead,  and  each  of  these  was  invited  to  assist  the  Pastor 
for  a  month  on  the  Sabbath  and  Lecture  day. 

Meanwhile  at  the  March  term  of  the  Sessions  Court  in 
Ipswich,  1726,  the  Rev.  Jabez  Fitch  brought  suit  against 
the  inhabitants  of  Ipswich,  alleging  that  they  had  paid  him 
nothing  from  March  1st  to  Dec.  13"*,  1724.  Although  the 
Parish  appointed  a  Committee  to  contest  the  suit,  calmer 
judgment  prevailed,  and  eventually  the  matter  was  left  to 
referees,  and  settled  by  the  payment  of  £65,  10s.  No  doubt 
there  were  many  friends  who  warmly  espoused  the  minister's 
cause.  Mrs.  Fitch,  as  has  been  mentioned,  was  daughter  of 
Col.  John  Appleton.     Her  mother  was  sister  of  the  Senior 

Pastor,  and  she  was  own  cousin  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Rogers 
and  the  other  children  of  Rev.  John,  all  important  people 
in  the  church  and  community.  She  was  sister  as  well  of 
Margaret,  wife  of  President  Holyoke  of  Harvard. 


14         IPSWIOH,   IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   OOLONY. 

This  old  and  sharply  contested  wrangle  over  the  salaij  of 
Mr.  Fitch  was  scarcely  settled,  before  the  Senior  Pastor  felt 
obliged  by  stress  of  his  own  straitened  finances  to  present 
his  plea,  though  the  time  seemed  inopportune.  His  own 
pathetic  letter  tells  the  simple  tale  of  his  need,  and  the 
small  talk  of  the  Parish. 

To  the  Inhabitants  of  the  first  parish  in  Ipswich,  Assem- 
bled October  the  6"*,  1726. 

Gentlemen 

Notwithstanding  In  my  opinion  &  I  am  apt  to  think  In 
yours  also,  that  my  Sallary  for  Diverse  years  past  has  not 
been  made  good  to  me  in  valine  however  it  might  be  in  Sum 
by  the  Several  payments  made  in  those  years  whereof  I 
have  given  Due  Receipts  from  time  to  time  [without  making 
any  further  Demands  or  giving  the  Least  occasion  l^at  I 
know  of  for  those  Reports  that  have  been  Raised  of  Late  to 
your  Disturbance  as  well  as  mine].  And  Notwithstanding 
It  was  the  want  of  an  Erlier  Consideration  of  &  Allowance 
for  the  Difference  of  Species  which  necessitated  my  Borrow- 
ing of  the  publick  &  mortgaging  a  Good  part  of  my  Estate 
therefor  and  Selling  one  p*  after  another. 

Yet  I  now  Leave  the  whole  to  a  further  Consideration  of 
the  good  people  whom  I  have  Served  near  Thirty  and  Seven 
years  to  the  best  of  my  power.  And  with  whom  I  would 
Live  in  Love  and  Dy  in  peace. — ^And  shall  be  Ready  to  give  a 
more  general  &  full  Discharge  to  the  year  Current  whenever 
the  parish  shall  See  meet  to  Call  for  it. 

From  yo'  unworthy  Servant 
In  the  work  of  the  ministry. 
John  Rogers. 

The  parish  having  taken  Into  Consideration  the  message 
in  writing  from  our  Rev*  Pastor,  M^  John  Rogers,  Respect- 
ing the  payments  made  him  of  his  Sallary  &  of  his  Receipts 
therefor  and  that  he  is  willing  to  give  a  General  and  full 
Discharge  to  the  parish  when  desired  to  the  year  Current, 
which  they  expect  from  him,  Therefore  Voted  tiiiat  the  parish 
do  unanimously,  freely  &  Cheerfully  promise  and  Engage  to 
Cancel  &  Discharge  the  mortgage  the  said  Mr.  Rogers  has 
given  to  the  Town  of  Ipswich  for  the  Sum  of  One  Hundred 


THE    BEGINirasrOS    OF   THE    18tH    CENTURY.  16 

Pounds  part  of  the  Towns  proportion  of  the  Last  Fifty 
Thousand  Pounds  Loan."* 

Settlement  with  Mr.  Fitch  having  been  made,  the  minds 
of  the  people  were  at  last  composed  and  on  August  16,  1726, 
the  Church  voted  on  the  several  candidates  for  the  ministerial 
office.     Nathaniel  Rogers  received  35,  William  Welstead  8 
and  Charles  Chauncey  1.     At  this  far  remove,  it  is  hard  to 
understand  the  large  preponderance  of  the  vote  for  Mr. 
Kogers.     Charles  Chauncey,  the  great  grandson  of  President 
Chauncey  of  Harvard,  and  grandson  of  Rev.  Isaac  Chauncey, 
an  eminent  Puritan  minister,  had  been  graduated  at  Har- 
vard in  1721  in  his  seventeenth  year,  and  was  regarded  as 
one  of  the  most  brilliant  scholars  who  had  ever  taken  his 
degree  at  Cambridge.     His  slight  form  and  delicate  health 
may  have  weighed  against  him  in  the  estimation  of  the 
Ipswich  folk,  but  in  the  following  year,  when  Mr.  Wads- 
worth  of  the  First  Church  of  Boston  was  called  to  the  Presi- 
dency of  Harvard,  Mr.  Chauncey  was  chosen  his  successor 
as  co-pastor  with  Rev.  Thomas  Foxcroft.     He  attained  great 
reputation  and  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  ablest  of  the  New 
England  ministers.     He  was  liberal  in  his   theology   and 
sternly  opposed  the  great  revival  of  religion,  stimulated  by 
the  preaching  of  George  Whitefield.      William  Welstead 
also  was  a  yoimg  man  of  great  promise.     He  had  declined  a 
call  to  the  church  in  Weston  in  1722,  and  while  candidating 
in  Ipswich  was  acting  as  tutor  in  the  CoUega     In  1728,  he 
was  called  to  the  pastorate  of  the  New  Brick  Church  in  Bos- 
ton, in  which  he  continued  until  his  death  in  1753. 

It  may  be  imagined  that  both  of  these  may  have  surpassed 
the  son  of  the  pastor  in  intellectual  gifts,  but  the  strong 
family  influence  and  the  natural  aifection  for  the  young 
preacher  who  was  bom  among  them,  carried  the  day.  The 
Parish  voted  to  concur,  "provided  he  settle  on  Congrega- 
tional principles  agreeably  to  the  Platform  of  Church  Gov- 
ernment."    Evidently  there  was  suspicion  of  the  candidate's 

«  See  Chapter  VU,  "Colonial  Currency  and  the  Land  Bank." 


16         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSAOHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

soundness  in  his  adherence  to  the  old  ecdesiasticism.  The 
form  of  church  government  was  in  debate.  The  rising  gen- 
eration of  ministers  opposed  the  continuance  of  the  office  of 
ruling  eider.  The  elder  pastor  was  requested  to  give  assu- 
rance that  his  son  would  be  settled  on  Congregational  prin- 
ciples. He  sent  a  communication  to  the  Parish  which  was 
read  on  N'ovember  17th  and  led  to  a  long  and  heated  dis- 
cussion. Eventually  a  salary  was  voted,  £130  in  Bills  of 
Credit  for  three  years  and  afterward  £150. 

Also  provided  that  if  sd  Species  viz.  Bills  of  Credit  or 
Silver  Money  should  be  very  scarce  or  Difficult  to  be  ob- 
tained, wee  may  have  Liberty  to  answer  and  Pay  two  third 
parts  of  said  Sum  of  £150  annually  in  good  merchantable 
Barly  malt  at  six  shillings  p'  Bushel,  Indian  Corn  at  five 
Shillings  p'  Bushel,  good  merchant*'**  Pork  at  six  pence  p' 
pound  and  good  Butter  at  Twelve  pence  p'  pound.  Also 
provided  he  Settle  himself  And  is  settled  and  Ordained  upon 
Congregational  principles. 

Mr.  Rogers  delayed  his  reply  nearly  three  months  and 
when  it  came,  it  found  the  Parish  in  very  captious  mood.  A 
Committee  was  requested  to  wait  upon  him  "and  in  con- 
sideration of  Sundrie  things  Contained  in  the  said  Answero 
previous  if  not  unnecessary  to  be  Inserted  therein  to  the 
Dissatisfaction  of  many  of  the  parish  then  assembled,"  to 
request  that  "he  would  in  a  more  Concise  and  peremptory 
manner  give  his  answer  to  the  said  vote."  He  accepted  the 
details  of  settlement  forthwith  and  October  18,  1726  was 
set  apart  for  "the  solemn  ordination."  A  Committee  was 
chosen  "to  make  suitable  provision  for  the  Council  assisting 
in  y*  Ordination  .  .  .  scholars  and  Other  Gentlemen,"  and 
"to  take  up  &  Improve  two  or  three  Houses,"  that  the  hospi- 
tality of  the  Parish  on  this  great  occasion  should  not  be 

stinted. 

No  record  remains  of  the  service  but  the  report  of  the 
Committee,  with  its  itemized  account  of  the  expense,  throws 
a  flood  of  light  upon  the  grand  scale  of  entertainment  for  the 
visiting  ministers  and  delegates  of  the  churches,  which  com- 
posed the  Council 


THE    BEGn7NINGS    OF    THE    18TH    OENTXJRY.  37 

The  first  parish  in  Ipswich  D*'  To  those  Persons  after 
named  for  what  they  have  Advanced  towards  the  charges  of 
the  Ordination,  vizt. 

To  Mr.  Edward  Eveleth  October  18"*,  1727. 

£    s.  d.       £    s.  d. 

To  19  Gallons  of  wine  at  7/ 6  13  0 

To  36  pounds  of  Courrants  at  1-6 2  14  0 

To  one  neats  Tingue  1-3   0     13 

To  98^  of  flower  at  5^ 2  10 

To  28"».   Sugar  28/ 1     8 

To  9"^  of  Raisons  at  1-2 0  10  6 

To  2  ounces  of  Nutmegs  5/ 0     5 

To  14  of  pound  of  pepper  1/ 1 

To  Six  Chickings  at  8** 4 

To  2  ounces  of  Cinnamon  at  2-8 5  4 

To  1  ounce  of  Cloves  3-6 3  6 

To  249^  of  Beef  at  5** 5     3  9 

To  30^  of  pork  at  8^ 1 


20  19  4     20  19  4 

To  M'.  Increas  How  Octob^  19*^  1727. 

£  s.     d.       £    8.    d. 

To  122^  of  Flower  at  5^ 2  10  10     20  19     1: 

To  12"*.  of  Sugar  at  11/ 11 

To  9^^  of  fruit  at  1-2 10     6 

To  12  Dozen  Biskitt   12 

To  2  ounces  Cinnamon  5-4 5     4 

To  1  oimce  of  nutmegs  2-8 2     8 

To  1  ounce  of  Cloves  3/ 3 

To  Yn  pound  of  pepper  2-6 2     6 

To  1  %  of  apples  3 3 

To  3  quarts  of  mellasses  3/ 3 

To  38^  of  mutton  at  4* 12     8 

To  Seven  Fowles  at  10** 5  10 

To  12  fowles  at  5**  p'  pound 10     6 

To  1  peck  of  Indian  meal  1-5 1     6 

To  15/  for  the  Cook   15 

To  making  Tables,   finding  tenders  & 

other  provision  in  my  house  etc  .  .   2  10 


9  19     2       9  19     2 
30  18     6 


18         IPSWIOH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAT    COLONY. 

To  Deacon  Staniford, 
To  Gfeese,  pipes  &  Tobacco,  &te 18     6  18     6 

To  Deacon  Lord. 
For  Butter,  Gkimmon    Bacon,  Fowls, 

&tc .3     7     2       3     7     2 


carried  over  35     4     2 

Brought  over  from  y*  other  side 
Thirty-five  Pounds,  four  Shillings  and 

two  pence 36     4     2 

To  Jonathan  Fellows. 
To  two  Barrels  of  Syder,  Bushel  Malt 

&  12  pound  Butter 2     1 

2  1 

To  Mr.  Jonathan  Wade. 
To  Four  Turkey®,  Horse  Keeping,  &tc.  1     7 

1     7 

To  M'.  Thomas  Wade  for  horse  keep- 
ing             3  0     3 

To  Mr.  Benjamin  Appleton. 
To. Two  Load  of  wood  ^4/ 1     4 

14     0 

To  John  Cheat  for  2  geese  4 4  4     0 

To  James  Bumam. 
To  Cheese,  Fowls,  Eggs,  Sauces,  etc.  .   3  9 

3  9 

To  Thomas  Norton. 

To  28^  of  fresh  pork  at  6* 14 

To  26^^  of  Salt  pork  midling  at  12*  . .   1     6 

To  20  Fowls  at  10* 15     8 

To  12  Dozen  of  Eggs  4-10 4  10 

To  half  a  peck  of  Carrots  6* 6 

To  3>^  1/2  Candles  3-6 3     6 

To  Six  Neats  Tongues,  4  Dry,  2  green 

12    12 

To  26^^  of  mutton,  Some  at  5*  &  some 


THE   BEOINiriNGS    OF   THE    18tH    OENTUBT.  19 

4*» 1       6 

To  w*  I  paid  to  the  Cook  13/  ...:..       18 

5  16     6 

carried  over  49     0     5 

Brought  over  from  y*  other  side 

Forty-nihe  Pounds,  five  pence 49     0     6 

To    Joseph  Foster  for  his  service  and 

Attendance,  4  days 16  16     0 

To  the  Widow  Holland  for  her  Ser- 
vice and  Attendance,  3  days  ....        12  12     0 

To  Susanna  Holland  for  her  service  in 

y*  Cookery 12  12     0 

To  Mary  Brackenbury,  an  Attendant 

for  4  days  . . : 6  6     0 

To  Nathaniel  Potter  for  a  Server  ...         4  40 

To  the  Committee  apj)6iilted  to  pre- 
pare the  Necessary*  for  the  Ordi- 
nation,  their  Time  and  Trouble  .4  4     0     0 

Total  Charge  of  y*  Ordination  55  10     5 

Mr.  Rogers  built  in  the  same  year  he  was  ordained,  the 
beautiful  dwelling  on  High  St.,  still  called  the  ^TRogeirs 
Manse."  On  Dec  25;  1728,  he  married  Mary,  the  widow 
of  Major  John  Denison  and  daughter  of  President  Leverett 
of  Harvard,  a  year  older  than  himself,  and  their  home  was 
established  in  the  new  parsonage.  Eight  children  werls  bom 
here,  Margaret,  three  Marthas,  Sarah,  Elizabeth,  Nathaniel 
and  Lucy.  Mrs.  Kogers  died  on  June  25,  1756,  and  the 
Pastor  married  Mary,  the  widow  of  Daniel  Staniford,  May 
4,  1758.  Here  Mr.  Rogers  passed  away  on  May  10,  1775, 
his  widow  surviving  until  Sept.  18,  1779. 

The  Senior  Pastor,  Rev.  John  Rogers,  felt  obliged  to  make 
another  communication  to  his  parish  a  few  years  later. 

Tp  the   Inhabitants   of  the   first  parish   in   Ipswich  now 
assembled. 
Qentlemen.     Whereas,  I  am  now  Entering  the  Fourty- 

fourth  year  of  my  Service  to  you  in  the  Gospel  Ministry, 


20         IPSWICH.    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAT    COLONY. 

And  have  hitherto  Supported  the  House  I  live  in  at  my 
own  Cost  and  Charge,  which  has  been  very  Considerable  all 
along  more  Especially  in  the  Year  past  And  the  Condi- 
tion of  it  being  such  as  Calls  for  much  more  Still  to  be 
Expended  upon  it  in  order  to  render  it  Suitable  and  Com- 
fortable for  the  future  above  what  I  am  able  to  spare  out 
of  my  Sallary. 

Am  Therefore  Obliged  to  ask  your  help  and  Assistance  in 
Such  way  and  measure  as  Ye  shall  think  best. 

Yours  to  Serve  with  the  Bemains  of  my  Time  and  Abilily. 

John  Bogers. 

Ipswich,  March  15,  1732-3. 

The  Parish  responded  kindly,  granting  him  the  desired 
assistance. 

While  the  First  Church  and  Parish  of  Ipswich  were 
wrestling  with  the  problems  of  keeping  order  in  the  sanctuary 
and  of  securing  worthy  successors  to  the  illustrious  ministers 
who  had  adorned  that  famous  pulpit.  Rev.  John  Wise,  the 
minister  of  the  Chebacco  Parish  was  winning  fine  renown  in 
the  field  of  letters.  Early  in  his  ministry,  he  had  roused  the 
Town  to  brave  resistance  of  the  Andros  edict  and  had  suffered 
fine  and  removal  from  his  pulpit,'  When  Sir  William 
Phips  made  his  expedition  against  Quebec  in  1690,  by  re- 
quest of  the  Colonial  legislature,  he  accompanied  it  as  chap- 
lain. In  his  funeral  sermon,  preached  on  April  11,  1726, 
Rev.  John  White  affirmed  of  Mr.  Wise,  "not  only  the  Pious 
Discharge  of  his  Sacred  Office,  but  his  Heroick  Spirit  and 
Martial  Skill  and  Wisdom  did  greatly  destinguish  hini."^ 
When  the  Witchcraft  Delusion  swept  many  of  the  coolest  and 
best  balanced  men  off  their  feet,  he  dared  to  protest,  and  ad- 
dressed a  Petition''  to  the  Magistrates,  signed  by  many  of  his 
parishioners,  in  behalf  of  John  Proctor,  Jr.  and  his  wife, 
imploring  the  favor  of  the  Court  for  these  innocent  victims 

of  a  false  charge. 

To  his  reputation  for  dauntless  courage,  he  added  that  of 

•Ipswich  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I,  Chap.  XIV. 
•Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I,  Appendix  6.,  P.  6S5. 
*  Ipswich  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony.  Vol.  I,  Pa«e  290. 


THE    BEGINNINGS    OF    THE    18tJI    CENTUBY.  21 

feats  of  physical  strength.  He  was  a  mighty  wrestler,  and 
the  fame  of  his  prowess  went  far  afield.  An  Andover  man, 
victor  in  many  contests,  hoard  the  report  and  rode  down  to 
the  Chebacco  Parish  to  invite  a  trial  of  his  skill.  The  storv 
still  survives  of  Mr.  Wise's  reluctance  to  enter  the  lists,  but 
yielding  at  last  to  his  importunity,  he  not  only  threw  his 

boastful  antagonist,  but  picked  him  up  and  pitched  him  over 
the  fence.  Whereupon  the  discomfited  wrestler,  seeking  no 
further  contest,  begged  Mr.  Wise  to  throw  his  horse  over  in 
like  fashion. 

His  polemic  skill  and  brilliant  rhetorical  gifts  were  now 
to  be  approved.  In  the  year  1705,  on  Nov.  6th,  a  pamphlet 
was  published  in  Boston  addressed  to  the  churches  and  minis- 
ters of  New  England,  entitled,  "Questions  and  Proposals." 

No  signatures  were  appended,  but  it  was  well  known  that 
it  was  the  work  of  Increase  and  Cotton  Mather,  backed  by 
their  friends  and  admirers  in  the  Association  of  which  they 
were  members.  Its  purpose  was  to  recommend  a  change  in 
the  old  Drder  of  Congregational  self-government  of  the  chur- 
ches, substituting  a  Presbyterian  form,  with  an  annual  Coun- 
cil, and  practically  depriving  the  lay-members  of  the  churches 
of  any  voice  or  vote  in  their  deliberations.  Five  years  passed, 
allowing  ample  time  for  common  discussion  of  this  revolu- 
tionarv  scheme.  Then  Mr.  Wise  declared  himself  in  a  book 
published  in  Boston  in  1710,  bearing  the  title: 


22         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLQNY. 

I 

THE 
CHUBOHES  QUABBEL 

ESPOUSED: 

OB  A 

EEPLY 

In   Satyr,  to  certain  Proposals  made,  in  Answer  to  this 

Question, — ^What  further  Steps  are  to  be  taken, 
that  the   Councils   may   have   due  .  Constitution   and   Effi- 
cacy  in    Supporting,    Preserving    and    Well-Ordering    the 
Interest  of  the  Churches  in  the  Country? 


BY 

JOHN  WISE,  A.  M. 

PASTOB  TO  A  CHUBOH  IN  IPSWICH 


Wherefore  rebuke  them  sharply,  that  they  may  be  found  in 

the  faith.  Tit  1,  xiii, 

Abjiciendus  Pudor,  Quoties  urget  Necessitas. 


He  obeyed  the  Biblical  injunction  to  the  leitter.  Un- 
abashed by  the  celebrity  of  the  authors,  the  quiet  Chebacco- 
minister  considered  the  "Questions  and  Proposals"  and  re- 
plied to  them  with  extraordinary  power. 

Indeed  at  the  first  cast  of  the  eye,  the  scheme  seems  to  be 
the  spectre  or  ghost  of  presbyterianism,  or  the  government  of 
the  church  by  classes;  yet  if  I  don't  mistake  there  is  some- 
thing considerable  of  prelacy  in  it,  only  the  distinct  courts  of 
bishops,  with  the  steeples  of  the  churches,  tythes,  surplice 
and  other  ornaments,  do  not  show  themselves  so  visible,  as 
to  be  discerned  at  the  first  look,  yet  with  a  microscope  you 
may  easily  discern  them  really  to  be  there  in  Embrio  et  in 
Rerum  natura There  is  also  something  in  it  which  smells 


THE    BEGINNINGS    OF    THE   18tH    CENTUEY.  23 

very  strong  of  the  infallible  chair,  to  assume  the  power  of 
making  ruleS;  to  engross  all  principles  of  progress,  the  right 
of  election,  the  last  appeal,  the  negative  vote  and  all  superin- 
tending power  in  matters  ecclesiastic,  as  the  prerogatives  of 
deigymen,  distinct  from  all  other  estates  and  ministers  in 
government:  or  thus,  for  the  clergy  to  monopolize  both  the 
legislative  and  executive  part  of  common  law,  is  but  a  few 
steps  from  the  chair  of  imiversal  pestilence  and  by  the  ladder 
here  set  up,  clergymen  may,  if  they  please,  clamber  tJius 
high ;  for  when  they  are  invested  with  what  is  in  these  pro- 
posals provided  and  intended  for  them,  who  then  can  con- 
troul  them  but  the  Almighty  himself  i^ 

He  proceeded  to  consider  the  "Questions  and  Proposals"  in 
detail,  replying  to  eadi  with  acute  logic  and  ample  learning, 
but  always  using  the  every  day  speech,  maxims  of  homely 
common  sense  and  a  constant  play  of  keen  wit  and  droll 
humor.  He  was  maintaining  the  privilege  of  the  laymen  to 
enjoy  the  liberty  they  had  always  found  in  the  churches  and 
he  used  the  common  people's  talk  of  "Hobson's  choice,"  "one 
swallow   does   not   make    a    spring"    and   many   proverbs. 

Sailors  knew  the  aptness  of  his  reflection:  "If  men  are 
placed  at  helm  to  steer  in  all  weather  that  blows,  they  must 
not  be  afraid  of  the  waves  or  a  wet  coat"  The  soldiers 
whose  campaigns  he  had  shared,  heard  the  language  of  the 
camp  and  the  battlefield : 

Dont  you  hear  from  the  top  of  yonder  proud  and  lofty 
moimtain  the  enemies  trumpets,  and  their  drums  beating  a 
preparative?  Therefore  let  all  the  good  soldiers  of  Christ 
be  compleat  in  this  and  all  other  parts  of  their  armour,  and 
at  an  hour's  warning,  unless  you  reckon  your  treasure  not 
worth  defending.® 

To  the  objection  that  candidates  for  the  ministry  were  too 
young  and  needed  to  be  controlled  by  some  higher  power,  he 
replied  :^^ 

*  The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused.    Pages  104,  106. 

published  with  A  Vindication  of  the  Government  etc.,  edition  of  1772. 

*  The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused.    Page  93. 
^The  Churches  Quarrel  Espou9^,    Page  126, 


34         IPSWICH.    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

If  Christ  is  preached,  all  is  well.  And  as  to  our  case,  we 
may  say,  despise  not  the  day  of  the  small  things,  all  men  must 
have  a  beginning  and  every  bird  which  is  pretty  well  fleg'd 
must  begin  to  fly.  And  ours  are  not  of  the  nest  where 
Icharus  was  hatched,  whose  feathers  were  only  glewed  on; 
but  these  belong  to  the  angelic  host  and  their  wings  grow 
but  from  their  essence ;  therefore  you  may  allow  them,  with 
the  lark,  now  and  then  to  dart  heavenward,  though  the  shell 
or  down  be  scarce  off  their  heads. 

It  is  not  how  old,  but  how  capable  a  person  is,  which  is 
the  main  point  to  be  enquired  after  here.  Therefore  where 
(in  some  good  measure)  there  is  an  honest  life,  a  gracious 
heart,  an  orthodox  head,  and  a  learned  tongue,  there  is  no 
such  reason  to  send  such  vouths  to  Jerico  with  David's  mes- 
sengers,  (though  their  beards  are  not  yet  grown)  to  wait 
upon  time  and  nature,  for  such  an  accomplishment;  for  cer- 
tainly these  recited  are  the  principal  in  the  argument.  It 
is  a  story  in  the  history  of  Persia,  "That  when  the  Grecians 
sent  some  very  young  noblemen  upon  an  embassage  to  that 
court,  the  Persians  reflected  upon  the  Grecian  republic,  for 
sending  beardless  boys  on  so  grave  a  message  to  so  mighty 
a  monarch/'  To  which  the  young  Grecians  very  smartly 
answered,  'That  if  state  policy  did  consist  in  beards,  then 
he  goats  would  do  for  embassadors,  as  well  or  better  than 
men."     I  must  confess,  I  am  somewhat  of  their  mind : — 

The  su^estion  that  "the  state  of  religion  may  be  the  better 
known  and  secured  in  all  the  churches"  bv  the  new  form  of 
church  gevemmerit  roused  him  to  an  outburst  of  singular  and 
thrilling  eloquence. 

Religion  in  its  infallible  original,  the  wisdom  and  au- 
thority of  God!  in  its  infinite  object,  the  ineffable  persons 
and  perfections  of  the  divine  essence ;  in  its  means,  the  gos- 
pel of  salvation;  In  its  inspired,  wakeful  and  capacious 
ministry;  in  its  subject,  the  inestimable,  immortal  soul  of 
man;  in  its  transcendent  effects,  (1)  In  time,  the  charming 
peace  and  joys  of  conscience  (2)  In  eternity,  the  joyful  re- 
treat and  shouts  of  glory,  is  the  most  incomparable  gift  of 
Paladium,  which  ever  came  from  heaven;  amongst  all  the 
favours  of  the  father  of  lights,  there  is  none  parallel  with 


THE    BSGINNINGB    OF    THE    18tH    OENTUEY.  25 

this;  when  disclosed  in  its  beauty,  it  ravisheth  all  the  in- 
tellects of  the  universe ;  and  challenge  may  be  made,  that  the 
prerogatives  and  glory  belonging  to  all  the  crowned  heads 
in  the  world,  do  bow  and  wait  upon  its  processions  thru  the 
earth,  to  guard  it  from  its  innumerable  and  inveterate  ene- 
mies. Yet  in  paying  our  veneration  and  attendance,  we 
must  distinguish  right  and  place  everything  properly,  and 
the  means  must  be  proportionate  with  the  end  and  agreeable 
in  their  natures  or  otherwise  whilst  we  go  about  to  accom- 
plish a  good  end,  viz.  the  security  of  religion  by  unproper 
means,  we  may  lose  our  attempt  and  have  no  thanks,  but 
be  blamed  for  our  pains ;  for  we  must  not  do  evil,  that  good 
may  come. 

It  is  certain,  that  the  church  of  Christ  is  the  pillar  of 
truth,  or  sacred  recluse  and  peculiar  asylum  of  religion  and 
this  sacred  guest,  religion,  which  came  in  the  world's  in- 
fancy from  heaven,  to  gratify  the  solitudes  of  miserable  man, 
when  God  had  left  him,  hath  long  kept  house  with  us  in  this 
land,  to  sweeten  our  wilderness  state  and  the  renowned 
churches  here  are  her  sacred  palaces.  Then  certainly  it  is 
not  fair  for  her  lovers,  under  pretence  of  maintaining  her 
welcome  in  greater  state,  to  desolate  her  pleasing  habita- 
tions, tho'  they  stand  somewhat  low  like  the  myrtle  grove. 

Zach.  1 ;  8  &tc." 

And  again,  with  striking  beauty  and  tenderness. 

View  once  more,  from  some  lofty  promontory  or  Pisgah, 
those  goodly  tents  and  tabernacles  of  Israel !  Listen  1  Is  not 
Qod  with  them,  and  the  shout  of  a  king  amongst  them? 
Are  they  not  as  valleys  spread  forth,  and  as  gardens  by  the 
river  side,  which  the  Lord  hath  planted?  And  yet,  not- 
withstanding, may  we,  must  we  under  your  conduct,  break 
up  their  fences,  to  give  them  another  sort  of  culture  ?^^ 

Again  and  again  Mr.  Wise  affirms  the  essential  democracy 
of  the  Congregational  church  government. 

Principle  V.  All  Englishmen  live  and  die  by  laws  of  their 
own  making.  That  they  are  never  pleased  with  upstart 
law-makers. 

^  The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused.     Pa^es  133»  134. 
''The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused.    Fleige  162. 


26         IPSWICH,   IK    THE    MASSAOHUSBTTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Principal  VI.  That  English  govenunent  and  law  ifl  a 
chartei^party  settled  by  mutual  compact  between  persons  of 
all  degrees  in  the  nation,  and  no  man  must  start  from  it  at 
his  periL 

Principal  VII.  Englishmen  hate  an  arbitrary  power 
(politically  considered)  as  they  hate  the  devil. 

The  very  name  of  an  arbitrary  government  is  ready  to 
put  an  Englishman's  blood  into  a  fermentation;  but  when 
it  really  comes  and  shakes  its  whip  over  their  ears,  and  tells 
them  it  is  their  master,  it  makes  them  stark  mad ;  and  being 
of  a  memical  genius  and  inclined  to  follow  the  court  mode, 
they  turn  arbitrary  too.^* 

It  so  happened  that  the  "Questions  and  Proposals''  bore  the 
date  Nov.  5, 1705,  Guy  Fawkes'  Day.  Mr.  Wise  seized  upon 
this  with  keen  relish. 

The  fifth  day  of  November  has  been  a  guardian  angel  to 
the  most  sacred  interest  of  the  empire:  It  has  rescued  the 
whole  glory  of  church  and  state,  from  the  most  fatal  arrest 
of  hell  and  Borne.  That  had  I  been  of  the  cabal  or  combina- 
tion which  formed  these  proposals;  so  soon  as  I  had  seen 
and  perceived  the  date,  fas  I  imagine)  my  heart  with  king 
David's,  would  have  smote  me  and  I  should  have  cried  out, 
Miserere  nostri  Deus :  The  good  Lord  have  mercy  upon  us ; 
this  is  the  gun  powder  treason  day;  and  we  are  every  man 
ruined,  being  running  Faux's  fate!  why  gentlemen!  have 
you  forgotten  it  ?  It  is  the  day  of  the  gun  powder  treason, 
and  a  fatal  day  to  traitors. 

Again,  at  the  close  of  his  "Reply"  he  exclaims: 

Blessed!  Thrice  blessed  day!  Uphold  and  maintain  thy 
matchless  fame  in  the  kalendar  of  time,  and  let  no  darkness 
or  shadow  of  death  stain  thee;  let  thy  horizon  comprehend 
whole  constellations  of  favorable  and  auspicious  sters,  re- 
flecting a  benign  influence  on  the  English  monarchy.  And 
upon  every  return,  in  thy  anniversary  circuits,  keep  an  in- 
dulgent eye  open  and  wakeful  upon  all  the  beauties  (from  the 
throne  to  the  footstool)  of  that  mighty  empire. 

And  when  it  is  thy  misfortune  to  conceive  a  monster, 
which  may  threaten  any  part  of  the  nations  glory,  let  it 

"The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused.    Pages  146.  147. 


THE    BEGINNINOS    OF   THE   18tH    CENTUEY.  27 

oome  crippled  from  the  womb  or  else  travel  in  birth  again, 
with  some  noble  hero,  or  invincible  Hercules  who  may  con- 
quer and  confound  it. 

"The  Churches  Quarrel  Espoused'^  made  a  profound  im- 
pression and  contributed  largely,  we  may  believe,  to  the 
complete  discomfiture  of  the  authors  of  "Questions  and  Pro- 
posals," Prof.  Moses  Coit  Tyler's  critical  estimate^*  is 
highly  eulogistic : 

Upon  the  whole,  this  book  has  extraordinary  literary 
merrL  It  is,  of  its  kind,  a  work  of  art,  it  has  a  beginning, 
a  middle  and  an  end, — each  part  in  fit  proportion,  and  all 
connected  organically.  The  author  is  expert  in  exciting  and 
in  sustaining  attention ;  does  not  presume  upon  the  patience 
of  his  readers ;  relieves  the  heaviness  and  dryness  of  the  ar- 
gument by  gayety  and  sarcasm ;  and  has  occasional  outbursts 
of  grand  enthusiasm,  of  majestic  and  soul-stirring  eloquence. 
In  tone,  it  is  superior  to  its  time;  ....  It  is  a  piece  of 
triumphant  logic,  brightened  by  wit  and  ennobled  by  imagi- 
nation; a  master  specimen  of  the  art  of  public  controversy. 

In  1717,  seven  years  after  the  publication  of  this  book,  Mr. 
Wise  published  a  more  formal  and  elaborate  defence  of  the 
Congregational  form  of  church  government.     It  was  entitled : 

M  *'A  History  of  American  Literature  during  the  Colonial  Time."    11*  110. 


28         IPSWIOH^    IN    THE    MABSAOHUSETTS    BAT    COLONY. 

A 

VINDICATION 

OF  THE 

GOVERNMENT  OF  NEW  ENGLAND 

CHURCHES 

Drawn  from  Antiquity:  the  Light  of  Nature:  Holy  Scrip- 
ture: its  Noble  Nature:  and  from  the  Dignity  Divine 
Providence  has  put  upon  it 


BY 

JOHN  WISE,  A.  M, 

PASTOB  TO  A  CHURCH  IN  IPSWIOH, 


There  are  n,one  to  guide  her  among  all  the  Sons  whom  she 
h<Uh  brought  forth;  neither  is  there  any  that  taJeeth  her 
hy  the  hand  of  all  the  Sons  that  she  hath  brought  up. 

Isa.  IL  18. 

Say  ye  unto  your  Brethren  Ammi  and  to  your  Sisters  Ru- 
hamah. 

With  its  abundant  quotations  from  the  Church  Fathers  and 
from  classic  literature,  often  rendered  into  felicitous  verse,  by 
its  stately  and  dignified  style  which  restrained  him  from  in- 
dulgence in  the  personal  invective  and  biting  sarcasm  of  his 
earlier  "Reply",  but  lacked  nothing  of  sustained  interest,  the 
"Vindication"  was  a  notable  argument  for  the  largest  liberty 
in  church  affairs. 


THE    BEGINNINGS    OF    THE    18th    CENTUKY.  29 

The  noblest  mortal  in  his  entrance  on  the  stage  of  life, 
is  not  distinguished  by  any  pomp  or  of  passage  from  the 
lowest  of  mankind ;  and  our  life  hastens  to  the  same  general 
mark:  Death  observes  no  ceremony,  but  knocks  as  loud  at 
the  barriers  of  the  court  as  at  the  door  of  the  cottage. 
This  equality  being  admitted,  bears  a  very  great  force  in 
maintaining  peace  and  friendship  amongst  men. 

From  the  natural  equality  of  men,  he  argues  that  the 
natural  form  of  government  is  a  democracy.  ^*^ 

The  end  of  all  good  government  is  to  cultivate  humanity 
and  promote  the  happiness  of  all,  and  the  good  of  every  man 
in  all  his  rights,  his  life,  liberty,  estate,  honor,  &tc,  without 
injury  or  abuse  done  to  any.  Then  certainly  it  cannot 
easily  be  thought,  that  a  company  of  men,  that  shall  enter 
into  a  voluntary  compact,  to  hold  all  power  in  their  own 
hands,  thereby  to  use  and  improve  their  united  force,  wis- 
dom, riches  and  strength  for  the  common  and  particular  good 
of  every  member,  as  is  the  nature  of  a  democracy ;  I  say  it 
cannot  be  that  this  sort  of  constitution  will  so  readily  fur- 
nish those  in  government  with  an  appetite  or  disposition  to 
prey  upon  each  other  or  embezzle  the  common  stock;  as 
some  particular  persons  may  be  when  set  off  and  intrusted 
with  the  same  power.  And  moreover  this  appears  very 
natural,  that  when  the  aforesaid  government  or  power,  set- 
tled in  all,  when  they  have  elected  certain  capable  persons 
to  minister  in  their  affairs,  and  the  said  ministers  remain 
accountable  to  the  assembly ;  these  officers  must  needs  be  un- 
der the  influence  of  manv  wise  cautions  from  their  own 

mi 

thoughts  (as  well  as  under  confinement  by  their  commission) 
in  their  whole  administration.:  And  from  thence  it  must 
needs  follow  that  they  will  be  more  apt,  and  inclined  to 
steer  right  for  the  main  point,  viz.  The  peculiar  good  and 
benefit  of  the  whole  and  every  particular  member  fairly  and 
sincerely. 

He  defines  a  democracy  :^* 

This  is  a  form  [of]  government,  which  the  light  of  na- 

'^A  Vindication  of  the  Government*  etc.  p.  40. 
*  A  Vindication  of  the  OoTerament.  etc.  p.  39,  40. 


so         IPSWICH,    I5r   THE   MASSAOHUSETTS   BAY   OOrOSTT. 

ture  does  highly  value  and  often  directs  to,  as  most  Agree- 
able to  the  just  and  natural  prerogative  of  human  beings. 
....  Man's  original  liberty  after  it  is  resigned,  (yet 
under  due  restrictions)  ought  to  be  cherished  in  all  wise 
governments ;  or  otherwise  a  man  in  making  himself  a  sub- 
ject, he  alters  himself  from  a  free  man  into  a  slave,  whicH 
to  do  is  repugnant  to  the  laws  of  nature.  ^ 

A  second  edition  of  the  "Vindication"  and  "The  Churches 
Quarrel  Espoused,"  in  a  single  volume,  with  the  Plat^ 
form  adopted  in  1648  and  other  documents,  was  pub- 
lished in  1722,  and  in  1772  just  fifty  years  later,  when  the 
liberties  of  the  colonies  were  being  invaded,  the  "Vindica- 
tion" was  published  again  and  widely  distributed,  and  a 
second  edition  was  called  for  as  a  sober,  strong  and  unan- 
swerable demand  for  liberfy.  The  political  ideas  of  the 
Chebacco  minister  were  voiced  again  by  the  patriot  leaders, 
and  reappeared  in  the  immortal  Declaration  of  Independence. 
Prof.  Tyler  well  observes.^^  "He  was  the  first  great  Ameri- 
can democrat"  and  further  remarks : 

Upon  the  whole,  no  other  American  author  of  the  colo- 
nial time  is  the  equal  of  John  Wise  in  the  union  of  great 
breadth  and  power  of  thought  with  great  splendor  of  style; 
and  he  stands  almost  alone  among  our  early  writers  for  the 
blending  of  a  racy  and  dainty  humor  with  impassioned 
earnestness. 

><  A  History  of  American  Literature  during  the  Colonial,  Time.    II:  114, 
110. 


CHAPTER  11. 
QUEEN  ANNE'S  WAR. 

The  Treaty  of  Ryswick  in  1697  was  followed  by  four 
years  of  peace  on  toth  sides  of  the  Atlantic,  but  in  1701,  the 
conflict  began  again,  ostensibly  over  the  question  of  succes- 
sion to  the  Spanish  throne,  but  in  reality  over  the  old  ques- 
tion of  the  supremacy  of  Protestant  or  Catholic.  The  twelve 
years'  war  which  followed  is  known  in  European  history  as 
the  War  of  the  Spanish  Succession,  in  American  annals,  as 
Queen  Anne's  War.^ 

The  Marquis  of  Vandreuil,  the  French  Governor  at  Que- 
bec, adopted  at  once  the  former  policy  of  sending  parties 
of  French  and  Indians  to  attack  the  frontier  towns  of  the 
Colony,  and  the  approach  of  a  French  fleet  to  ravage  the 
coast  was  looked  for  at  any  moment.  In  the  Spring  of 
1701,  the  General  Court  appropriated  £100  for  repairing 
the  fort  at  Salem,  and  £40  for  repairing  the  fortification  at 
Marblehead,  provided  each  Town  made  equal  appropriation.^ 
Ipswich  made  prompt  response  when  the  call  to  arms  came. 
Captain  Samuel  Chadwell  was  ready  with  his  sloop,  "The 
Flying  Horse,"  and  a  full  crew  in  March,  1702-3.  Eleven 
Ipswich  men  were  enrolled  beside  the  Captain,  Thomas  New- 
man, Capt  Quat'., William  Fellows,  Pilot,  Mr.  Francis 

Perkins,  W°.  NichoUs,  Gunner,  Daniel  Fuller,  Daniel  Ross, 
Richard  Stevens,  Ed.  Talbot,  Daniel  Gilbert,  John  Russell, 
Cox".,  Jn®.  Martin.  Men  from  Salem,  Gloucester,  Ports- 
mouth and  three  foreigners  made  up  the  quota  of  38  of&cers 
and  crew. 

*  Cbaimlngr*  History  of  the  United  States,  Vol.  H,  537. 
'Mass.  Archives,  70:  528,  530. 

(81) 


32         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MABSACHUSETTS    BAT    OOI/)NT, 

A  breezy  letter  from  the  Captain  to  the  Governor  is  pre- 
served in  the  Archives,* 

Newcastle,  March  1,  1702-3. 

These  certifie  y'  Hon'  yt  I  am  just  now  Riddy  to  Sayle 
for  y*  bay  of  fundey,  having  on  board  forty  men  whose 
names  are  as  p'  y®  Inclosed. 

I  shall  Indeavor  to  be  a  punktual  observer  of  her  Maj^ 
Hon'  &  his  Excellency's  Instructions. 

I  am  y'  Hon"  most  Humble  &  most  obadiant  Servant. 

Sam"  Chadwell. 

On  March  23,  1702-3,  a  company  of  forty-eight  men, 
detached  by  Major  Francis  Wainwright  on  an  expedition  to 
the  Eastward,  started  from  Ipswich  under  Major  John  Cut- 
ler, with  Lieut  Matthew  Perkins  second  in  command.  They 
marched  until  the  7^  of  April,  to  York  and  Salmon  Falls, 
meeting  no  enemy,  but  fierce  discord  arose  in  the  ranks  over 
the  peculations  of  the  commander,  who  sold  his  provisions 
and  kept  his  men  short  Capt.  Perkins  brought  formal  char- 
ges against  him,  and  a  Court-Martial  at  Newbury  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1703-4,  cashiered  Major  Cutler  and  declared  him  in- 
eligible for  further  service.*  Samuel  Clark  of  Ipswich  was 
at  Pemaquid  Fort  two  years  after  he  had  been  impressed  and 
received  several  wounds,  barely  escaping  with  his  life.  Lame 
and  disabled,  he  received  40s  annual  pension  in  1703.' 

The  whole  Eastern  country  was  soon  in  the  throes  of  war. 

At  Wells,  39  were  killed  or  carried  away;  Cape  Porpoise 
was  left  desolate ;  Saco  lost  11  killed  and  24  captives.  Major 
March  of  Newbury  was  in  command  of  the  Casco  Fort.  De- 
coyed oiit  by  the  Indians,  he  narrowly  escaped  death,  and 
was  saved  only  by  the  opportune  arrival  of  reinforcements. 
Jabez  Sweet,  an  Ipswich  soldier,  petitioned  for  relief  in  1749, 
on  the  ground  of  his  great  deeds  on  that  eventful  day.  Ac- 
cording to  his  narrative,  he  and  Capt  Humphrey  Hook  alone 
ventured  out,  killed  one  of  the  Indians  and  brought  in  Col. 

>Mas9.  Archives,  62:  482,  433. 

*  Acts  and  Resolves,  VIII,  598-601. 

•  Mass.  Archives,  71:  6. 


QT7XSN   ANWB^B   WAB.  88 

March,  receiving  a  wound  in  the  collar  bone  and  in  the  right 
elbow.®  John  Bragg  also  was  in  Capt  Hook's  company  at 
Saco  and  received  injuries  for  which  an  annuity  of  £8  was 
granted  him  in  ITOS.*^  Eev.  Jeremiah  Wise,  son  of  Rev. 
John  Wise,  of  Chebacco,  was  the  chaplain  at  Fort  Henry, 
Saco,  in  1704. 

Two  hundred  Indians  attacked  twenty  men  at  work  in  the 
fields  at  Black  Point  and  killed  or  carried  away  all  but  one. 
Berwick  suffered  severely  and  the  report  came  that  one  cap- 
tive was  burned  alive.  But  the  most  dreadful  experience  was 
allotted  to  Deerfield,  which  was  assailed  in  the  dead  of  night 
on  Feb.  29^,  1704.  Fifty-three  were  killed  on  the  spot  and 
more  than  a  hundred,  including  Kev.  John  Williams  and  sur- 
vivors of  his  family,  were  carried  back  to  Canada. 

Amesbury,  Haverhill  and  all  the  towns  on  the  Merrimack 
river  were  the  frontier.  In  April,  1704,  the  order  was  sent 
to  Capt.  Christopher  Osgood  of  Andover  to  build  three  block- 
houses on  the  bank  of  the  Merrimack,  12  feet  wide,  15  feet 
long,  with  a  fire  place  at  one  end  and  a  covered  well,  after 
the  pattern  of  the  Newbury  block  house.®  Forty  pounds 
sterling  was  allowed  for  every  Indian  scalp  and  the  soldiers 
were  promised  that  every  Indian  child  under  ten  years  should 
be  sold  as  a  slave  and  the  price  should  be  theirs.^ 

One  of  the  most  distressing  incidents  of  the  war  was  the 
condition  of  the  captives  in  Canada.  While  they  suffered  no 
great  physical  hardship  after  their  arrival  in  Quebec,  great 
pressure  was  brought  to  bear  upon  them  to  renounce  their 
Puritan  faith  and  enter  the  Catholic  church. 

Not  a  few  were  won,  and  the  daughter  of  Kev.  John  Wil- 
liams of  Deerfield  not  only  renounced  her  religion  but  mar- 
ried an  Indian  husband  and  reared  an  Indian  family. 
Though  she  visited  her  old  home  in  after  years  she  could 
never  be  persuaded  to  return  to  civilized  life.     Children  of 

*Ma88.  Archives,  73:  888. 
f  Mass.  Archives,  71:  487. 
<  Acts  and  Resolves,  Ym,  442. 
•Mass.  Archives,  70:  SU. 


34         IPSWIOH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

tender  age  were  carried  away  to  be  held  for  ransom.  Haver- 
hill, Salisbury,  Amesbury,  Newbury,  Kittery  and  York 
mourned  the  loss  of  many  little  ones.  Ipswich  parents  lived 
in  constant  dread  of  a  like  calamity. 

Operations  on  a  large  scale  against  the  French  and  Indians 
b^an  in  the  Spring  of  1Y04.  An  expedition,  imder  the 
command  of  Major  Benjamin  Church,  sailed  for  the  Maine 
coast  but  failed  to  inflict  any  reprisals  and  proceeded  to  Port 
Royal  and  Nova  Scotia.  No  attack  was  made  however  and 
the  expedition  proved  a  dismal  failure. 

To  promote  enlistments,  the  Greneral  Court  passed  an  Act 
in  November,  1704,  providing, 

If  any  company  shall  voluntarily  enlist  themselves  under 
a  propier  ofiicer,  ...  at  their  own  charge,  without  pay,  they 
shall  be  allowed  and  paid  . . .  for  every  Indian  enemy  by  them 
slain,  being  men  or  youths  capable  of  bearing  arms,  the 
sum  of  one  hundred  pounds  p'  head,  and  for  women  or  other 
males  or  females  above  the  age  of  ten  years.  Ten  pounds  p 
head,  the  scalp  to  be  produced  and  oath  made,  .  .  .  also  the 
benefit  of  all  Plunder  and  prisoners  under  the  age  of  ten 
years  ....  provided  no  reward  to  soldiers  for  Indiana 
slain  under  ten  years.  ^® 

During  the  month  of  July,  1706,  attacks  were  made  by  the 
Indians  on  Amesbury,  Reading,  Dunstable,  Wells  and  Hamp- 
ton Falls.  Ipswich  was  liable  to  be  attacked  at  any  moment. 
The  troops  were  called  to  arms  repeatedly  and  hurried  away 
to  the  defence  of  the  frontier.  The  accoimt  of  John  Griffin^  ^ 
at  Haverhill  Ferry  reveals  the  frequent  passage  of  our  Ips- 
wich soldiery  over  the  Merrimack. 

July  6,  1706.  Captin  John  whipell  of  ipswich  with  forty- 
five  men  and  horses.  £1  2s  6d. 

July  9 :  1706  left  simon  wood  of  ipswich  with  twenty  fut 
men  3s  4d. 

'^Mass.  Archives,  71:  102. 
"Mass.  Archives,  121:  ]27. 


gUEEIT   ANinc's   WAR.  86 

Again  in  February,  1707,  Lieut.  Whipple's  troop  hurried 
to  the  relief  of  Groton.^^ 

The  Haverhill  ferry  man  notes  again : 

July  18:  1707.     Cap  tin  Whippell  of  ipswech  with  thurty- 
nine  men  and  horses  and  came  back  the  28  of  ]une(  ?) 

£1  19s  0 

September  27 :  1707.     captin  whippell  with  thirty  men  and 

horses  0-16-0 

On  August  15***,  1706,  the  Governor  nominated  Col.  Samuel 
Appleton  of  Ipswich  to  the  Council  for  the  very  delicate  and 
responsible  office  of  Commissioner  to  the  French  officials 
at  Quebec  to  arrange  for  the  ransom  of  the  captives,  and 
the  nomination  ''gave  unanimous  satisfaction"  to  the  Council 
and  was  approved  by  the  General  Court.^*  The  Brigantine 
'TEope,''  Capt.  John  Bonner,  was  secured  and  Col.  Appleton 
sailed  Aug.  30"*  from  Nantasket  under  a  flag  of  truce. 
Judge  Samuel  Sewall  had  suggested  that  a  suit  of  clothes 
should  be  made  for  Eev.  John  Williams  of  Deerfield,  and  the 
Commissioner,  no  doubt,  carried  them  with  the  five  Bibles, 
which  were  forwarded  for  the  spiritual  comfort  of  the  exiles. 

Captain  Appleton,  as  he  was  frequently  called,  arrived 
home  on  Nov.  21'*,  bringing  fifty-seven  of  the  captives,  in- 
cluding Rev.  Mr.  Williams  and  his  two  sons.  "These  were 
all  that  could  then  be  got  ready,  and  the  rest  are  expected  in 
the  Spring."^* 

A  second  and  far  more  formidable  expedition  against  Port 
Eoyal  was  decided  on  in  March,  1707.  The  General  Court 
voted  on  March  21st,  to  raise  a  thousand  able  soldiers  and 
gather  a  fleet  of  transports  to  be  convoyed  by  Her  Majesty^s 
ship  of  war,  "Deptford,"  and  the  Province  Galley,  with  a  hos- 
pital ship.  Preparations  were  pressed  vigorously  and  the 
fleet  sailed  from  Boston  on  the  13***  of  May.     Ipswich  men 

>*  Acts  and  Resolves,  VIII:  677.    Mass.  Archives  128:  11.  12,  13.  16,  21.  22. 
»  Acts  and  Resolves,  Vni:  118,  618,  G21,  661,  662. 
"  Acts  and  Resolves,  VIII:  642. 


36         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAT    COLONY. 

had  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  expedition.  Col.  John  March 
of  Newbur}'  was  the  Commander-in-chief.^'  The  Field  Offi- 
cers of  the  First  Regiment  (of  the  red)  were 

Francis  Wainwright  of  Ipswich,  Col. 
Samuel  Appleton  of  Ipswich,  Lieut.  Col. 
Shadrach  Walton  of  Newcastle,  N.  H.,  Major 

Companies. 

Col.  Wainwright,  Captain 

Matthew  Perkins  of  Ipswich,  Lieut. 

Abraham  Tilton  of  Ipswich,  Ensign 

Lieut.  Col.  Appleton,  Captain 

Isaac  Appleton  of  Ipswich,  Lieut 

Edward  Wade  of  Ipswich,  Ensign 
The  second  regiment  (of  the  blue)  was  commanded  by 
Col.  Winthrop  Hilton  of  Exeter.  Twelve  companies  com- 
posed the  first  regiment,  eleven,  the  second.  The  company 
rolls  can  not  be  foimd  in  the  Archives,  but  the  original  roll 
of  Col.  Wainwright's  company  has  been  preserved.^* 

April  4*^,  1707. 
The  several  names  of  Ipswich  men  y*  Is  Enlisted  und'  y* 
Comand  of  Coll.  Francis  Wainwright  upon  an  Expedition 
to  port  Ryall. 

Capt  Matthew  Perkins 

Ensine  Abraham  Tilton 

John  Smith  Sen^ 

John  Clarke 

James  Fuller  Jun'. 

Philemon  Wood 

Joseph  Killom 

John  Whipple 

Jacob  Brown 

Sam"  Lamson 

Daniel  Dane 

»  Acts  and  Resolves,  VHI:  690-692. 

^  Now  owned  by  Mr.  Frederick  A.  Kimball.    Other  names  are  mentioned 
on  Pagre  39. 


QUEEN    ANNE's    WAR.  87 

Daniel  Rindge 
Francis  Quarls 
Matthew  Annable 
Joseph  Bowles 
Jacob  Bennit 
John  Gkxxihue 
John  Stockwell 
John  Handly 
Sam"  Fraile 
Ebenezer  Knowlton 
Edmond  Band 
Timmothy  Knolton 
John  Smith 
JJ'ath*  Dike,  drummer 

The  transports  inchided  the  sloop,  "Mary  and  Abigail," 
Thomas  Newman  of  Ipswich,  Master.  Five  whale  boats 
were  impressed  from  Ipswich  as  well.  The  sloop  "Indus- 
try", in  1708,  and  the  sloop  "Mary"  in  1709  were  employed 
as  flags  of  truce  to  Port  Royal.  The  sloop  "Nightingale" 
was  chartered  in  1710  for  an  express  to  Port  Boyal. 

A  Council  of  war  on  board  the  "Deptford"  on  the  17th  of 
May  decided  the  plan  of  attack.  An  order  was  passed  that 
Col.  Appleton  with  about  three  hundred  and  twenty  men,  com- 
prising his  own  company  and  five  others  and  Capt.  Free- 
man's company  of  Indians,  should  land  on  the  nordi  side  of 
the  basin  of  Port  Roval,  while  the  Commander-in-chief  with 
the  r^t  of  his  force  landed  on  the  south  side.  The  soldiers 
landed  in  the  manner  agreed  upon,  but  so  late  in  the  day 
and  at  such  distances  from  the  fort  that  they  were  obliged 
at  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening  to  take  up  quarters  for  the 
ni^t,  without  having  reached  a  place  suitable  for  a  camp. 
While  on  the  march,  Capt  Freeman's  company  on  the  left 
flank  of  Appleton's  regiment  had  a  warm  skirmish  witli 
forty  or  fifty  of  the  enemy  but  lost  no  men.  Early  in  the 
morning  of  the  next  day,  both  regiments  moved  forward. 
Appleton's  men  were  ambushed  by  about  sixty  of  the  enemy 
in  a  deep  gully  and  lost  two  men.     Pressing  on  they  took 


38         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MABSA0HUSBTT8    BAY    COLONY. 

two  prisoners  and  by  noon  reached  a  point  north  of  the 

fort" 

Five  days  of  skirmishing  and  marching  hither  and  thither 
followed.  The  artillery  failed  to  co-operate.  The  Command- 
er-in-Kshief,  though  personally  brave,  proved  wholly  inade- 
quate to  the  grave  responsibilities  devolving  upon  him. 
General  despondency  and  distrust  in  their  leaders  prevailed 
in  the  camp  and  at  a  Court  Martial  convened  on  the  31'^  of 
June,  it  was  decided  that  the  attempt  on  the  fort  should  be 
abandoned.  The  fleet  returned  to  Casoo  and  while  lying 
there,  Col.  Francis  Wainwright  wrote  to  the  Governor,  under 
date  of  June  17,  1707 : 

I  hope  the  Gentlemen  we  sent  are  waiting  upon  y'  Excell^, 
an  ace®"  of  our  proceeding  at  Port  Royall  and  the  state  of 
that  place  w*^*  will  be  without  doubt  far  Different  To  the 
acco**  given  by  that  Impudent  Lying  Hill^^  and  will  make 
such  a  discovery  of  Truth  to  y'  Excell^  and  the  General 
Court  as  Really  to  Beleeve  (by  a  good  Reinforcement  of  five 
hundred  good  efficient  men,  provision  and  ammunition,  etc,) 
that  by  a  long  Seige  we  might  Reduce  the  Fort  To  very  great 
distress  and  if  we  Beseeag*  it  long  Enough  To  surrend'  I 
doubt  not. 

I  must  again  offer  my  Opinion,  now  is  the  Time  or  Never. 
And  I  had  Rather  return  and  use  all  possible  Endeav"  for 
the  Subdueing  of  them  and  their  Fort,  Then  to  my  family 
whom  I  love  very  well. 

I  am  hearty  sorry  for  any  Mistakes  we  have  made.  And 
I  doubt  not  but  all  wise  men  will  call  them  so  rather  than 
Acts  of  Cowardice. 

William  Dudley,  son  of  the  Governor  and  Secretary  of 
the  expedition,  wrote  his  father  of  the  serious  disaffection 
in  the  camp,  many  of  the  soldiers  deserting  and  the  general 
desire  that  Col.  March  should  be  deposed  from  chief  com- 

^^Acts  and  Resolves*  vm,  Notes  p.  715,  716. 

^  Samuel  Hill  in  the  sloop  "Charity"  had  been  dispatched  as  a  messen- 
flrer  to  Oov.  Dudley  with  a  report  of  the  failure  of  the  expedition.  Acts 
and  Resolves  Vni:  716.  note. 


QUEEN    ANNE's    WAR.  39 

mand.  He  commented  tartly  on  Col.  Appleton's  reputed 
ambition  for  a  higher  command  and  reflected  upon  his  courage 
in  action.^^  In  another  letter,  he  represented  that  Col.  Wain- 
wright  was  "much  concerned  that  he  should  be  rendered  a 
Coward,"  and  in  his  behalf,  asked  the  Governor  to  send  two 
Frenchmen  (prisoners)  to  Ipswich,  "as  soon  as  may  be 
....  to  help  his  husbandry  forward."^^ 

A  part  of  Capt.  Perkins's  company  had  been  released  on 
July  16,  1707:  John  Gbodhue,  John  Whipple,  Joseph  Kil- 
1am,  Samuel  Lamson.  Daniel  Dane,  Francis  Quarles,  Joseph 
Bowles,  John  Stockwell,  Samuel  Fraile,  Timothy  Knowlton, 
Samuel  Hassen,  John  Haskell,  John  Pulsifer,  Jonathan 
Young,  William  Thomson,  Sen.,  William  Thompson,  Jr.  and 
John  Smith.^^  The  names  of  Hassen,  Haskell,  Pulsifer, 
Young  and  the  two  Thomsons  do  not  appear  in  the  original 
roU. 

Orders  were  sent  to  Col.  March  to  return  to  Port  Koyal 
but  the  chief  command  was  transferred  to  three  Commis- 
sioners, Col.  Elisha  Hutchinson,  Col.  Penn  Townsend  and 
John  Leverett,  Esq.,  who  sailed  at  once.  They  joined  the 
expedition  at  Passamaquoddy  and  at  once  superseded  Col. 
March  by  Col.  Wainwright,  as  General  in  command.  They 
arrived  on  the  10"*  of  August  and  several  sharp  skirmishes 
followed,  in  which  the  French  had  the  advantage.  Dis- 
couragement and  insubordination  again  prevailed. 

Col.  Wainwright  wrote  the  Commissioners  on  Aug.  15, 
1707,^^  reporting  lack  of  ammunition,  the  departure  of  many 
sickly  and  unserviceable  soldiers,  the  need  of  axes  "to  cutt 
down  the  house  frames  w^*  will  not  bum,"  and  concluding: 

"This  very  minute  CoP.  Wantons  Comp*  under  y*"  Com- 
mand of  Lt.  Cudworth :  were  all  drawn  up,  fitt  for  a  march 
To  desert.  I  went  Immediately  to  y*  Lt.  and  ask*  if  he  in- 
tended to  head  them  Deserters,  he  Told  mee  no :  I  Resolu* 

>»Mafl8.  Archives,  61:  164.  165. 
^BCass.  Archives,  61:  169. 
^  Felt,  History  of  Ipswich,  Appendix,  p.  825. 
Archives,  61:  170. 


40         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

and  told  them  if  any  man  Moue^  one  step  in  that  nature  I 
would  shoot  them  down.  I  also  Immediately  sent  Oapt. 
Dimmick  &  Comp*  to  bring  them  in,  and  To  Take  away 
their  Arm".  Accordingly  they  Came  and  after  an  admoni- 
tion, they  pi'omised  unum  et  omnes  to  be  obedient  and  doe 
the  best  service  they  can  ....  I  am  yo'  humble  servant, 

Francis  Wainwright 

The  French  received  reinforcements  and  became  more  ag- 
gressive; the  Indian  allies  grew  intractable  and  insolent; 
dysentery  and  "mighty  swellings  in  their  throats"  weakened 
the  soldiers.  "In  fine"  Wainwright  wrote,  "most  of  the 
forces  are  in  a  distressed  state,  some  in  body  and  some  in 
mind ;  and  the  longer  they  are  kept  here  on  the  cold  ground, 
the  longer  [  ?]  it  will  grow  upon  them,  and  I  fear  the  further 
we  proceed  the  worse  the  event.     Grod  help  us." 

On  August  21'*  the  ships  weighed  anchor  and  in  a  few  days 
sailed  for  home.  Sixteen  men  had  been  killed  and  as  many 
more  wounded.^®  The  results  of  the  expedition  were  so  un- 
satisfactory that  a  Court  Martial  was  ordered  but  it  never 
convened. 

One  distressing  event  of  midsummer,  in  the  year  1708, 
caused  general  alarm  and  grief.  On  a  Sabbath  morning, 
August  29*^,  Haverhill  was  attacked  again  by  the  Indians. 
Captain  Samuel  Wainwright,  Capt.  Simon  Wainwright  and 
Lieut.  John  Johnson  were  slain  with  thirteen  others,  includ- 
ing the  minister,  Rev.  Benjamin  Rolfe,  his  wife,  Mehitable, 
and  baby  Mehitable,  two  years  and  seven  days  old.  The 
grave  stones  in  the  old  Burying  Ground  tell  the  sad  tale. 

A  third  expedition  against  Port  Royal  was  decided  upon 
early  in  1710.  Capt.  Matthew  Perkins  commanded  a  com- 
pany of  which  Greorge  Hart  was  Ensign.  The  Ipswich  sloop, 
"Hopewell,"  55  tons,  John  Chad  well,  Commander,  was  in- 
cluded among  the  transports,  conveying  Capt.  Perkins  and 
his  company  of  60  men.^*     Capt.  Beamsley  Perkins  of  Ips- 

»Acts  and  Resolves,  Vni:  743-745. 

**Mass.  Archives*  71:  622,  71:  625  gives  Samuel  Chadwell,  Master  of  the 
•llopewell." 


QUEEN    ANNE's    WAB.  41 

wich  had  commanded  the  sloop  "Marlborough",  one  of  the 
Teasels  of  war  which  guarded  the  coast  in  the  fall  of  1709.*' 
He  now  commanded  Her  Maj.  frigate  "Despatch,"  which 
was  uaed  as  an  hospital  ship  on  the  Port  Royal  expedition, 
and  Abraham  Perkins  was  one  of  the  sailors.*^  The  fleet 
Eailed  on  Sept  18***  and  captured  Port  Royal  without  diffi- 
culty on  Oct  I*'.  Corporal  William  Qiiarles  and  Ebenezer 
Bjiowlton,  both  of  Ipswich,  served  in  this  expedition.*''  The 
muster  rolls  which  remain  omit  the  names  of  the  hardy  and 
brave  men  who  served  in  the  ranks.  The  few  names  which 
are  known  were  preserved  by  chance. 

In  the  year  1711,  a  campaign  against  Quebec  was  pro- 
jected, as  it  was  evident  that  the  reign  of  terror  along  the 
whole  frontier  would  not  cease  until  the  French  stronghold 
should  pass  into  the  hands  of  the  English.  A  formidable 
fleet  with  a  large  force  of  land  troops  came  from  England 
and  fifteen  hundred  provincials  were  embarked  in  Boston. 
Fogs  and  storms  were  encountered  in  the  River  St.  Lawrence. 
Ten  ships  went  on  the  rocks,  nine  hundred  lives  were  lost, 
and  the  remnant  of  the  powerful  expedition  returned  in  haste 
without  having  struck  a  blow. 

^N'icholas  Woodbury  of  Ipswich  presented  a  petition  to  the 
General  Court  in  1720,  certifying  that  in  November,  1711, 
he  was  impressed  into  the  service  and  sent  to  the  Eastward 
under  Capt.  Herman.  He  served  until  the  following  April, 
when  he  was  captured  by  the  Indians  at  Wells  and  carried 
to  Canada,  where  he  remained  a  captive  for  nine  years, 
finally  securing  his  release  by  paying  £32  ransom.  He 
received  £60  for  his  expense  and  injuries  which  permanently 
disabled  him.^®  Philip  Amy  and  David  Burnham  of  Ips- 
wich and  James  Emery  were  in  the  same  service.^® 

The  Treaty  of  Utrecht  in  1713  closed  the  war.  By  this 
instrument,  France  ceded  to  England  N'ova  Scotia  and  New- 

"AcU  and  Resolves,  IX:  96. 
»Mas8.  Archives,  63:  184,  190. 
"Kass.  Archives,  71:  603. 
"  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  46. 
*  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  162. 


42         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MAflSAOHUSBTTS    BAY    COLONY. 

foundland  but  the  privilege  of  drying  fish  on  the  coast  from 
Buena  Vista  to  Cape  Riche  was  reserved. 

It  brought  little  relief  to  lie  people  of  Ipswich  and  the 
frontier  towns.  The  French  soon  gathered  strength  and 
denied  that  the  cession  of  Acadia  included  more  than  the 
extreme  eastern  end  of  Nova  Scotia,  though  it  was  under- 
stood that  it  included  the  Maine  coast  as  well.®^  Hostilitied 
in  Maine  began  again  in  1719.  The  painful  and  dishearten- 
ing task  of  recruiting  and  impressing  soldiers  and  sending 
them  forward  was  again  necessary  and  many  quiet  homes 
were  filled  with  anxiety  and  dread.  Col.  John  Appleton  pre- 
sented his  accounts  for  billeting  soldiers  in  Sept  1721,** 
and  again  in  November,  1723.'^  Col  John  Denison's  account 
for  soldiers  impressed  in  June  was  settled  in  Dec.  1723.** 

Captain  Daniel  Epes  received  his  orders  in  August,  1723. 

Having  drawn  forth  the  Troop  of  Horse  under  y"^  Com- 
mand &  taken  effectual  care  that  they  may  be  well  mounted, 
arm'd  and  furnished  with  sufficient  ammunition  agreeable 
to  orders  received  from  y'  Colonel,  you  are  required  without 
any  delay  to  move  with  your  whole  troop  to  the  Fronters  & 
guard  the  ToAvns  of  Amesbury,  Haverhill,  Dracut  and  Dun- 
stable on  the  east  side  of  the  Merrimack  river,  the  space  of 
fourteen  days  and  until  you  be  relieved  by  Capt.  [Matthew 
Whipple's]*^  Troop. 

Divide  your  Troop  into  such  Parties  as  you  shall  find 
most  Convenient  &  as  ye  defence  of  those  Towns  shall  de- 
mand &  so  as  to  have  the  whole  body  together  upon  any 

Emergency.     Give  me  &  also  your  Col.  [Appleton]  ( ) 

immediate  notice  of  the  day  of  your  entering  upon  Duty,  Your 
Officers  &  Soldiers  must  subsist  themselves  &  they  will  be  al- 
lowed for  it  out  of  the  Publick  Treasury  &  likewise  wages  for 
their  Service.     I  expect  you  be  very  faithful  &  Diligent  in  the 

••  Channing,  History  of  the  United  States,  Vol.  II,  p.  544. 
*^  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  137. 
"'Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  226. 
**Act8  and  Resolves,  X:  S86. 

**  This  and  a  later  erasure  are  in  the  original  order,  Mass.  Archives,  72: 
111. 


QUEEN    ANNE^S    WAB.  43 

performanoe  of  this  Duty  that  so  no  Disaster  may  befall  the 
Inhabitants  by  Tour  neglect,  hereof  fail  not. 

You  are  to  give  an  acet  from  Time  to  Time  of  the  Marches 
you  make  &  of  everything  y*  happens  therein. 

Y'  Servant, 

W°*.  Dummer. 
Boston,  Aug.  29 :  1723. 

Captain  Epes  owned  and  occupied  the  great  Oastle  Hill 
farm  and  his  enforced  absence  at  this  time  of  year  was  par- 
ticularly inconvenient.  We  can  appreciate  the  spirit  of  his 
letter  in  reply  to  the  Gk)vemor's. 

Hjotf*  Sir.  These  are  to  inform  your  Hon'  That  I  re- 
ceived your  Orders  dated  Sept.  13,  sent  p'  Mr.  Ames  last 
night  in  which  your  commands  are  that  I  shall  still  stay 
In  the  service  until  your  further  orders;  whose  commands 
I  am  allwayes  with  cheerfulness,  Ready  to  Obey  as  far  as 
I  am  capable  of. 

But  praying  at  this  Time  your  Hon"  compassion  on  our 
Troop  the  most  of  my  men  have  verry  bad  coulds  some 
y*  feav'  and  ague  their  Victuals  and  provisions  all  gone 
and  spent  the  fourteen  days  being  out  and  compleated  ac- 
cording to  your  hon"  order  Therefore  with  submission  pray 
your  Honors  favor  in  sending  another  Troop  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible for  our  Relief  for  they  will  be  fresh  men  and  Bring 
Their  own  provision  as  we  did,  and  pray  sir  please  to  lett  us 
go  home  to  the  harviest  being  allmost  all  country  men,  or  els 
we  cannot  subsist  and  after  that  I  shall  be  willing  to  come 
again  when  your  honor  shall  be  pleased  to  command  me. 
Sir  I  have  been  as  serviceable  as  I  think  possibly  I  could 
in  garding  the  Towns  I  had  the  care  of  as  p*^  my  Joumall 
will  appear  nothing  more  at  present. 

Remain  your  hon"  most  obedient  serv*. 

Daniel  Epes. 

Haverhill,  Sept.  16 :  1723. 
per  oorporill  Bown  by  whome  I  hope  to  hear  good  news 
from  y'  Hon'. 

To  Hon.  W°.  Dummer,  Gov.  In  Boston. 

The  sum  of  £185  4s  was  voted  to  Oapt.  Epes  on  account  of 


44         IPSWIOH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Adages  and  expenses,  from  Sept.  2  to  Sept.  23.**^     Major  Mat- 
thew Wliipple's  Troop  was  on  duty  from  Sept.  16**^  to  Sept 

gQtli86 

The  valuable  fishing  industry  along  the  coast  of  Nova 
Sootia  was  greatly  injured  by  the  frequent  attacks  of  the 
Indians  upon  the  vessels.  A  petition  to  the  General  Court, 
June,  1723,  of  a  considerable  number  of  persons  in  Salem, 
Marblehead  and  other  towns  in  the  County  of  Essex,  engaged 
in  this  business,  declared  that  many  of  their  vessels  were 
taken  by  the  Indians  on  the  coast  of  Xova  Scotia  in  the 
summer  of  1722  and  several  of  their  men  murdered  in  bar- 
barous fashion.  They  prayed  the  Court  to  send  out  a  vessel, 
well  equipped  and  manned  with  thirty-five  good  men,  to  patrol 
the  fishing  groimds  from  the  Isles  of  Shoals  to  Cape  Sambro, 
to  guard  the  fishermen  the  coming  summer.*''^  The  sloop  "En- 
deavor'^  performed  this  service  from  June  15***  to  Oct  2"^, 
1723.«8 

Ipswich  fishermen  along  this  coast  suffered  severely.  The 
story  of  the  attack  on  Lieut.  Tilton  was  told  in  verse  by  an 
unknown  rhymester  and  published  in  "The  New  England 
Oourant"  of  Dec.  17,  1722.*®  The  narrative  is  so  vivid,  that 
it  deserves  a  permanent  place  in  our  annals. 


"TRAGICK  SCENE" 

A  Brief  Narrative  or  Poem  Giving  an  Account  of  the  Hostile 
Actions  of  some  Pagan  Indians  towards  Lieutenant 
Jacob  Tilton,  and  his  brother  Daniel  Tilton,  both  of  the 
town  of  Ipswich,  as  they  were  on  board  of  a  small  vessel 
at  the  Eastward ;  which  happened  in  the  summer  time  in 
the  year  1722.  With  an  Account  of  Valiant  Exploits 
of  the  said  Tiltons  and  their  victori-Conquest  over  their 
insulting  enemies. 

Down  at  an  eastward  harbour  call'd  Fox  Bay, 
They  in  a  Schooner  at  an  anchor  lay. 

*>  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  390. 
••Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  391. 
»*Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  290. 
»  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  372. 
**  Ipswich  Antiquarian  Papers,  May.  1880. 


QUEEN    ANKERS   WAK.  45 

It  was  upon  the  fourteenth  day 'of  June, 
Six  stout  great  Indians  in  the  afternoon 
In  two  Canoes  on  board  said  Schooner  came, 
With  painted  Faces  in  a  churlish  frame ; 
One  of  them  calFd  Penobscot  Governor, 
The  other  Captain  Sam,  a  surly  cxir, 
The  other  four  great  Indians  strong  and  stout 
Which  for  their  ill  design  they  had  picked  out. 
Said  Governor  and  Sam  with  one  more  went 
Down  in  the  forecastle  bold  and  insolent; 
Unto  Lieutenant  Tilton  they  apply'd 
Themselves,  and  down  they  sat  one  at  each  side ; 
The  other  plac'd  himself  behind  his  back, 
Waiting  the  other's  motion  when  to  act. 

Ikdian. 

What's  matter  Governor  my  men  detain 
And  no  send  hostage  home  to  me  again  ? 
What's  matter  he  no  good,  but  all  one  Devil  ? 
What  1  no  love  Indian !     Governor  no  civil. 
Penobscot  Indian  Governor  great  Man. 
All  one  Governor  Shute, — ^says  Captain  Sam. 

TiLTOir. 

Great  while  since  we  from  Boston  hither  came, 
We  poor  fishermen  are  not  to  blame. 

Indian. 

Tour  Boston  Governor  no  good  me  see ; 
Our  Governor  much  better  man  than  he. 

These  Cannibals  thus  in  their  Indian  pride 

The  best  of  Governor's  scorn  and  deride. 

But  they  at  length  to  hasten  their  design, 

From  underneath  their  Blanket  puU'd  a  line 

With  which  his  Arms  they  would  have  compass'd  round, 

But  he  so  strong  and  nimble  was  not  bound 

Till  he  got  out  the  Cuddy  door  at  last. 

Before  they  had  obtained  to  bind  him  fast. 

These  Cannibals  being  both  strong  and  bold 

And  upon  him  kept  fast  their  Indian  hold : 

They  got  him  down  with  their  much  struggling. 

And  bound  his  arms  behind  him  with  their  string. 


46         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSAOHUSBTTS    BAY    COLONY. 

The  other  three  which  kept  above  the  deck, 
Also  had  their  design  brought  to  effect 
Looking  about  him  presently  he  found 

They  had  his  brother  Daniel  also  bound ; 
For  they  with  him  had  acted  even  so, 
One  at  each  side  and  one  behind  did  go, 
And  down  they  sat,  he  not  aware  of  harm. 
The  rogue  behind  him  f  asten'd  on  each  arm, 
And  twitch'd  them  back ;  the  other  two  with  line 
Him  pinioned :  so  thus  they  were  confined. 
They  ty'd  said  Daniel's  legs  he  could  not  stand, 
Nor  help  himself  neither  with  foot  nor  hand. 
They  struck  them  many  blows  on  face  and  head, 
And  their  long  Indian  knives  thev  flourished : 
Triumphing  over  them  and  saying,  Why ! 
You  so  stout  man  that  you  no  Quarter  cry  ? 

TlLTON. 

"What  Indian  mean  to  act  so  in  this  thing, 

Now  Peace  between  the  English  and  French  King. 

Indian. 

Hah  I  no :  me  war,  your  Governor  no  good, 
He  no  love  Indians  me  understood. 

TlLTON. 

What  ails  you  now,  you  sturdy  Captain  Sam, 
Do  Indian  now  intend  to  kill  and  cram  ? 

Indian. 

We  Gbvemor  Shute's  men  kill  and  take, 
Penobscot  (All  one)  Boston  Prison  make. 
You  English  men  our  Indian  land  enjoy 
They  no  surrender,  then  we  them  destroy. 
Indian  bimeby  take  Captain  Westbrook's  fort, 
Some  kill,  some  captive  take ;  that  matchet  sport 

On  board  them  a  young  lad,  and  not  confined 
They  made  him  hoist  the  anchor  to  their  mind. 
Then  admiral  of  this  same  harbor  rid, 
In  mighty  triumph  none  could  them  forbid. 
So  two  of  these  black  rogues  in  their  canoes. 
On  Shore  they  go  to  carry  back  the  news : 


QUEEN   ATTNe's   WAS.  47 

So  was  but  four  of  them  on  board  remain'd 
Of  whom  this  favour  Daniel  then  obtained 
For  to  unty  his  legs  and  ease  his  hand, 
That  he  might  have  them  something  at  command. 
After  which  thing  he  presently  contrives 
What  method  then  to  take  to  save  their  lives, 
While  they  were  plundering  so  busily. 
He  saw  a  splitting  knife  that  was  near  by, 
To  which  he  goes  and  turns  his  back  about, 
Eyeing  them  well,  lest  they  should  find  him  out ; 
And  so  he  works  said  knife  into  his  hand, 
With  which  he  cuts  his  line,  but  still  doth  stand. 
Although  two  of  said  Indians  him  Eye'd 
They  did  not  know  but  he  remain'd  fast  ty'd. 
Two  of  said  Indians  were  plundering, 
Down  the  forecastle  while  he  did  this  thing. 
The  other  two  so  watchful  and  so  shy. 
And  on  him  kept  a  constant  Indian  eye. 
That  he  stands  still  waiting  till  he  could  find 
A  time  when  they  did  him  not  so  much  mind : 
But  when  for  plunder  they  to  searching  goes 
Then  his  contrivance  presently  he  shows : 
He  to  his  Brother  Jacoh  runs  with  speed. 
And  cuts  his  line :  now  both  of  them  are  freed. 
The  Indians  now  alarmed  hereby. 
In  Indian  language  made  a  hideous  cry, 
Crying  Chau  hau,  chau  hat(,  for  they  espy'd 
That  both  these  Englishmen  were  got  unty'd ; 
Like  roaring  Lyons  with  an  ax  and  knives 
Made  violent  assaults  to  take  their  lives ; 
But  Gbd  who  had  determined  to  save, 
Undaunted  courage  unto  them  he  gave : 
That  thev  with  such  a  manly  confidence, 
Altho  unarmed,  stood  in  their  own  defense ; 
And  tho  they  had  from  these  blood  thirsty  hounds 
Received  many  dismal  stabs  and  wounds, 
While  in  their  skirmish  blood  was  up  and  hot, 
No  more  than  Flea  bites  them  they  minded  not. 
Said  Daniel  still  retained  his  splitting  knife, 
Who  nimbly  ply'd  the  same  and  fit  for  life ; 
With  one  hand  fended  off  the  Indian  blows, 
And  with  the  other  cross  the  face  and  nose 


48         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAT   COLONY, 

Of  Captain  Sam,  until  his  pagan  head 

Was  chop'd  and  gash'd,  and  so  much  mangled ; 

Bits  of  his  Indian  scalp  hung  down  in  strings, 

And  blood  run  pouring  thence  as  out  of  Springs. 

Jacob  said  Governor  so  managed, 

He  was  so  maul'd  and  beat,  that  he  so  bled 

His  Indian  head  and  face  with  blood  was  dy'd, 

(See  what  comes  of  his  swelling  Indian  pride,) 

Of  him  he  catch'd  fast  hold  and  up  him  brings 

Unto  the  vessel  side  and  overboard  him  flings. 

Then  Daniel  presently  took  Captain  Sam, 

And  brought  his  Hand  about  his  Indian  ham. 

And  to  the  vessel  side  he  nimbly  goes, 

And  his  black  carcass  in  the  water  throws. 

Now  by  this  time  behold  Jacob  his  brother, 

Of  these  black  rogues  had  catch'd  up  another, 

And  overboard  his  Indian  carcass  sent. 

To  scramble  in  the  water  as  he  went. 

Then  the  said  Daniel  rim  the  fourth  to  catch, 

At  which  the  rogue  a  nimble  jump  did  fetch. 

And  over  board  he  goes  and  swims  to  shore ; 

This  only  rogue  escaped  out  of  four. 

One  of  the  other  three  he  swimmed  part  way. 

At  length  sinks  down  and  there  was  forced  to  stay. 

Two  of  the  other  rogues  with  much  ado. 

Got  out  of  water  into  a  canoe. 

Which  to  the  Vessel  side  was  fastened. 

Themselves  awhile  in  it  they  sheltered. 

Said  Indians  on  board  had  left  a  gun. 

Unto  the  same  said  Jacob  Tilton  run, 

Catching  it  up  to  shoot  them  it  mist  fire. 

Which  disappointed  him  of  his  desire. 

He  catching  up  a  stout  great  setting  Pole, 

With  all  his  might  he  struck  them  on  the  Jole, 

Giving  them  many  blows  upon  the  head. 

Over  they  turns,  and  sunk  like  any  lead. 

We  think  our  Country  now  at  Peace  might  rest, 

If  all  our  Indian  foes  were  thus  supprest. 

Let  Qt)d  the  glory  of  such  conquest  have, 

Who  can  by  few  as  well  as  many  save. 

Then  having  thus  despatched  this  Indian  crew, 

Then  presently  consulted  what  to  do : 


QUEEN    ANNE^S    WAR.  49 

Three  more  Canoes  laden  to  the  brim 

With  Indians  as  deep  as  they  could  swim, 

Come  padling  down  with  all  their  might  and  main, 

Hoping  the  valient  Tilton's  to  retain. 

Daniel,  which  was  both  nimble,  stout  and  spry. 

He  f  eteh'd  an  ax,  and  running  presently 

He  cuts  the  cable ;  then  they  hoist  the  sail. 

Leaving  their  if  eighbours,  that  they  might  bewail 

Over  their  Governor  who  in  dispute, 

Had  termed  himself  as  great  as  good  as  Shute. 

Before  that  they  had  sailed  many  miles 

Their  wounds  began  to  be  as  sore  as  boils, 

From  whence  the  blood  run  streaming  thro  the  cloaths, 

Quite  from  the  shoulders  down  unto  their  toes. 

There  they  sat  down  in  wof ul  misery, 

Expecting  every  moment  when  to  die; 

Not   having  anything  to  ehear  their  heart, 

Nor  dress  their  wounds  to  ease  them  of  the  smart. 

And  verily  we  think  had  perished 

Had  not  the  lad,  which  has  been  mentioned, 

Been  very  helpful  in  this  sore  distress. 

What  reason  tiien  had  thev  of  thankfulness 

That  God  hath  spared  him  from  this  Indian  crew 

For  to  help  them  when  they  could  nothing  do. 

After  they  had  from  foes  escaped  thus. 

They  sailed  and  came  into  Mintinnicus, 

Nigh  twenty  four  hours  if  not  more, 

They  were  a-coming  from  the  former  shore: 

Here  they  among  the  English  find  relief. 

Who  dress  their  wounds  which  ease  them  of  their  grief. 

Their  course  for  Ipswich  town  they  next  contrive. 

Where  in  few  days  their  Vessel  did  arrive : 

Through  so  much  danger,  misery  and  pain. 

They  are  returned  to  their  friends  again. 

Thus  have  I  summed  up  this  tragick  scene. 

As  from  their  mouths  it  told  to  me  has  been  ; 

No  alteration,  but  in  some  expressions 

TTs'd  other  words :  then  pardon  such  digressions 

Since  I  us'd  such  only  for  the  sake  of  verse. 

Which  might  not  less  nor  more  than  truth  rehearse. 

Your  candid  servant  in  this  poetrie 

Described  in  letters  two  W.  G. 


50         IPSWIOH,   IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY.  ' 

The  summer  of  1724  brought  a  more  startling  tragedy. 
John  Wainwright,  Esq.,  one  of  the  most  prominent  men  of 
Ipswich,  Clerk  of  the  General  Court  for  many  years,  wrote 
the  Governor  the  full  details  as  soon  as  the  report  was  re- 
ceived.*® 

Ipswich,  July  13 :  1724. 
May  it  Please  yo'  Honour 

Just  now  arrived  a  fishing  shallop  from  the  Eastward,  the 
skipper  whereof  appearing  before  me,  made  oath  to  the  in- 
closed Declaration  which  I  thought  necessary  to  Express  to 
your  Honour. 

The  Skipper  of  the  Shallop  informs  me  &  I  am  apt  to 
be  of  his  opinion  that  there  is  a  great  probability  of  making 
reprizal  of  the  Shallop  the  Indians  have  taken,  if  not  of 
recovering  the  men  &  surprizing  some  of  them,  who  are  at 
present  very  bold  in  enterprizing  &  boarding  the  fishing 
vessells  on  the  Eastward  shore.  There  is  a  sufficient  num- 
ber of  the  fishermen  &  other  men  &  vessels  now  ready,  who 
are  very  willing  to  go  with  all  the  dispatch  &  expedition 
your  Honour  may  please  to  order  down  to  the  Eastern  Shore 
&  who  I  am  fully  persuaded  will  do  their  utmost  to  decoy 
&  Surprize  the  Enemy,  if  they  may  have  y*^  Honours  Com- 
mand &  Direction  therein. 

They  may  have  provisions,  ammunition  etc  as  soon  as  or- 
ders are  given  therefor. 

Mr.  Eveleth  the  Bearer  is  able  to  give  more  particular 
acc't  of  the  matter  than  Time  will  allow  to  inform  yo' 
Honour  in  writing. 

I  am, 
Y'  Hon"  most  obed.  humble  serv. 

John  Waimvright. 

The  "Declaration"  alluded  to  in  this  letter  is  undoubtedly 
the  same  in  substance  with  the  following:*^ 

Sylvanus  Lakeman  of  Ipswich,  of  lawfuU  age  declares 
that  he  was  out  on  a  fishing  voyage  from  Ipswich  and  in 
company  with  a  fishing  shallop  on  board  of  which  was  John 
Caldwell,  skipper,  Daniel  Rindge  Jun*^  &  some  others,  and  be- 
ing at  anchor  a  fishing  about  two  or  three  Leagues  South  of  the 

^Mas8.  Archives,  52:   19. 
^  Mbsb,  Archives,  72:  270. 


QUEEN    ANNE^S    WAS.  51 

Sell  Islands  on  the  tenth  day  of  Jvlj,  Anno  1724,  about 
sun  an  hour  high  in  the  morning  a  schooner  laid  that  John 
Caldwell,  Rindge  &  others  on  board  being  manned  with  In- 
dians as  the  Deponent  could  easily  observe,  he  being  not 
above  an  hundred  rodds  or  thereabout  from  the  said  shallop, 
and  the  said  Indians  did  then  &  there  take  &  Capivate  the 
said  John  Caldwell,  Daniel  Rindge  Jun'  &  others  that  were 
on  board  the  said  shallop,  &  immediately  cut  her  cable  & 
made  sail  after  the  Deponant  but  he  being  Surprized  In- 
stantly cut  his  Cable  &  got  away  from  the  Indians,  who 
pursued  him  in  the  schooner  &  shallop  but  could  not  get  up, 
and  the  Deponant  verily  believes  that  the  Indians  did  kill 
the  said  Caldwell  and  Rindge  for  that  no  account  has  been 
had  of  them  from  that  day  to  this  as  he  has  heard  of. 

Silvanus  Lakeman. 
Ips.,  May  22 :  1727. 

Sworn  to  before  John  Wainwright 

This  sworn  statement  no  doubt  accompanied  the  petition 
of  Martha  Rindge  in  June,  1727,  which  certified  that  her 
late  husband  Daniel  Rindge,  while  on  a  fishing  voyage  with 
John  Caldwell  and  others  at  the  Seal  Islands,  near  Penob- 
scot Bay,  was  captured  by  an  Indian  privateer  schooner  and 
in  all  probability  all  were  killed. 

That  the  Petitioner  is  left  with  several  small  Children  & 
in  poor  Circumstances  &  has  now  an  Opportunity  of  advanc- 
ing her  Circumstances  in  many  respects  by  Marriage  to  one 
John  Wood  of  Ipswich  And  for  as  much  as  the  three  Years 
stated  by  Law  are  not  fully  expired  Therefore  Praying  the 
License  of  this  Court  to  intermarry,  the  said  Law  Notwith- 
standing.*^ 

Orders  were  given  to  Capt.  Durrell  of  the  ship  "Sea 
Horse,"  to  dispatch  part  of  his  men  in  three  fishing  vessels.** 
Mr.  Wainwright's  suggestion  was  duly  honored  as  well,  and 
he  was  authorized  to  supply  Capt.  Stephen  Perkins  and  Sil- 
vanus Lakeman  with  provisions  and  ammunition  for  their 
vessels  to  fit  them  against  the  Indians. 

*  Acts  and  Resolves,  XI:  140.    It  was  granted  June  lOth. 
«Mass.  Archives,  62:  20. 


52         IPSWIOH,    IN    THE    MJlSSAOHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Penhallow*'*  tells  the  story  of  the  two  skippers  from  New 
Hampshire  with  about  40  men  in  their  shallops,  who  came 
up  with  the  Indians  but  were  afraid  to  attack.  "However, 
Dr.  Jackson  from  Kittery  and  Sylvanus  Lakeman  from  Ips- 
wich with  a  lesser  number  gave  them  chase  and  fired  very 
smartly  with  their  small  arms  although  the  enemy  had  two 
great  guns  and  four  pateraroes,  which  cut  their  shrouds  and 
hindered  their  pursuit  for  some  time,  but  being  fixed  again 
they  followed  them  with  greater  resolution  and  drove  them 
into  Penobscot,  where  a  greater  body  being  ready  to  cover 
them,  he  was  forced  to  desist." 

Lakeman's  account  was  presented  in  December  and  it 
was  voted  by  the  General  Court  that  £65  14s  be  paid  him.*^ 

Another  petition  of  similar  diaracter  was  forwarded  two 
months  later,*' 

May  it  please  Your  Honour. 

Lt.  Abraham  Tilton,  the  bearer  and  a  Number  of  men  from 
this  Town  are  Disposed  to  Scout  the  Woods  above  the  Fron- 
tiers in  Quest  of  the  Indians  and  to  Secure  the  Towns  on 
the  Act  of  Sixty  pounds  p'  Scalp. 

I  tho't  it  proper  he  should  wait  on  Your  Honour  for  Di- 
rection and  Subsistance. 

I  am  Your  Hon"  most  obedient  Humble  Servt 

John  Appleton, 

Ipswich,  Sept'  15,  1724. 

Lieut.  Tilton  was  a  younger  brother  of  Lieut.  Jacob  and 
Daniel,  the  heroes  of  the  "Tragick  Scene."  The  possibility  of 
revenge  for  the  indignities  they  suifered,  coupled  with  the 
great  financial  profit  from  slaughtering  his  foes,  opened  an 
alluring  prospect  to  the  doughty  Lieutenant  There  is  no 
record,  however,  that  his  appeal  received  favorable  considera- 
tion. John  Fillmore,  another  Ipswich  man,  gained  much 
credit  in  the  same  year  for  the  valorous  part  he  had  in  captur- 
ing a  pirate  crew  and  their  vessel  and  bringing  them  to  Bos- 

♦*  Indian  Wars, 

^  Acts  and  Resolves.  X:  556. 

^Mass.  Archives,  62:  47. 


QUEEN    ANNE^S    WAE.  58 

ton."*^     He  is  said  to  have  been  the  great  grandfather  of  Mil- 
lard Fillmore,  President  of  the  United  States. 

Col.  John  Appleton  presented  an  account  for  billeting  sol- 
diers, impressed  in  His  Majesty's  service  in  Dec.  1724*® 
and  a  later  account  in  the  following  June.*®  The  prevalent 
discouragement  arising  from  these  repeated  calls  for  men  is 
reflected  in  his  letter*®  of  June  23^ 

Ipsw*  June  23*,  1725. 
May  it  Pleas  Yr  Hon' 

You'  Hon'  Order  came  to  my  hand  on  Tuesday,  y*  22***, 
the  23*^  they  march*  Capt.  Joseph  Golds  Comand'  a  full 
Troop  to  the  Eastward  according  to  y*  Hon'  order. 

The  Troop  in  y®  Regiment  of  Late  do  not  consist  more 
than  40  Men  besides  theire  Officers  considering  the  difficulty 
&  dang'  of  their  Marching  in  the  Estward  parts.  I  have 
taken  out  of  Ipswich  &  Rowley  Troop  to  make  him  a  full 
Troop  to  y*  numb,  of  six*'  men,  they  are  all  likely  men  &  are 
well  fitted  &  goe  out  w*"*  good  Courage  if  I  have  trans- 
gress* I  pray  that  yo'  Hon'  would  signify  it  to  me,  I  had 
no  ord'  to  subsist  the  men:  I  ordered  every  man  to  take  3 
or  4  days  provision  to  carry  them  to  Wells;  &  I  assured 
them  it  would  be  allowed  as  heretofore. 

I  am  Y'  Hon'  most  humble  Servant 

John  Appleton. 

Happily  relief  was  at  hand.  John  Stoddard  and  John 
Wainwright  were  appointed  Commissioners  to  treat  with  the 
Penobscot  Indians  and  secure  their  allegiance  to  the  English.'^ 
They  went  to  St.  George's  River  and  found  the  Indians,  freed 
from  French  influence  by  the  death  of  Sebastian  Rasle,  ready 
to  n^otiate.  An  agreement  was  arrived  at  in  July,  and  was 
ratified  by  Penobscot  chiefs  who  came  to  Boston,  where  a 
formal  treaty  of  peace  was  settled  between  the  Eastern  ]jx- 
dians  and  the  English  inhabitants  of  ISTew  England  and  ilTova 
Scotia,  in  December,  1725.  For  nearly  twenty  years  there- 
after, New  England  was  little  disturbed  by  Indian  attacks. 

**  Drake's  History  of  Boston. 
^Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  543. 
*  Acts  and  Resolves,  X:  728. 
^Mass.  Archives  62:  207. 
uMass.  Archives,  52:  210^,  217,  220. 


CHAPTER  III. 

Some  Great  Funerals 

Judge  SewalFs  Diary,  imder  date  of  August  3*,  1711, 
bears  the  mournful  entry: 

Col.  Francis  Wainwright  dies  at  his  own  house  in  Ipswich. 
Left  Salem  for  his  last  July  25,  the  day  before  his  first 
apointed  wedding  day,  which  Appointment  was  remov'd  to 
the  last  of  July.  He  was  taken  sick  at  Ipswich  on  the 
Lord's  Day,  July  29  and  died  on  the  Friday  following  at 
10  m.^  his  Bride  being  with  him.  'Tis  the  most  oompleat 
and  surprising  Disapointment  that  I  have  been  acquainted 
with.  Wedding  Cloathes  to  a  Neck  cloth  and  Night  cap  laid 
ready  in  the  Bride's  Chamber,  with  the  Bridei's  Attire. 
Great  Provision  made  for  Entertainment.  Guests  several 
came  from  Boston  and  entertained  at  Mr.  Hirst's,  but  no 
Bridegroom,  no  Wedding.  He  was  laid  in  a  new  Tomb  of 
his  own  making  lately  and  his  dead  wife  taken  out  of 
another  and  laid  with  him. 

Tuesday,  Aug.  7.  Bearers.  John  Appleton,  Esq.  CoL 
John  Higginson,  Esq.  Daniel  Epes,  Esq.  Stephen  SewaU,  Esq. 
Lt.  Col.  Savage  and  Mr.  Daniel  Bogers,  Mrs.  Betty  Hirst,  the 
Bride  was  principal  Mourner. 

Col.  Wainwright  had  attained  distinguished  honors.  He 
was  bom  on  Aug.  25,  1664,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  in 
1686,  married  Sarah  Whipple,  March  12,  1686-7,  who  had 
died  in  her  38**  year,  on  March  16,  1709-10.  He  was 
Colonel  of  a  K^iment,  a  member  of  the  Artillery  Company, 
Feoffee  of  the  Grammar  School,  Representative  to  the 
General  Court,  Commissioner  of  Excise  for  Essex  and  Jus- 
tice of  the  General  Sessions  Court     He  was  stricken,  appar- 

(64) 


SOME    GBEAT    FUNEBALS  55 

entlj  while  in  full  health  and  strength,  at  the  family  man- 
sion, on  Sunday,  July  29***. 

On  Thursday,  Aug.  2,  he  made  his  will,  in  which  he  made 
hequests. 

To  y*  church  of  Ipswich  y*  sum  of  five  pounds  money  to 
be  Layd  In  a  peice  of  plate  for  y*  Lord's  table. 

To  Mrs.  Eliza.  Hirst  of  Salem,  with  whom  I  had  con- 
tracted for  Marriage,  for  y**  Love  I  bare  to  her,  y*  sum  of 
one  hundred  pounds  money. 

To  my  kinswoman,  Mrs.  Mary  Whipple,  who  hath  been 
kind  to  me  in  health  and  sickness,  y®  sum  of  Ten  pounds. 

To  y*  Reverend  Mr.  Jo.  Rogers,  min',  y*  sum  of  five 
pounds. 

To  y®  Rev**  Mr.  Jabez  Fitch,  the  sum  of  Ten  pounds. 

To  my  loving  &  good  friend  Dan*  Rogers,  school-master, 
five  pounds. 

I  will  and  desire  my  mother  Epes  may  have  a  mourning 
sute  given  by  my  executors  att  my  funeral. 

As  he  had  already  given  250£  to  his  daughter  Sarah  on 
the  occasion  o£  her  marriage  to  Stephen  Minot  of  Boston,  he 
gave  the  same  sum  to  his  daughters  Elizabeth  and  Lucy. 
He  appointed  his  "loving  brother,  Capt.  John  Whipple,"* 
and  his  son-in-law,  Stephen  Minot,  his  executors. 

Judge  Sewall  has  recorded  the  stately  company  of  pall 
bearers  at  the  funeral  on  August  7^,  Tuesday  of  the  fol- 
lowing week.  Judge  John  Appleton  and  Daniel  Rogers, 
the  school  master,  neighbors  and  friends  and  Captain 
Daniel  Epes  of  the  Castle  Hill  Farm,  a  Justice  of  the 
Court,  represented  the  Town,  which  was  so  deeply  afflicted 
in  his  death.  Judges  Sewall  and  Higginson  and  Col.  Sav- 
age gave  further  distinction,  as  representatives  of  the  judi- 
ciary and  the  military.  But  it  remains  for  the  carefully 
preserved  accounts  of  the  administrator,  Mr.  Minot,  to  reveal 
the  extraordinary  pomp  and  parade  of  that  ancient  funeral. 

In  accordance  with  the  usage  of  the  times,  funeral  rings, 

^  His  slAter  Sarah  was  CoL  Wainwrl^ht's  first  wife. 


56         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

scarfs  and  gloves  were  provided  for  the  mourners,  but  Cap- 
tain Minot  made  most  extraordinary  and  lavish  expenditure- 
The  Ipswich  merchants  and  tailors  were  disregarded,  as 
wholly  incompetent  to  provide  fitting  accompaniments  far 
so  grand  an  occasion,  and  orders  were  given  broadcast  to  the 
foremost  tradesmen  and  artificers  of  Boston. 

Ebenezer  Wentworth  received  orders  for 

2  sup.  fine  hats  at  40/  each,  2  conmion  hats  at  18/  each, 
9  dozen  gloves  and  a  mourning  gown  delivered  Mr.  Minot, 
the  whole  order  amounting  to  £15-  7-  6 

Ezekiel  Lewis  provided 

6  doz.  mens  white  and  colored  gloves  @  30/  ==  £9-  0-  0 
4  doz.  womens  white  and  colored  gloves  @  30/  =  £6-  0-  0 
9  mourning  fans  @  4/  1-16-  0 

Benjamin  Walker's  bill  indicates  gloves  of  finer  quality 

for  the  inner  circle  of  mourners : 

6  yds.  %  fine  black  broadcloath  £8-  5-  9 

12  yds.  mourning  crape  @  4/  2-10-  0 

1  doz.  men's  sattin  topt  gloves  2-12-  0 

1  doz  women's  sattin  topt  gloves  2-12-  0 

6  pr.  women's  loyned  Shammy  2-11-  0 
a  total  account  for  the  funeral  of  £26-  1-  7 

From  Peter  Cutler  came  an  account  for 

1  ps.  Cloth  Rash  £8  5-  0 

7y2  yds.  fine  muslin  @  12/,  3  hatts  @8/  5-14-  0 

3  pr.  black  shammy  gloves  8/,  1  pr.  black  hose  2-14-  0 

16-13-  0 

Oliver  Noyes  furnished 

6%  yds.  black  queen's  cloath  @  40/  13-  0-  0 

7  yds.  black  queen's  cloath  14-  0-  0 
7%  yds.  black  queen's  cloath  15-0-0 
sundry  silk  laces  &  ferret  11/12  11-12 

42-11-12 


S01k[£   GBEAT    FUNEBALS  57 

From  the  shop  of  merchant  Andrew  Faneuil  came  35^4 

ells  of  Lute-string  @  10/6  18-10-  1 

The  items  of  Col.  Thomas  Savage's  hill  indicate  a  carte 
blanche  order  for  his  finest  goods : 

20  yds.  fine  hro.  cloath  @  27/  27-  0-  0 

24  yds.  fine  durange  3-19-  0 
3  doz.  l)est  new  fash  coat  buttons  6-  0 
5  doz.  breast  ditto  3-  4 

5  yds.  white  fustian  12-6 
black  cloth  to  Walker's  boy  6 
14  yds.  best  Lute  string  @9/8  7-  2-  0 
38  yds.  black  Sallopeen  @  5/6  10-  9-  0 
2V&  yds.  shalloon  @  4/ "  8-  6 
13  yds.  finest  shalloon  4/  2-12-  0 

6  yds  l^  garlix  2/  13-0 
S  doz.  coat  buttons  6-  0 
5  pr.  superfine  hose  @  14/  3-10-  0 
12  yds.  catgut  gauze  %  2-  0-  0 
18  yds.  black  cloath  3-  6-  0 

1  pr.  boys  gloves  for  W°  Alden  2-  6 

3  yds.  broad  Love  ribbind  6-  0 

2  yds  broad  cadez  0-  6 

4  yds.  broad  Italian  crape  1-12-  0 

%  yd.  durance  at  3/  1-  6 

25  yds.  black  &  w*  silk  crape  @  2/6  3-  2-  6 
36  yds.  allamode  5/3  9-  9-  0 


85-  9-  2 
The  tailors  and  dressmakers  of  Boston  must  have  been 
hard  pressed  to  fashion  all  this  broadcloth  and  durance  or 
durange,  a  stout  cloth  made  in  imitation  of  buff  leather,  the 
fustian  and  the  worsted  fabric  called  shalloon  into  men's 
garments,  and  the  lute-string  and  crape  and  ribbons  into 
mourning  garb  for  the  daughters  and  the  bride  elect.  Dame 
Bridget  Pead  presented  her  account. 

for  y*  funeral,  making  3  suits  of  morning  @  10/        1-10- 


58         IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLONY. 

George  Shore's  bill  for  ^'making  a  Black  suit  of  Cloathes 
1-10-  0;  Coat  Coining  2/6  breaches  puffs  2/6  buckram 
2/6"  was  1-18-  9. 

It  seems  needless  extravagance  that  Captain  Whipple 
should  have  needed  the  art  of  a  Boston  tailor  to  provide 
his  mourning  garb  but  Peter  Barber's  account  was : 

To  making  a  black  cloath  coat  and  west  cott  and 

breeches  for  Capt  John  Whipple  1-15-  0 

washe  leather  pockets  for  y*  breaches  4- 

1-19-  0 

Most  melancholy  of  all  was  the  bill  which  was  rendered 
by  John  Cotta. 

"sundrys  for  your  wedding  clothes,"  which  Sewall  says 
were  displaved  in  the  Bride-chamber, 
1711 

July  23.    To  makeing  a  Coate  Jacket  &  breaches  of 
Cloath  loop'd  w*''  goold  &  wrought  in  vellome 
14  yds.  durance  @  3/ 
S%  yds.  white  fustian  @  2/8  pockets' 
8  doz  &  1  coat  buttons  at  24/  doz. 
4  doz.  &  1  breast  buttons  at  6/  doz.  silk  7/6 
%  oz.  goold  thread  at  13/  oz. 
%  yd.  goold  lace  at  20/  yd.  and  wedding  2/6 
Making  a  coat  of  black  cloath  20/  1-0-0 

making  2  jackets  &  breaches  of  hoi*  loopt 1-12-  0 

111^  yds  holland  at  5/  yd.,  6V2  yds  Linnen  3  2/9      3-17-  7 
6  doz.  buttons  at  8/  oz.,  thread  etc.  8- 


2-12- 

0 

2-  2- 

17- 

8 

3-14- 

0 

1-12- 

0 

1-  2- 

9 

1-  0- 

0 

27-  8-  7 
Thomas  Selby  provided 

"a  light  coll*  Compigne  Perrewig"  at  a  cost  of  £6-10-00. 
The  order  for  the  gold  rings  may  have  been  too  large  for  any 
one  goldsmith,  so  it  was  divided  among  three  craftsmen. 


SOME   OKEAT    FUNEBALS  59 

Edward  Winslow  provided : 

18  gold  rings,  1  oz.  13  dwt.  12  qr.  10-  8-10 

makiiig  and  wast  at  2/6  per  ring  2-  5-10 

to  the  half  making  12  more  damage  12-  0 

13-  5-  0 

John  Coney's  bill  for  twelve  and  the  "fashioning''  was 
£9-14-  6  and  Shubael  Dummer's  bill  for  a  similar  number 
was  £8-  7-  6. 

These  mourning  rings,  usually  enamelled  in  black  or 
black  and  white,  and  decorated  sometimes  with  a  death's 
head  or  a  framed  lock  of  hair,  upon  which  the  initials  of 
the  deceased  were  engraved  or  "fashioned",  were  given  at 
funerals  to  near  relatives  and  persons  of  note  in  the  com- 
munity. 

Henry  Sharpe  furnished 

ye  Hatchment  &  Scutcheons  for  funerall 

1  hatchm*  of  armes  3-10-  0 

y*  f  reem  and  cloth  1-  8-  0 

26  Escutcheons  att  3/6  4-11-  0 

10  yards  of  buckram  3/  1-10-  0 


10-19-  0 


This  was  the  most  pretentious  equipment  of  all.  The 
hatchment  consisted  of  canvas  stretched  upon  a  square  black 
frame,  placed  with  one  of  its  comers  uppermost  and  bearing 
the  coat  of  arms  of  the  deceased.  It  was  placed  in  front 
of  the  house  at  a  funeral  or  attached  to  a  hearse.  On  this 
occasion,  as  the  body  was  borne  on  a  bier,  it  was  given  a 
conspicuous  place,  probably  before  the  house.  Escutcheons 
were  attached  sometimes  to  the  livery  of  the  horses  or  per- 
haps to  the  pall.  These  twenty-six  escutcheons  all  found 
conspicuous  place.  John  Boberts,  the  Boston  undertaker 
furnished  the  "paule"  at  an  expense  of  twelve  shillings  and 


\ 

V 


60         IPSWICH,   IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

had  tliree  pounds  and  thirteen  shillings  for  his  services  and 
expenses.  Presumably  the  account  for  the  pall  was  for 
rental  only,  as  it  was  usually  of  heavy  purple  or  black  broad- 
cloth, and  was  often  owned  by  the  Town.  The  pall-bearers 
held  it  by  the  comers  or  sides,  and  the  actual  carrying  of 
the  body  was  often  performed  by  young  and  vigorous  men. 

The  custom  of  prayers  at  funerals  was  gaining  ground  in 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  and  Mr.  Rogers  and 
Mr.  Fitch,  the  ministers,  may  have  had  a  funeral  service. 
Then  the  stately  procession  formed  and  the  spacious  High 
Street  was  filled  with  a  curious  crowd  of  town's  folk  and 
from  all  the  country  round  to  see  the  imposing  array  of  pall 
bearers,  with  their  hat  bands  and  scarfs  of  crape,  the  prin- 
cipal mourner,  Mrs.  Hirst,  in  her  weeds  of  woe,  the  afflicted 
family  and  the  long  line  of  relatives  and  friends,  and  not  least, 
John  Roberts,  master  of  ceremonies,  bringing  the  last  touch  of 
Boston  display.  At  the  grave.  Judge  Sewall  or  one  of  the 
ministers  may  have  pronounced  a  brief  eulogy.  The  place 
of  burial  is  marked  with  a  flat  stone,  with  the  simple  in- 
scription 

Here  lies  entombed  the  body  of  Colonel  Francis 
Wainwright,  Esq.,  who  died  August  y*  3,  1711. 

Aetatis  47. 

And  his  virtuous  consort,  Mrs.  Sarah  Wain- 
wright, who  died  March  y*  16,  1709.       Aetatis  38. 

With  three  of  their  youngest  children,  John, 
Francis  &  John,  who  died  in  their  infancy. 

The  total  funeral  charges  as  they  were  grouped  by  Mr. 
Minot,  amounted  to  £415-18-  4.  The  real  estate  was  inven- 
toried at  £1914,  the  personal  £4132-  5-  1,  including  the  negro 
Mexey,  valued  at  £40.  Large  as  this  outlay  was,  it  was  sur- 
passed by  the  executors  of  Capt.  Daniel  Ringe,  a  soldier  in 
the  Indian  wars  in  his  young  days  and  a  prominent  citizen, 
though  he  never  attained  such  place  and  dignity  as  CoL 


SOME   GREAT    FUNEBALS  61 

Wainwright.     He  died  on  ITovember  30,  1738,  at  the  age 
of  80  or  84,  in  different  records. 

He  owned  a  farm  in  the  Hamlet  and  a  homestead  on  the 
Turkey  Shore  Road,  adjoining  the  old  Howard  mansion, 
now  owned  by  Prof.  Arthur  W.  Dow.  The  total  inventory 
of  his  estate  was  £1679-15-  6.  His  daughter,  Hannah,  mar- 
ried Capt.  Thomas  Staniford,  int.  Dec  27,  1707  and  Mary 
married  Major  Ammi  Ruhamah  Wise,  int.  21:  Im,  1713. 
Major  Ammi  Wise  and  his  brother  Daniel  were  merchants 
and  the  furnishings  for  the  funeral  of  the  aged  father-in- 
law  opened  a  golden  opportunity  for  their  business.  The 
funeral  charge,  due  from  the  estate,  indicates  how  well  the 
opportimity  was  improved.  It  included  many  interesting 
items: 

7  yds.  Broadcloth  a  £3-  5-  0  22-15-  0 

56  yds.  silk  crape  @  11/  30-16-  0 

4%  yds  silk  crape  ©6/6  1-  9-  0 

24  yds  silk  crape  @  8/  9-12-  0 

24y2  lace  a  16/  17-  0-  0 

24^^^  yds  lace  a  16/  17-  0-  0 

%  yd.  Broadcloth  for  shoes  2-  0-  8 

38y2  yds.  of  Cypress  @  9/  17-  6-  6 

16  ydB.  Hat  crape  @  %/6  6-4-0 

4  handkerchief  @  16/  3-4-0 

4  yd.  Cyprus  sent  Mrs.  Hart  1-16-  0 

3  pr.  men's  hose  @  30/  4-10-  0 

3  pr.  women's  hose  @  35/  5-  5-  0 

To  velvet  for  the  cape  of  a  coat  2-  2-  6 

10  yds.  alamode  (5}  18/  9-9-0 

16  yds.  Padusoye  for  y®  w*  @  40/  32-  0-  0 

the  Widow's  Apron  2-0-0 

1  pr.  silk  gloves  1-  6-  0 

9  yds.  Drag*  @  25/  11-  5-  0 

ZV2  yds.  Drug*  @  10/  1-15-  0 

9  yds.  calamanco  for  w"*  8/  3-12-  0 

14  pr.  black  gloves  @  9/  6-  6-  0 

73  pr.  w*  glov"  7/  26-  5-  0 

Jacob  Hurd  the  rings  14-  6-  0 


62         IPSWIOH,   IN   THE    MASSAOHUSBTTS    BAY    COLOmr. 

There  were  material  and  trimmings  for  suits  for  the  men, 
costing  £17-18-10  for  Capt.  Staniford ;  £30-  9-  2  for  Ammi 
Wise  and  Jn®  Wise,  his  seventeen  year  old  son;  12  yds.  of 
crape  for  Thomas  Staniford's  wife,  4-16-  0;  12  yds.  for 
Mrs.  Crompton,  4-16-  0 ;  and  the  Ipswich  tailors  had  busy 
times  in  the  making  and  good  prices  for  their  work. 

Eben  Smith  17-14-  0 

Eobert  Potter  2-  0-  0 

Robert  Holmes  2-15-  0 

Nath.  Smith  3-2-0 

Mrs.  Sutton  0-15-  0 

Mrs.  Rust  12-  0 

Shoemaker  3-  0-  0 

The  total  charge  was  29-18-  0 

Sixteen  gallons  of  wine  were  provided  at  an  expense  of 
£8-16-  0.  Here  again  the  mourning  outfits  included  every- 
thing from  the  long  crape  bands  for  men's  hats  and  the  cy- 
press for  women's  hoods,  to  shoes  and  stockings.  The  total 
account  with  Major  Ammi  Wise  and  Daniel,  who  adminis- 
tered, was  £420-13-11,  a  full  quarter  of  the  estate. 

The  custom  of  extravagant  display  had  reached  absurd 
excess.  For  the  funeral  of  Gov.  Burnet  in  Sept.  1729,  tha 
General  Court  ordered  mourning  clothes  for  his  children, 
servants  and  slaves,  funeral  trappings  for  coach  and  horses, 
and  gloves  and  rings  for  the  members  of  the  Council,  Judges, 
Ministers,  militaiy  officers  and  a  multitude  of  others,  and 
an  appropriation  of  £1097-11-  3  was  needed  to  cover  it. 
At  the  funeral  of  the  wife  of  Gov.  Belcher  in  1736,  it  is 
%said  that  over  a  thousand  pairs  of  gloves  were  given  away, 
and  at  Andrew  FaneuiPs,  three  thousand  were  distributed. 

But  public  opinion  was  already  against  such  practices. 
Judge  Sewall  notes  in  1721  the  first  public  funeral  "without 
scarfs."  In  1741,  the  General  Court  passed  a  law  that  "no 
Scarves,  Gloves  (except  six  pair  to  the  bearers  and  one  pair 
to  each  minister  of  the  church  or  congregation  where  any 


SOME    OBBAT    FUNEBALS  63 

deceased  person  belongs)  Wine,  Rum  or  rings  be  allowed  to 
be  given  at  any  funeral  under  the  penalty  of  fifty  pounds." 

In  one  case  at  least,  this  law  was  enforced.  At  the  Salem 
CJourt,  on  Christmas  day,  1753,  Jeremiah  Lee  of  Marble- 
head,  "for  giving  Rings  and  Gloves  more  than  are  allowed  by 
law  at  the  funeral  of  his  father,  Samuel  Lee/'  was  fined  £50, 
half  to  be  given  to  Edm.  Trowbridge,  Esq.,  the  informer  and 
the  other  half  to  the  poor  of  Marblehead. 

Gradually  this  costly  display  disappeared  and  the  funeral 
expense  involved  only  a  fine  mourning  dress  for  the  widow. 
As  late  as  May,  1760  however,  Andrew  Burley  provided  for 
a  family  funeral 

9  pairs  men's  white  gloves  7-4-0 

5  prs  men's  black  gloves  4-0-0 

7  prs.  women's  white  gloves  5-12-  0 

3  pr.  women's  black  gloves  2-  8-  0 
2  yds.  crape  1-  5-  0 
1^  yds.  Rib*,  1  yd.  ferrit  12-  2 

4  pr.  Butt*  8-  0 
buckles  7-  6 

Mrs.  Hannah  Burrill  relict  of  Hon.  Theophilus  Burrill 
and  sister  of  Pres.  Holyoke  of  Harvard  College,  died  in  Cam- 
bridge in  November,  1764.  The  Boston  Evening  Post  of 
H'ovember  26,  contained  the  item: 

Her  remains  were  interred  last  Thursday,  without  the 
expense  of  mourning  apparel,  agreeable  to  the  laudable 
method  now  practised  in  Boston,  As  this  is  the  first  example 
of  the  kind  in  that  Town  (Cambridge)  and  introduced  by 
a  Gentleman  of  so  worthy  and  respectable  a  Character,  we 
doubt  not  it  will  acquire  Imitation. 

That  there  was  still  crying  need  of  reform  in  the  pre- 
vailing fashion  is  evident  from  a  communication  to  the 
same  Boston  newspaper  on  June  18,  1765. 


64         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Many  families  in  lower  orders  will  save  themselves 

from  inevitable  ruin  and  our  brethren  in  the  country  towns 
who  (in  comformity  to  a  foolish  custom)  have  often  subjected 
their  farms  to  pay  funeral  charges — ^keeping  of  dead  bodies 
unburied  in  the  heats  of  summer  for  four  or  five  days  (which 
has  been  often  the  case)  till  they  have  been  so  putrefied  as 
to  become  intolerable  to  all  about  them,  due  to  this  perni- 
cious custom,  the  mourning  (as  it  is  called)  not  being  ready 
for  the  funeral  .  .  .  • .  the  practice  too  frequent  for  taylors 
and  others  to  WQrk  all  Saturday  night  and  sometimes  in 
the  next  morning,  to  get  mourning  ready. 

Kathan  Bowen  of  Marblehead  noted  in  his  Journal: 

1765,  Jan,  8:  Capt,  Curtis's  wife  interred  in  the  new 
mode  ....  without  mourning  to  the  approbation  and  ap- 
plause of  all  persons  who  attended  viz.  the  principal  gen- 
tlemen of  the  town  and  many  others.  And  it  is  hoped  the 
mode  will  prevail  in  to^vn  to  the  saving  of  thousands  per 
annum. 

Extravagant  and  needless  expenditure  still  occurred  as 
late  as  1785,  when  a  large  number  of  the  citizens  of  New- 
buryport  signed  a  mutual  agreement^  to  adopt  more  modest 
mourning  and  abolish  vain  display. 

We,  the  subscribers,  taking  into  consideration  that  the 
extravagant  use  of  mourning  and  the  great  and  unnecessary 
expense  often  laid  out  at  funerals  are  not  only  one  great! 
mean  of  draining  our  country  of  its  money,  encouraging  the 
importation  of  unnecessary  foreign  manufactures,  but  also  the 
impoverishment,  sometimes  ruin,  of  private  families :  .  .  .  . 
do  hereby  solemnly  agree  and  promise  to  and  with  each 
other,  that  as  soon  as  fifty  heads  of  families  in  this  town 
shall  have  signed  this  agreement,  we  will  not  wear  nor  suffer 
to  be  worn  by  any  of  our  families  at  the  funeral  of  any 
of  our  relations  or  friends,  any  other  mourning  dress  than 
a  black  Crape  or  Eobbin  on  our  arm  or  hat,  for  gentlemen 
and  a  black  plain  Bonnet,  Gloves  or  Mitts,  Robbin  and  Neck- 
lace for  ladies : —     That  we  will  not  give  Gloves,  Scarfs  or 

'  Salem  Gazette,  August  24,  1785. 


SOME   GBEAT    FUNERALS  65 

Rings  at  funerals,  nor  use  any  coffins,  not  made  of  wood  of 

the  growth  of  some  of  the  United  States We  will 

not  assist  or  attend  and  that  none  of  our  families  shall  at- 
tend at  any  funeral  where  this  agreement  is  not  observed  in 
all  parts  and  according  to  the  true  spirit  thereof  complied 
with  .... 

Newburyport,  August  3,  1785. 

The  Town  of  Boston  adopted  a  by-law*  in  1788,  forbid- 
ding scarfs,  gloves  or  rings  at  any  funeral,  ^^nor  shall  any 
wine,  rum  or  other  spirituous  liquor  be  allowed  or  given 
at  or  immediately  after  or  before'^  under  penalty  of  20 
shillings  fine. 

Ipswich,  no  doubt,  shared  in  this  reform  and  by  the  end 
of  the  century,  modest  and  becoming  mourning,  and  simple 
funerals  were  the  universal  custom. 

'  Salem  Mercury,  May,  1788. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

Inns  and  Inn  Keepers  and  the  Teaffio  in  Steong 

Deink 

The  inn  or  ordinary  had  a  large  place  in  the  commu- 
nity in  the  early  days.  Travellers  made  their  slow  jour- 
neys on  horseback  and  a  lodging  place  for  man  and  beast 
was  necessary  at  frequent  intervals.  The  social  usages 
of  the  time  required  a  common  tap-room,  well  warmed  and 
lighted,  where  the  gossip  of  the  day  might  be  retailed  over 
the  pipe  and  glass.  Provision  must  be  made  for  the  sitting 
of  the  Courts  and  the  entertainment  of  the  magistrates  and 
the  ordinary  met  this  public  need  for  many  years.  The 
Sabbath  congregation,  chilled  to  the  marrow  by  the  long 
morning  service  in  the  cold  meeting-house,  gladly  hastened 
to  the  inn  to  enjoy  its  good  cheer  until  the  hour  of  after- 
noon service.  Committees  of  the  Town  and  men  of  business 
resorted  thither  to  discuss  their  affairs. 

From  the  beginning  a  serious  effort  was  made  by  the 
Court  of  Assistants  to  secure  the  orderly  conduct  of  public 
houses  and  to  control  the  sale  of  intoxicating  drinks.  No 
one  might  presume  to  put  out  his  sign  and  open  his  doors 
without  a  license,  nor  could  the  shopkeeper  retail  his  liquors 
without  similar  authority.     Robert  Roberts  was  licensed  to 

4/ 

sell  in  Ipswich  by  the  Court  of  the  Assistants  in  1635. 
Goodman  Firman  and  GkK)dman  Treadwell  received  licenses 
in  1639  and  Richard  Lumpkin  had  then  opened  his  ordi- 
nary on  "Damon's  Comer,"  as  it  is  now  known,  and  his 
widow  furnished  supplies  for  the  soldiers  who  marched 
against  the  Indians  in  1643. 

(66) 


INNS    AND   INN  KEEPEB8  67 

Evidences  of  disorder  in  the  inns  soon  appear.  In  1647, 
the  Court  of  Assistants  forbade  the  game  of  shuffle  or  shovel- 
board  at  houses  of  public  entertainment,  "whereby  much 
precious  time  is  spent  unfruitfully  &  much  wast  of  wine  & 
beare  occasioned  thereby."  This  law  was  passed  "upon  com- 
plaint of  great  disorder  y*  hath  been  observed  &  is  like  fur- 
ther to  increase."  At  the  same  session,  however,  the  Court 
illustrated  the  wise  and  rightful  use  of  these  commodities, 
as  it  judged,  by  ordering  twelve  gallons  of  sack  and  six  gal- 
lons of  white  wine  to  be  sent  "as  a  small  testimony  of  y* 
Corts  respect  to  y*  revrend  assembly  of  elders  at  Cambridge." 

Again  in  1653,  the  Court  dealt  severely  with  the  loose 
manners  of  the  time  and  with  the  dangerous  beguilements 
of  the  inn. 

Upon  information  of  soimdry  abuses  and  misdemeanors, 
comitted  by  soimdry  persons  on  the  Lord's  day,  not  only  by 
childrens  playing  in  the  streets  and  other  places,  but  by 
youths  mayds  and  other  persons  both  strangers  and  others 
imcivily  walking  the  streete  and  fields  travailing  from  towne 
to  towne  going  on  shipboard,  frequenting  common  houses 
and  other  places  to  drinck  sport  &  otherwise  to  misspend 
that  pretjous  time  which  things  tend  much  to  the  dishonor 
of  God,  the  reproach  of  religion,  greiving  the  souls  of  God's 
servants  and  the  prophanatjon  of  the  holy  Sabboath. 

It  was  therefore  ordered : 

that  no  children,  youths,  majds  or  other  persons  shall 
transgresse  in  the  like  kind  on  poenaltje  of  being  reputed 
greate  provokers  of  the  high  displeasure  of  Almighty  God 
and  further  incurring  the  poenaltje  heerafter  expressed 
namely  that  the  parents  and  governors  of  all  children  about 
seven  years  old  (not  that  we  aproove  younger  children  in 
evill)  for  the  first  offence  in  that  kind  shall  be  admonished, 
for  a  second  offence  shall  pay  as  a  fine  5s.  and  for  a  third 
10s.  etc. 

This  law  is  to  be  transcribed  by  the  constable  of  each 
towne  and  posted  uppon  the  meeting  house  doore,  there  to 
remajn  the  space  of  one  month  at  least. 


68         IPSWIOH,   IN    THB   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COLONY. 

But  the  evil  was  not  abated  and  in  October,  1658,  the 
Court  again  voiced  its  abhorrence  of  these  transgressions. 

Whereas  by  too  sad  experience  it  is  observed  the  sunn  being 
set  both  every  Saturday  &  on  the  Lords  day,  young  people  & 
others  take  liberty  to  walk  &  sporte  themselves  in  the  streets 
&  fields — ^too  frequently  repayre  to  houses  of  entertanement 
&  there  sitt  drincking — it  was  ordered  that  they  be  arrested 
forthwith. 

Robert  Payne,  the  Elder  of  the  church,  William  Bartholo- 
mew, the  Town  Clerk,  and  Jeremy  Belcher  received  licenses 
to  sell  in  1652,  but  Belcher  trifled  with  the  law  and  in  1658 
he  petitioned  the  Court  of  Assistants,  humbly  craving  the 
remittance  of  the  fine  of  52£  imposed  on  him  by  the  last 
Ipswich  Court  for  selling  strong  water,  powder  &  shot. 
The  Court  considering  that  ^^the  petitioner  is  a  poore  &  an 
honest  man,  not  using  any  such  trade,"  abated  the  fine  to  5£. 

Corporal  John  Andrews  of  the  White  Horse  Inn  on  High 
Street  offended  the  proprieties  in  1658  and  many  of  the 
prominent  citizens  petitioned^  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court 
not  to  renew  his  license,  as  he  kept  open  doors  until  past  nine 
o'clock  and  encouraged  the  young  men  in  drinking  and  play- 
ing unlawful  games.  There  were  but  two  ordinaries  in 
the  town  at  this  time,  the  other  being  kept  presumably  by 
Mr.  John  Baker,  who  had  received  license  to  draw  wine  in 
1647.  Upon  '^complaint  and  information  of  divers  strang- 
ers for  want  of  needfuU  and  convenient  acomodation  and 
entertaynment  at  the  other  ordinarye  and  the  intymation 
of  the  selectmen  of  the  need  of  two"  license  was  refused  the 
Corporal  and  granted  to  Deacon  Moses  Pingree,  as  a  dis- 
creet and  trustworthy  person.  His  dwelling  was  located  on 
the  comer  of  East  and  Hovey  Streets.  John  Baker  owned 
and  occupied  the  land  on  the  west  comer  of  East  St  and 
Brook  St.  or  Spring  Street 

>  See  Facsimile  of  petition,  etc.,  in  Ipswich,  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony, 
▼ol.  I,  pp.  869,  860. 


INNS   AND   INN  KEEPEKS  69 

In  1661,  Daniel  Ringe,  whose  dwelling  was  on  the  Turk^ 
Shore  road,  was  licensed  to  keep  an  ordinary  but  "not  to 
draw  beer  above  a  penny  a  quart  and  to  provide  meate  for 
men  &  cattell."  John  Perkins,  Andrew  Peters  and  John 
Whipple  were  licensed  in  1662,  the  last  to  sell  not  less  than 
a  quart  at  a  time  and  none  to  be  drunk  in  his  house.  All 
were  bound  "not  to  sell  by  retail  to  any  but  men  of  family 
and  of  good  repute  nor  to  sell  any  after  sun  sett,  and  that 
they  shall  be  ready  to  give  account  of  what  liquors  they  sell 
by  retail,  the  quantity,  time,  and  to  whom." 

Quartermaster  John  Perkins,  finding  the  business  profit- 
able, sought  license  in  1668,  to  keep  an  ordinary.  He  re- 
ceived permission  to  open  his  house  and  draw  wine,  but  not 
to  sell  to  townsmen  to  be  drunk  in  the  house.  In  the  same 
year,  he  bought  an  eight  acre  lot^  with  "house,  bams,  stables, 
sellers,  out-houses  etc."  on  High  Street,  north  of  Mineral, 
and  his  inn  became  a  popular  resort  for  towns-folk  and 
strangers.  Evidently  the  Quartermaster  allowed  large  liber- 
ties to  his  patrons,  for  his  house  became  the  scene  of  violent 
disorder.  In  March,  1672,  there  was  a  shooting  affray. 
Mark  Quilter,  a  notorious  toper,  was  ordered  away,  the  can- 
dle was  blown  out  and  some  one  shot  him  in  the  darkness.* 

At  the  same  Court,  the  Quartermaster  was  presented  for 
suffering  gaming  in  his  house,  and  yet  again  for  a  bois- 
terous out  break  on  training  day,  after  the  militia  had  been 
dismissed.  There  were  few  holidays  to  break  the  monotony 
of  the  work-a-day  life,  and  the  periodic  training  days  opened 
the  way  very  naturally  to  many  extravagances.  Every  man 
of  military  age  was  obliged  to  be  present  and  at  the  close  of 
the  evolutions,  the  whole  company  was  dismissed  in  the  cen- 
ter of  the  village.  A  crowd  of  roysterers  betook  themselves 
to  the  Perkins  Inn  on  this  occasion  and  their  behavior  was 
so  scandalous  that  they  were  summoned  to  Court, 

*  Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  vol.  I,  p.  364. 

*  Court  RecordB,  18:  83,  88. 


70         IPSWICir^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONT. 

We  present,  Mr.  Dudley  Bradstreet,  Mr.  Nath*  Wade,  Mr. 
Tho"  Wade,  M'.  Samuel  Jacobs,  Jn®  Wainwright,  Thomas 
Bishop,  Elihu  Wardell,  Jn^  Cogswell,  M^  Nath^  Rogers,  Mr. 
Sam*  RogerS;  Mr.  Ezekiel  Rogers,  Mr.  John  Broun,  Jn**  Lee, 
Edward  Zealand,  Mark  Quilter,  for  disorder  in  Quar.  Per- 
kins house  upon  a  trayning  day  in  shooting  of  pistols  in  the 
house  after  the  colors  were  lodged  &  for  breach  of  the  peace.* 

It  was  a  strange  conglomeration,  the  son  of  Simon  and 
Ann  Brad  street,  three  sons  of  the  Reverend  Nathaniel  Rogers 
and  two  sons  of  Mr.  Jonathan  Wade,  wearing  their  proud 
title  of  "Mr.",  young  John  Wainwright  and  John  Cogswell, 
hobnobbing  with  fellows  of  the  baser  sort,  in  a  very  demo- 
cratic spree ! 

Such  disturbances  were  of  frequent  occurrence  no  doubt. 
An  ordinance  of  1663,  required  that  troopers  and  soldiers 

shall  not  either  singly  or  in  companies  remaine  in  armes 
&  vainely  expend  their  time  &  powder  by  inordinate  shoot- 
ing in  the  day  or  night  after  their  release. 

After  a  September  training  in  1681,  John  Newmarch's 
man-servant  assaulted  the  tithingmen,  John  Leighton  and 
Daniel  Hovey,  near  midnight.     They  deposed  in  Court  that 

they  heard  the  Honorable  Maj.  Gren.  Denison  when  he 
dismissed  his  band,  say  to  the  company  that  they  should 
repair  to  their  homes  and  not  show  the  world  their  folly  to 
be  a  shooting  of  their  gims  or  to  that  effect.  We  went  to 
places  where  we  supposed  rudeness  to  be  and  one  of  these 
places  was  the  home  of  John  Berrie. 

There  they  found  the  man  in  a  drunken  condition,  who 
assaulted  them,  and  finally  went  staggering  "up  the  Long 
Street  warde." 

Notwithstanding  the  frequent  brawls  at  the  Perkins  Inn, 
it  does  not  seem  to  have  lost  caste.     Even  the  supreme  auto- 

*  Court  Records,  91:  No.  18. 


INNS   AND    INN  KEEPEES  71 

crat  of  the  town,  Maj.  Gren.  Denison,  did  not  think  it  be- 
neatib  him  to  step  in  for  a  drop  of  comfort,  and  have  a 
cheerful  word  with  the  waitress,  Frances  Young  testified, 
that  one  day  when  she  was  at  her  father  Perkins's,  "she 
carried  the  Major  Greneral  a  glass  of  brandy  and  the  Major 
General  said,  "Bety  you  are  welcome  to  towne."' 

Thomas  Bishop's  house,  near  the  site  of  the  Public  Li- 
brary, was  open  to  the  public  and  Joseph  Lee  and  William 
Downing  had  an  altercation  there  one  March  day  in  1663, 
after  the  Lecture,  "shoving  one  another  in  the  comer  and 
Downing  was  struck  in  the  face  by  Lee."  Young  John 
Spark  or  Sparks,  known  to  us  first  as  an  apprentice  of  Oba- 
diah  Wood,  the  ^T>iskett  baker",  continued  at  his  trade  with 
Bishop;  when  Samuel  Bishop  succeeded  to  the  business  on 
the  death  of  his  father,  Sparks  went  across  the  street  and 
bought  of  Thomas  White,  a  house  with  two  acres  of  land, 
on  or  near  the  spot  now  occupied  by  the  residence  of  Miss 
Lucy  Slade  Lord,  in  February,  1671-2.  Li  the  deed,  he 
is  styled  "biskett-baker"  and  his  deed  of  sale  in  1691  in- 
cluded a  bake-house,  but  he  had  received  license  in  Sept. 
1671  to  sell  ^Tbeere  at  a  penny  a  quart,  provided  he  enter- 
tain no  Town  inhabitants  in  the  night,  nor  suffer  to  bring 
wine  or  liquor  to  be  drunk  in  his  house."* 

His  hostelry  was  known  far  and  near.  Here  the  Quarter 
Sessions  Court  held  its  sittings.  Major  Samuel  Appleton, 
Assistant,  issued  a  warrant  to  the  Marshal  to  secure  the  ap- 
pearance of  every  one  who  knew  anything  of  the  will  of 
Thomas  Andrews,  the  schoolmaster,  before  him  at  "Gkx)d- 
man  Sparks",  July  12,  1683.  Mr.  Andrews  died  at  the 
house  of  Samuel  Bishop  and  Bishop  was  charged  with  con- 
cealing his  will.  John  Gamage  was  summoned  "to  make 
personal  appearance  at  Court  now  setting  at  Jo.  Sparks, 
there  to  answer  to  his  presentment  for  rayling  and  scurrilous 

■Court  ReoordB,  86:  66,  March  29,  1681. 

■  Ipswich  in  the  Maas.  Bay  Colony;  vol.  1,  p.  346. 


72         IPSWIOH,   IN    THE   MASSAOHUSBTTS   BAY    OOLOHTT. 

speech,  &tc.",  Sept.  29, 1685.  The  Worshipful  Major  NaOi. 
Saltonstall  held  Court  here  in  March,  1685-6,  and  Judge 
Samuel  Sewall  entered  in  his  Diary,  on  Tuesday,  March 
IS"',  1687-8, 

I  lodge  at  Sparks,  Mr.  Stoughton  and  Capt.  Appleton 
came  to  see  me. 

An  ancient  bilF  of  Court  expenses  in  June,  1687,  reveals 
some  interesting  items. 


June  8. 


11 


£  s.  d. 

Lodgings  &  breakfast 

1-01-  9 

3  flagons  beer  1/9  marshal  etc 

3-  0 

sheriff,  beer  &  wine  9* 

•    0-  9 

Dinner  w***  wine  &  beer  to  it 

1-  2-  0 

Syder  3*  10  dinners  2' 

1-0-3 

Marshall's  dinner 

1-  0 

Lemonade  12'  1  qt.  wine  12' 

2-  0 

flagon  beer  4*  wine  12* 

1-  4 

3  lodgings 

0-  6 

2-13-  4 

4  horses,  3  ni^ts 

6- 

1  pt.  wine  to  constables 

0-  6 

2-19-10 

Under  the  Andros  government,  the  rigid  excise  laws  seem 
to  have  rendered  the  legal  sale  of  liquors  unprofitable.  The 
Court  of  Common  Pleas,  sitting  at  Ipswich,  Sept.  28,  1686, 
granted  licenses  to  John  Sparks  and  Abraham  Perkins,  who 
succeeded  the  Quartermaster,  keepers  of  ordinaries;  and 
'liberty  to  sell  drink  without  doors"  to  Mr.  Francis  Wain- 
wright,  Mr.  John  Wainwright  and  Mr,  Michael  Farlow 
(Farley). 

The  conditions  of  Recognizance  required  of  an  innkeeper 
were  minute  and  repressive. 

V  Court  Records,  47,  No.  40. 


IlfNS   AND   INN  KEEFEBS  73 

[He]  shall  not  suffer  any  unlawful  play  or  Games,  in 
said  house,  garden,  orchard  or  elsewhere,  especially  by  men 
servants  or  apprentices,  comon  laborers,  Idle  persons,  or  shall 
suffer  any  Town  Inhabitants  to  be  in  said  house  drinking  or 
tipling  on  y*  satterday  night  after  y®  sunsett  or  on  y®  Sabbath 
day,  nor  wittingly  or  willingly  admit  or  receive  ....  any 
person  notoriously  defamed  of  for  theft,  Incontinency  or 
drunkenness  ....  nor  keep  or  lodge  there  any  stranger 
person  above  y®  Space  of  one  day  and  one  night  together, 
without  notice  thereof,  first  given  to  such  Justice  or  Select- 
man as  above  said. 

Having  paid  for  their  licenses.  Sparks  and  Perkins  pro- 
ceeded to  bring  illegal  sellers  to  judgment.  They  made 
complaint  against  John  Tod  of  Rowley,  who  declared  that 
he  had  found  the  excise  so  great  under  the  new  government 
that  he  had  taken  down  his  tavern  sign  and  given  up  business. 
They  complained  as  well  of  John  Knowlton,  Jun.,  cord- 
wainer,  John  Juet,  Sen^,  Obadiah  Wood  and  Steven  Cross, 
for  selling  without  a  license. 

Capt.  Stephen  Cross  was  given  to  lawless  misconduct  from 
his  youth.  At  the  age  of  seventeen,  in  1667,  he  was  one 
of  the  wild  young  fellows  who  dug  up  the  Sagamore  and 
carried  his  skull  on  a  pole.  In  the  following  year,  he  af- 
fronted the  Court  and  reproached  the  Major  General.  In 
1669  he  disturbed  the  peace  of  Sabbath  worship  by  fighting 
with  Thomas  DeBlanchet  and  wounding  him  in  the  mouth. 
He  was  master  of  the  sloop,  "Adventure",  engaged  in  coast- 
wise trips  and  had  prospered  sufficently  by  1684  to  buy  the 
former  dwelling  of  Richard  Saltonstall,  Esq.,  on  the  South 
side.  The  home  of  the  titled  aristocrat  descended  in  his 
hands  to  most  ignoble  uses. 

Two  years  after  Cross  gained  possession,  he  was  presented 
for  selling  without  a  license.  John  Brown,  Jr.,  20  years 
old;  Edward  Dear,  two  years  older;  Benjamin  Dutch,  21, 
and  Kath.  Bust,  Jr.,  a  lad  of  nineteen,  acknowledged  that 
they  had  played  shuffle  board  at  Cross's  house  and  had 


74         IFSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

drinks  frequently.  Captain  Cross  commanded  a  company 
in  the  expedition  to  Quebec  and  his  war-like  temper  was  ag- 
gravated no  doubt  by  his  martial  experiences.  He  was  pre- 
sented again  for  drawing  and  selling  drink  in  1691  and  an 
execution  for  debt  was  served  on  him  at  the  same  time. 
John  Harris,  the  Marshal,  testified  to  an  exciting  reception 
when  he  went  to  the  Captain's  house  to  arrest  him  in  default 
of  appearance  at  Court. 

Then  Capt.  Cross  tooke  his  nacked  sword  &  he  ran  to 
y*^  said  Low,  who  was  to  assist  me  &  he  tould  him  that  he 
would  Run  him  through  if  thur  was  no  more  dayes  in  y* 
world  &  after  y*  said  Cross  had  forced  y*  s*  sd  Low  out  of 
y®  hous,  he  came  to  me — &  clapt  the  point  of  his  Rapier 
to  my  breast  &  bid  me  git  out  of  his  hous  &  touch  him  if  I 
durst  with  many  more  bad  speeches  which  I  cannot  well 
remember. 

Benjamin  Dutch  afterwards  owned  and  occupied  the  house 
and  was  licensed  to  sell  at  "The  Orringe  Tree."  Li  1724, 
when  he  had  probably  built  the  dwelling  on  North  Main  St, 
occupied  by  Mr.  William  Willcomb  for  many  years,  he  was 
authorized  to  transfer  his  license  to  his  new  house.® 

Following  the  fortunes  of  the  Sparks  Inn,  the  Court 
Record  of  March,  1693,  bears  the  entry: 

John  Sparks,  ye  Tavern  keeper  in  Ipswich,  having  laid 
down  his  license  and  y*  house  being  come,  as  is  said  into  ye 
hands  of  Mr.  John  Wainwright,  license  is  granted  for  keep- 
ing of  a  tavern  there  to  any  sober  man  whom  Mr.  Wain- 
wright may  secure. 

John  Rogers,  the  sadler,  was  licensed  to  sell  drink  and 

*  Court  Records,  Ipswich,  In  Mass.  Bay,  vol.  I,  pp.  348,  464.  The  ancient 
house,  known  as  the  Merrlfield  house,  was  torn  down  a  few  years  Rgo. 
Much  of  the  frame,  including  a  great  door  post  with  slot  for  the  wooden 
latch,  had  been  used  in  an  earlier  structure,  and  an  old  fire  back  was 
found,  upside  down,  in  one  of  the  fire  places.  Evidently  the  Saltonstall 
house,  situated  on  or  very  near  the  same  site,  had  been  torn  down  and 
ail  available  material  used  in  the  later  dwelling. 


INNS   AND   INN  KEEPEES  7i) 

keep  a  public  house  in  1696  and  Mr.  Wainwright  was  or- 
dered at  the  same  Court,  to  procure  a  suitable  tenant,  to  live 
in  the  house  "where  John  Rogers  is  now  an  innholder."  His 
inn  was  called  "The  Black  Horse/'  Thomas  Smith,  Inn- 
holder,  kept  a  public  house  nearby  in  1707,  which  came 
later  to  John  Smith,  "the  Tavemer",  and  in  1737  Nathaniel 
Treadwell  opened  his  inn,  perhaps  in  the  same  house  now 
owned  and  occupied  by  Miss  Lucy  Slade  Lord.® 

From  time  to  time,  the  ministers  voiced  their  complaint 
against  the  multiplication  of  ordinaries  and  the  excessive 
drink  habit  Rev.  John  Higginson  addressed  a  Memorial 
to  the  Court  in  1678,  declaring  that  he  was  credibly  informed 
that  there  were  then  in  Salem,  about  fourteen  ordinaries 
and  public  drinking  houses,  some  licensed,  others  unlicensed, 
and  that  four  more  were  seeking  license,  "when  it  is  well 
known  till  within  this  few  years,  2  ordinaries  were  judged 
sufficient  for  Salem.'' 

A  Memorial  was  sent  to  the  Governor,  May  30,  1694,  by 
"many  ministers  of  y*  Gospel,  then  meeting  in  Boston", 
lamenting 

the  declining,  decaying,  (if  not)  dying  state  of  Religion 
....  the  more  gross  out  breakings  of  this  sin  of  world- 
Jyness,  in  prophaneness  &  sensualitie,  more  especially  in  y* 
most  notorious  and  scandalous  way  of  drinking  &  company 
keeping  in  Taverns  &  Alehouses : 

The  Memorial  proceeds : 

"Be  pleased,  therefore,  wee  pray  you  to  take  notice:  that 
the  thing  w*^**  wee  more  particularly  designe  &  desire  to 
obtaine  by  this  our  Address,  it  is;  That  it  may  be  againe 
inacted  into  a  Law  That  all  Ordinarys  &  licensed  houses, 
may  be  reduced  &  regulated  in  thir  improvem*  to  ye  enter- 
tainm*  of  Travellers  &  strangers  only :  &  that  all  Town  dwel- 
lers be  expressly  phibited  drinking  in  them,  at  any  time, 
upon  any  occasion,  which  wee  pray  may  be  past  in  such 

*  Ipswich,  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  vol.  I,  p.  347. 


76         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MA88A0HUSBTTS    BAY    COLONY. 

strict  &  severe  forme,  respecting  both  ye  letter  &  sence  of  it, 
as  that  no  subterfuge  may  be  found,  by  any  latitude  or  am- 
biguitie  of  expression,  from  ye  prohibition  &  restriction  of 
it ;  for  it  appears  by  wofuU  experience  y*  it  is  become  impos- 
sible to  regulate  or  restraine  those  multitudes  w*^^  are  given  to 
drinking:  Otherwise  than  by  shutting  up  the  dores  of  such 
houses  ag**  them. 

Wee  are  y*  more  importune,  in  this  from  y*  consideration 
of  ye  f atall  &  lamentable  effects  of  this  way  of  sining,  con- 
sidering how  many  psons  have  bin  totally  debauch*  &  de- 
stroyd,  body  &  soule,  by  drinke,  how  many  professors  hav^ 
bin  utterly  blasted  by  it,  (not  only)  as  to  subsistence,  but 
(more  wofuUy)  as  to  family  worship,  w**  (through  drink- 
ing in  Alehouses)  is  too  often  either  totally  neglected  or 
else  horribly  phaned  in  ye  pformance  of  it- 
Wee  are  sensible  y*  y®  worldly  interest  of  y*  Trade  of 
drinks  doth  bespeake  too  much  indulgence  vnto  this  way 
of  sining  &  make  it  soe  difficult  to  provide  &  proceed  in 
good  earnest  &  effectually  by  law  agst  it,  w*^^  still  lyes  & 
wee  feare  may  remaine  as  our  insuperable  obstruction  vnto 
a  thorough  reformation  of  this  (hithervnto)  incorrigible  & 
incurable  evill,  Vnless  that  interest  bee  so  far  deserted; 
that  trade  so  far  retrenched  &  soe  r^ulated  as  y*  it  may 
noe  more  prove  soe  destructive  unto  us,  as  it  hath  done. 

Right  Honorable  &  much  Hono*^,  Let  it  not  (wee  pray 
you)  seem  Strang  unto  you  y*  wee  express  so  great  a  conceme 
in  a  matter,  w*^**  may  seem  to  others  but  of  little  concemm*. 
Town  dwellers  drinking  in  their  Town  Ordinarys,  being  soe 
common  &  customary  &  accounted  a  matter  of  lawful  liberty, 
&  thence  pleading  inocency :  it  may  be  thought  unreasonable, 
so  strictly  to  inhibit  it,  but:  Ileitis  perimus  omnes  had  wee 
not  seen  it  impossible  to  regulate  ye  vse  of  it,  or  to  prevent 
ye  destructive  abuses  of  it  before  mentioned,  wee  should 
have  been  silent. 

Another  Memorial  in  the  name  of  the  ministers  of  the 
Province,  dated  May  27,  1696,  again  begged  for  summary 
check  upon  these  evils. 

We  humbly  propose  y*  (as  to  y'  number)  houses  for 
y®  retaile  of  strong  drink  majr  be  limited  by  law  &  made 


INNS   AND   INN  KEEFEB8  77 

as  few  as  may  be,  &  y*  noe  Certificate  from  select  men  should 
be  accepted  to  make  a  man  capable  of  Licence,  except  it 
expresseth  y*  ye  man  is  a  man  of  Integrity,  honesty,  walk- 
ing (as  to  what  appeares)  with  all  Good  Conscience  towards 
God  &  all  men.     We  could  be  Glad  y*  none  might  set  & 
abide  in  such  houses  but  strangers  only,  However  we  pray 
y^  Young  Men  &  Maids,  y*  Children  &  servants,  might  be 
totally  inhibited  tipling  in  y**^  owne  towne  publiq  houses  by 
law,  ....  and  if  six  or  seaven  hundred  Children  and  ser- 
vants (and  indeed  excessive  wages  tempts  many  to  serve  in 
sudi  houses)  be  annually  bred  up  in  seeing  and  hearing  the 
ungodly  deeds  of  y*  Wicked  that  frequent  such  houses  & 
are  trayned  up  in  a  Way  that  they  will  not  forsake  when 
they  are  old!     What  an  extensive  Ruine  will  hence  spread 
itself  upon  the  rising  Generation  and  how  can  or  will  the 
means  of  Grace  profit t  them  at  all  ?     Why  should  some  small 
Towns  have  no  lesse  than  six  Taverns,  &  in  ten  miles  Riding, 
Ten  open  houses  be  allowed?    But  it  is  the  IJngainsayable 
importunity  of  some  Poor  People  &  their  Friends  &  the 
weaknesse  of  some  Select  Towns  men  that  have  poured  out 
this  vial  of  Mischief  upon  the  Land.^® 

In  March  2,  1696-97,  the  House  adopted  the  report  of 
its  Committee,  requiring  Tithingmen  to  present  to  the  Jus- 
tices, "the  names.  Surnames,  Conditions  &  qualletyes  of  all 
such  as  Continue  tipling  in  Inns  etc."  "all  such  as  keep 
houses  where  unlawful  Games  are  used  &  such  as  sell  Drinks 
without  Lycence,  etc"^^ 

In  June,  1710,  the  Court  ordered  special  search  for  vio- 
lations of  the  law,  as  excessive  drinking  &  tipling  had  much 
increased,   and  in  1715,  complaint  was  made,  that  many 

are  so  bold  as  to  sell  strong  drink  w'thout  Lycense  &  other 
who  have  Lycense  only  to  sell  as  Retailers  w***out  doors  yet 
presume  to  sell  to  be  drunk  w*4n  y'  Doors  or  Yard,  Garden, 
orchard  or  back  side  after  y*  maimer  of  Inholders  to  y* 
eluding  or  trifling  with  y*  Law  etc 

"  Acts  and  Resolyes,  vol.  Vn,  pp.  587-640. 
"  Acts  and  Resolves,  vol.  Vn,  pp.  657. 


78         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

A  Committee  of  which  Michael  Farlev  was  a  member, 
was  appointed  to  search  out  offenders.  John  Browne  was 
summoned  into  Court  in  March,  1713  and  fined  5/  for 
drunkenness,  or  to  be  set  in  the  stocks  one  hour  and  pay 
the  costs,  but  the  same  Court  opened  the  door  wide  to  his 
weakness  and  more  drunkenness,  by  granting  a  license  to 
Daniel  Appleton  as  a  retailer,  and  to  John  Walker,  to  keep 
a  public  house  of  entertainment. 

Francis  Crompton*s  hostelry  claimed  a  share  of  the  public 
patronage,  at  the  close  of  the  I7th  century.  It  was  located 
in  the  park-like  meadow,  opposite  the  Heard  mansion,  on 
South  Main  Street.  Judge  Sewall  notes,  "ate  roast  fowl 
at  Crompton's".  A  retinue  of  slaves  waited  upon  the  pa- 
trons of  the  house.  Sewall  also  mentions  lodging  at  Stani- 
ford's  house  in  1716.  Capt.  Matthew  Perkins,  who  lived 
in  the  old  Sutton  house^-  on  the  road  to  Jeffrey's  iN'eck  was 
called  "Tavemer''  in  1723.  The  Selectmen  approved  his 
application  for  license  as  an  innholder,  "at  the  sign  of  the 
blue  anchor,"  in  1719.  Benjamin  Dutch,  at  the  sign  of 
"The  White  Boy"  received  license,  in  1719.  In  July,  1722, 
the  Selectmen  recommended  to  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court 
for  license,  Nath.  Emerson,  Jr.,  "his  dwelling  being  at  the 
entrance  of  the  harbor,  where  our  fishery  is  employed". 
The  celler  of  this  house  is  still  visible  on  the  slope  of  Great 
Neck,  near  the  ancient  fishery.^' 

The  ledge  in  front  of  the  old  Seminary  building,  before 
the  widening  of  the  road  rendered  it  necessary  to  blast  much 
of  it,  afforded  room  for  buildings.  With  an  eye  to  business, 
one  John  Stacy,  being  incapable  of  labor,  presented  a  petition 
to  the  Town  in  1733,  setting  forth,  "that  there  is  a  conve- 
nience on  the  northerly  side  of  the  Rock  by  Ebenezer  Smith's 
for  setting  an  house  upon"  and  "praying  he  may  obtain  a 
grant  for  setting  a  house  for  selling  cakes  and  ale  etc.  for 

"  Jeffrey's  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto.    Pub.  of  Ips.  Historical  Society, 
No.  XVni.  pp.  8,  9. 
"  Jeffrey's  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto.     Fa^e  64. 


INNS   AND    INN  KEEPEKS  79 

his  livelihood."  His  request  was  granted  and  the  poor  man's 
last  days  were  made  comfortable  no  doubt  by  his  humble 
traflSe.  He  died  on  March  3d,  1735,  and  his  widow  sold 
the  house  and  land  to  John  Wood,  who  conveyed  at  once  to 
Samuel  Ross,  blacksmith,  April  29,  1737.  He  built  a  black- 
smith shop  which  passed  in  due  time  to  Samuel  Boss,  Jr. 
and  Joseph  Lakeman  Ross  and  the  smithy  served  its  public 
use  until  1834. 

John  Wainwright,  Esq.  and  Capt  John  Hobson  were  ap- 
pointed by  the  General  Court,  a  Committee  to  farm  out  the 
excise  in  the  County  of  Essex,  in  July,  1737.  Thomas 
Berry  and  Benj.  Lynde,  Esq.  were  joined  to  this  Committee. 
Daniel  Epes,  Esq.  of  Salem  was  appointed  Commissioner  of 
Excise  for  the  County.  He  informed  against  l^athaniel 
Smith  for  selling  strong  drink  April  10,  1738  and  he  was 
iSned  10£,  one  third  for  the  poor  of  Ipswich,  the  other  two 
thirds  to  Mr.  Epes  as  farmer  of  excise  and  informer  and 
costs  of  Courts.  Benjamin  Studley  was  fined  3£  in  1749, 
for  suffering  young  persons  and  others  to  sit  in  his  house, 
drinking  and  tippling,  and  Benjamin  Wheeler  of  Ipswich, 
trader,  paid  a  like  fine  in  1750  for  selling  rum  without  a 
license. 

Joseph  Newhall  of  Ipswich  presented  a  petition  to  the 
General  Court  in  1747, 

showing  that  he  is  now  in  possession  of  a  house  in  said 
Town,  which  has  been  improved  for  many  years  as  an  Inn 
or  Tavern,  called  the  Ship  Tavern,  Praying  that  he  may  be 
allowed  to  keep  an  Inn  or  Tavern  there, 

and  it  was  granted,  subject  to  the  approbation  of  the  Select- 
men. 

In  April,  1750,  the  Legislature  passed  an  excise  law, 
which  levied  a  tax  upon  tea,  coffee,  etc. 

For  every  pound  of  tea,  twelve  pence. 


80         IPSWIOH,    IN    THE    MAflSAOHUSBTTS    BAY    OOLOITr. 

For  every  pound  of  coffee,  two  pence. 

For  every  gallon  of  arrach,  two  shillings  and  six  pence. 

For  every  pound  of  snuff,  six  pence. 

For  all  china  ware,  five  per  ct.  ad  valorem,  at  the  retail 
price. 

In  June,  1751,  a  tax  was  laid  upon  all  brandy,  rum  and 
other  spirits  distilled,  upon  all  wines  sold  at  retail   and 
upon  lemons,  limes  and  oranges  used  in  making  pimch  or 
other  liquors  mixed  for  sale  ....  to  be  paid  by  every  tav- 
erner,  innholder,  common  victualler  and  retailer.     The  rate 
was  four  pence  for  every  gallon  of  brandy,  rum  and  spirits, 
distilled,  six  pence  for  every  gallon  of  wine,  four  shillings 
for  every  himdred  of  lemons  or  oranges,  a  shilling  and  six 
pence  for  every  hundred  of  limes.     In  June,  1754,  the  rate 
on  tea  was  reduced  to  four  pence  and  on  coffee  to  a  penny. 
Licenses  to  deal  in  these  conma.odities  were  also  required. 
Under  this  excise  law,  Samuel  Swasey  of  Ipswich,  ship- 
wright, was  fined  40  shillings  in  March,  1752,  for  selling 
tea,  etc.  without  a  license,  and  in  July  of  the  same  year, 
William  Dodge,  shop  keeper,  was  found  guilty  by  a  jury 
of  the  same  offence  and  was  fined  5£. 

When  the  French  and  Indian  War  began,  the  Legislature 
deemed  it  necessary  to  provide  two  armed  vessels  for  the 
defence  of  the  fishery  and  the  trade  of  the  Province,  at  an 
expense  of  seven  thousand  pounds.  This  was  provided  by 
a  tax  of  six  pence  per  ton  on  all  ships  and  other  vessels,  ex- 
cept coasting,  whaling  and  fishing  vessels,  entering  any  port, 
six  pence  a  pound  on  tea,  two  pence  on  coffee  and  five  per 
ct.  on  East  India  ware.  (Oct  19,  1756)  By  the  limitation 
of  the  Act,  this  excise  was  imposed  only  during  the  continu- 
ance of  the  war  and  in  1763,  the  Legislature  passed  a  law, 
removing  the  tax  on  shipping  in  that  year  but  retaining  the 
other  taxes  until  November  1st,  1765. 

In  an  ancient  account  book,  now  in  the  possession  of  the 
Historical  Society,  Dummer  Jewett,  an  Ipswich  shopkeeper 


INNS    AND    INN    KEFIPEKS  81 

of  this  period,  kept  a  list  of  his  purchases  of  rum,  coflFee  and 
tea  for  several  years,  as  the  excise  law  required  him  to  do. 

From  May  26  to  Xov.  20"*,  1761,  451  gals,  2  qts. 

From  Feb.  11,  1762  to  Feb.  1763,  768  gals. 

From  IMarch  1763  to  Mar.  1764,  1401  gals. 

In  April,  1763,  he  sold  to  Joseph  Appleton,  Esq.,  331/4 
gals. ;  Jabez  Treadwell,  33^^  gals. ;  Joseph  Wells,  for  ship- 
ment, 31  gals. ;  Capt.  Thomas  Staniford,  for  shipment,  225 
gals. 

In  1764,  he  sold  to  Elizabeth  Day,  68^/2  gal. ;  shipped  by 
Joseph  Hunt,  34VL»  gal. ;  shipped  to  Virginia,  130  gal.  The 
bulk  of  this  great  quantity  of  ?fewbury  and  West  India  rum 
was  sold  in  the  ordinary  course  of  trade. 

His  purchases  of  coffee  in  1762  totalled  286  pounds  and 
in  1763,  292  pounds.  He  bought  58  pounds  of  tea  in  1761, 
114  in  1762. 

Jabez  Treadwell,  a  cooper  by  trade,  bought  the  house  of 
Edmund  Heard, ^*  in  November,  1761.  Mr.  Heard  had  re- 
ceived a  license  to  retail,  which  was  transferred  to  the  new 
owner. 

John  Adams  came  frequently  to  Ipswich  in  the  practice 
of  his  profession  as  a  lawyer  and  always  stopped  at  Tread- 
well's  Inn.^*^  His  allusions^®  to  the  landlord  and  other  guests 
lend  a  piquant  interest  to  the  old  landmark. 

June  19,  [1779].  Tuesday  morning.  Rambled .  with 
Kent  roimd  Landlord  Treadwell's  pastures  to  see  how  our 
horses  fared.  We  found  them  in  the  grass  up  to  their 
eyes. ; — excellent  pastures.  This  hill,  on  which  stands  the 
meeting  house  and  couit-house,  is  a  fine  elevation,  and  we 
have  here  a  fine  air  and  the  pleasant  prospect  of  the  winding 
river  at  the  foot  of  the  hill. 

He  "drank  balm  tea  at  Treadwell's"  on  June  21)^**  as  he 

"  The  old  dwelling  west  of  the  h:irdware  store  of  Mr.  John  W.  Goodhue. 

"  See  page  T6 

"The  Life  and  Works  of  John  Adams,  (Diary)  II:  236,  240,  281,  337. 


82         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSA.OHUSE.TTS    BAY    COLONY. 

journeyed  to  Falmouth,  now  Portland.     Again  on  June  22, 
1771,  he  was  at  Court  and  spent  a  week. 

22.     Saturday.     Spent  this  week  at  Ipswich,  in  the  usual 
labors  and  drudgery  of  attendance  upon  court     Boarded 
at  Treadwell's;  have  had  no  time  to  write.     Landlord  and 
landlady  are  some  of  the  grandest  people  alive;  landlady  is 
the  great  granddaughter  of  Governor  Endicott,^*^  and  has  all 
the  great  notions  of  high  family  that  you  find  in  Winslows, 
Hutchinsons,    Quincys,    Saltonstalls,    Chandlers,    Leonards, 
Otises  and  as  you  might  find  with  more  propriety  in  the 
Winthrops.     Yet  she  is  cautious  and  modest  about  discov- 
ering it.     She  is  a  new  light  ;^®  continually  canting  and 
whining  in  a  religious  strain.     The  Governor  was  uncom- 
monly strict  and  devout,  eminently  so  in  his  day;  and  his 
great,  great  granddaughter  hopes  to  keep  up  the  honor  of 
the  family  in  hers,  and  distinguish  herself  among  her  con- 
temporaries as  much. 

"Terrible  Things  sin  causes",  sighs  and  groans,  "the  pangs 
of  the  new  birth.  The  death  of  Christ  shows  above  all 
things  the  heinous  nature  of  sin !  How  awfully  Mr.  Kent 
talks  about  death!  how  lightly  and  carelessly!  I  am  sure 
a  man  of  his  years,  who  can  talk  so  about  death,  must  be 
brought  to  feel  the  pangs  of  the  new  birth  here,  or  made  to 
repent  of  it  forever.  PEow  dreadful  it  seems  to  me  to  hear 
him,  I  that  am  so  afraid  of  death,  and  so  concerned  lest  I 
an't  fit  and  prepared  for  it !  What  a  dreadful  thing  it  was 
that  Mr.  Gridley  died  so! — ^too  great,  too  big,  too  proud  to 
learn  anything:  would  not  let  any  minister  pray  with  him; 
said  he  knew  more  than  they  could  tell  him ;  asked  the  news, 
and  said  he  was  going  where  he  should  hear  no  news"  etc. 

Thus  for  landlady.  As  to  landlord,  he  is  as  happy,  and 
as  big,  as  proud,  as  conceited  as  any  nobleman  in  England ; 
always  calm  and  good  natured  and  lazy ;  but  the  contempla- 
tion of  his  farm^®  and  his  sons  and  his  house  and  pastures 
and  cows,  his  sound  judgment,  as  he  thinks,  and  his  great 
holiness,  as  well  as  that  of  his  wife,  keep  him  as  erect  in  his 

"  Nathaniel  Treadwell  married  1st,  Mercy  Smith,  Int  May  29,  1725,  who 
'^SLa  the  mother  of  all  his  children;  2nd,  Hannah  Endlcott,  int.  July  28.  1750. 
"  The  "New  Ughts"  wore  the  disciples  of  Whitefleld  and  Tennent. 
"•  Jeffrey's  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto,  pages  45-47. 


INNS    AND    INN    KEEPEB8  83 

thoughts  as  a  noble  or  a  prince.  Indeed,  the  more  I  con- 
sider of  mankind,  the  more  I  see  that  every  man  seriously 
and  in  his  conscience  believes  himself  the  wisest,  brightest, 
best,  happiest,  etc  of  all  mankind. 

I  went  this  evening,  spent  an  hour  and  took  a  pipe  with 
Judge  Trowbridge  at  his  lodgings. ^^ 

Mr.  Adams  left  Boston  again  on  March  28***,  1774,  and 
"rode  with  brother  Josiah  Quincy  to  Ipswich  Court'V*  ar- 
riving on  Tuesday, 

....  put  up  at  the  old  j)lace,  Treadwell's.  The  old 
lady  has  got  a  new  copy  of  her  great  grandfather.  Governor 
Endicott's  picture^^  hung  up  in  the  house.  The  old  gen- 
tleman is  afraid  they  will  repeal  the  excise  upon  tea,  and 
then  that  we  shall  have  it  plenty ;  wishes  ihey  would  double 
the  duty,  and  then  we  should  never  have  any  more, 

Capt.  Nathaniel  Treadwell  bequeathed  his  "tavern  house" 
to  his  son  Jacob,  who  continued  the  business.  He  enter- 
tained a  distinguished  company  of  French  travellers,  the 
Marquis  de  Chastellux  and  his  friends  in  the  year  1782. 
The  Marquis  was  a  member  of  the  French  Academy,  and 
served  as  Major  General  in  the  allied  army  under  Count 
de  Rochambeau.  Accompanied  by  the  Baron  de  Talleyrand, 
Montesquieu  and  Vaudreuil,  his  brother  officers,  he  made  an 
extensive  tour  on  horseback.  On  Nov.  13*"*,  1782,  having 
been  entertained  in  sumptuous  fashion  by  Mr.  John  Tracy, 
a  prosperous  merchant  of  Newburyport,  the  Marquis  resumed 
his  journey.     He  noted  the  events  of  the  day  in  his  diarv. 

At  the  end  of  12  miles  is  Ipswich,  where  we  stopped 
to  bait  our  horses,  and  were  surprized  to  find  a  town  be- 
tween Newbury  and  Salem,  at  least  as  populous  as  theses 

»  Diary,  p.  281. 

"  Dtary*  P-  837. 

*B  The  portrait  of  Gov.  Endicott  is  now  in  the  hall  of  the  Bssex  Institute, 
Salem,  the  gift  of  John  White  Treadwell,  son  of  Jacob  and  grandson  of 
Capt.  Nathaniel.- 


84         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

two  sea-ports,  though  indeed,  much  less  opulent.  But 
mounting  an  eminence  near  the  tavern,  I  saw  that  Ipswich 
was  also  a  sea-port.     I  was  told  however  that  the  entrance 

was  difficult Ipswich  at  present  has  but  little  trado 

and  its  fishery  is  also  in  the  decline  .   .   .   .^' 

Xathaniel  Treadwell,  3'\  "innkeeper''  bought  a  house  and 
land  from  John  Hodgkins,  Jr.  in  1806.  He  kept  his  tav- 
ern here  until  1818,  when  he  sold  to  Moses  Treadwell,  who 
continued  the  business.  His  most  distinguished  guests  were 
General  LaFavette  and  his  suite,  who  were  entertained 
several  hours  on  Aug.  31,  1824,  and  left  at  ten  o'clock  at 
night  for  Xewburvport.^'*  The  tavern  was  owned  later  by 
Frederic  Mitchell,  William  G.  BroAvn  and  others,  and  in  its 
enlarged  and  remodelled  form  serves  the  public  still  as  the 
Agawam  House. 

On  the  corner  now  occupied  by  the  dwelling  of  Dr.  Wil- 
liam E.  Tucker,  Increase  How  kept  an  inn  for  many  years 
in  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century.  His  widow,  Su- 
sanna, married  Capt.  John  Smith  in  1762  and  kept  an  inn 
in  the  Andrew  Burlev  house  on  Green  St.^^  The  How 
tavern  fell  to  his  daughter,  Susanna,  who  married  as  her 
third  husband,  Capt.  Ttichard  Homans  of  Marblehead  in 
1776.  Gen,  Washington  lunched  here  in  17S0.2«  Major 
Joseph  Swasey  succeeded  as  innkeeper  in  1702,  and  Samuel 
Smith  was  host  in  later  years.  Abner  Day  bought  the  house 
now  owned  by  Mr.  George  H.  Green,  of  the  heirs  of  John 
Patch  in  1814,^"  and  kept  an  inn,  which  was  known  later 
as   the  Franklin   House,   under  the  management  of  Capt. 

Samuel  Dav. 

t' 

Thomas  Staniford  kept  a  public  house  and  as  he  was  a 
Selectman,  it  was  a  very  natural  thing  that  the  honorable 

»  Travels  In  North  America,  1780.  1781,  1782,  p.  213. 
2*  FeU,  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  207. 

"  Jeffrey's  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto,   pages  42.43. 
-"  Ipswich,  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  vol.  I,  page  476. 
^  Ipswich,  in  the  Maf?s.  Bay  Colony,  vol.  I,  page  478. 


INNS    AND    INN    KEKPKRS  85 

Board  of  Selectmen,  which  inchuled  Aficliael  Farley,  Elisha 

Brown,  Jonathan  Cogswell  of  the  Chebacco  Parish  and  John 

Hubbard  of  the  Hamlet,  should  hold  their  meetings  with  their 

associate.     An  old  bill  reveals  the  mingling  of  business  and 

pleasure  by  the  fathers  of  the  Town. 

Selectmen  to  Thos.  Staniford  Dr. 

lilarch  11,  1771,  to  flip 

March  11,  1771,  to  2  dinners,  7s,  6d,  flip  4s  6d 

April  1,  1771,  to  punch 

June  6,  1771,  to  punch 

July  1,  1771,  to  tody 

July  9,  1771,  to  punch 

Sept.  10,  1771,  to  4  dinners  at  Ss,  2  bowls  punch  at 

9s 
Sept.  14,  1771,  to  punch 
Sept.  24,  1771,  to  pimch 
Sept,  31,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  punch,  tody  and 

flip 
Oct.  14,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  flip  Os 
Oct.  16,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  flip  9s 
Oct.  18,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  Ss,  flip  9s 
Oct.  22,  1771,  to  punch  9s,  tody  10s,  flip  7s  Od 
Dec.  11,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  flip  25s 
l>ec.  12,  1771,  to  2  dinners  at  10s,  flip  10s 
Dec  13,  1771,  to  4  dinners  at  10s,  flip  153 
Dec.  14,  1771,  to  flip 

Dec.  25,  1771,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  flip  25s 
Jan.  13,  1772,  to  5  dinners  at  10s,  flip  27s  Gd 
Eeb.  6,  1772,  to  flip 
Feb.  18, 1772,  to  flip  20s,  tody  2s  fid 


Feb.  24,  1772,  to  flip  10s,  tody  10s 


£  s 

d 

4 

6 

19 

6 

9 

0 

9 

0 

T) 

0 

9 

0 

2 

10 

0 

9 

0 

9 

0 

3 

8 

0 

2 

19 

0 

2 

19 

0 

2 

9 

0 

1 

G 

6 

3 

15 

0 

1 

10 

0 

2 

15 

0 

5 

0 

3 

15 

0 

3 

17 

6 

5 

.0 

1 

2 

({ 

36 

11 

0 

1 

0 

0 

37 

11 

0 

86         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

The  house  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Warren  Boyn- 
ton  was  bought  by  Jeremiah  Koss  in  1809  and  used  by  him 
as  a  tavern.  The  name  "Ross's  Tavern''  is  still  remem- 
bered. The  Court  Records  contain  the  recommendation  of 
Capt.  Tristram  Bro^vn  and  the  ponderous  oath  which  he  took 
before  entering  upon  his  responsible  office. 

We,  the  Subscribers,  Selectmen  of  the  Town  of  Ipswich, 
do  approve  of  Capt.  Tristram  Brown  as  a  retailer  of  Spirit- 
uous Liquors  in  said  Town,  for  the  year  ensueing  and  we 
do  hereby  recommend  the  said  Tristram  as  a  person  of  sober 
life  and  conversation,  suitably  qualified  and  provided  for 
the  exercise  of  such  an  imployment  and  firmly  attached  to 
the  Constitution  and  Laws  of  the  Commonwealth,  and  we 
further  certify  that  the  circumstances  requiring  the  licens- 
ing of  the  said  Tristram  have  arisen  since  the  usual  time  for 
granting  licenses  held  by  the  Court  of  Sessions,  and  that 
the  public  good  requires  that  the  said  Tristram  should  be 
licensed. 


John  Choate 
Jabez  Farlev 
Eben'  Lord,  Jr. 


Selectmen 
Ipswich. 


I,  Tristram  Brown,  do  swear  that  I  will  bear  true  faith 
and  allegiance  to  the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  and 
that  I  will  to  the  utmost  of  my  power  defend  the  Consti- 
tution and  Government  thereof,  against  traitorous  conspira- 
cies and  all  hostile  and  violent  attempts  whatsoever. 

Tristram  Brown 

Sworn  April  6,  1821. 

Similar  licenses  were  recommended  for  John  B.  Lord  and 
Ebenezer  Caldwell,  Jr. 

These  Ipswich  inns  flourished  for  many  years.  From  its 
central  location  in  the  County,  Ipswich  was  made  a  shire 
town.  The  Supreme  and  Superior  Courts,  as  well  as  the 
Probate  Court,  held  their  sessions  here  and  there  was  a 
great  number  of  judges,  lawyers  and  their  clients  and  jury 
men  to  be  fed  and  lodged  and  many  horses  and  carriages  re- 


INNS   AND   INN    KEEFESS  87 

quired  attention.     Political  conventions  of  both  parties  met 
here-     Many  came  to  record  wills  and  deeds.     Being  on  the 
high  road  between  Boston  and  the  East,  a  constant  stream 
of   travel  passed  through  the  town,   and  many   travellers 
stopped  for  a  meal  or  for  a  night's  rest     It  was  no  small 
affair  to  minister  to  the  needs  of  Sir  William  Phipps  dash- 
ing along  the  road  from  Kittery  to  Boston  in  his  gorgeous 
chariot,  with  its  four  horses,  liveried  driver  and  footmen, 
when  he  stopped  for  lunch,  or  for  one  of  the  Royal  Governors 
travelling  in  equal  state.     Gov.  Samuel  Shute,  "attended  by 
some  of  the  Chief  Gentlemen,  both  of  New  Hampshire  and 
this  Province,  set  out  from  thence  [Porstmouth]  for  Bos- 
ton &  Lodged  that  Night  at  Col.  John  Appleton's  of  Ipswich, 
where  he  was  very  handsomely  Entertain'd  that  Night  & 
next    Morning,    as    his    Excellency   had   been    at    Dinner 
in   going  to  New  Hampshire  on  the  Tuesday  before."** 
Gov.  Belcher  dined  at  Col.  Appleton's  in  March,  and  again 
in  December  1733.*®     Humbler  lodgings  at  the  public  inns 
no  doubt  were  provided  for  the  coachmen  and  servants  of 
these  high  dignitaries. 

Though  the  Eastern  and  Piscataqua  Post  was  established 
prior  to  1704,  a  post  rider  on  horseback  probably  sufficed 
to  carry  the  mail.  The  first  public  stage  seems  to  have  ap- 
peared in  April,  1761,  when  Mr.  Bartholomew  Stavers  ad- 
vertised his  venture : 

For  the  Encouragement  of  Trade  from  Portsmouth  to 
Boston 

A  LAKGE  STAGE  CHAIR 

with  two  good  horses  well  equipped  will  be  ready  by  Monday, 
the  20***  instant,  to  start  out  from  Mr.  Stavers,  innholder, 
at  the  Sign  of  the  Earl  of  Halifax,  in  this  town  (Ports- 
mouth) to  perform  once  a  week,  to  lodge  at  Ipswich  the 
same  night,  from  thence  through  Medford  to  Charlestown 

"  Boston  News  Letter,  Oct.  15-22,  1716. 
•  Pepperell  Papers. 


88         IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

ferry,  to  tarr^'  at  Cliarlestown  till  Thursday  morning,  so  as 
to  return  to  this  town  the  next  day,  to  set  out  again  on  the 
Monday  following.  It  will  be  contrived  to  carry  four  per- 
sons besides  the  driver. 

In  November,  1762,  annoimcement  was  made  that  the 
"Stage  Chaise  will  run,  except  in  bad  weather,  through  the 
winter."  The  fare  from  Portsmouth  to  Boston  was  $3. 
Travellers  evidently  appreciated  the  convenience  and  in  May, 
1763,  Bartholomew  Stavers  announced 

The  Portsmouth  Flying  Stage  Coach  is  now  finished, 
which  will  carry  six  persons  inside;  runs  with  four  or  six 
horses  ....  goes  through  Newbury  to  Boston  and  will  put 
up  at  good  inns  on  the  road  where  good  entertainment  and 
attendance  are  provided  for  the  passengers  in  the  coach. 

A  few  years  later,  the  stage  had  passed  into  different 
hands  or  a  competitor  made  his  appearance.  The  Essex 
Gazette  of  Dec.  4th,  1770,  has  this  advertisement: 

Benjamin  Hart  hereby  acquaints  the  Public  that  he  has 
left  riding  the  single  Horse  Post  between  Boston  and  Ports- 
mouth and  now  conveys  Passengers  from  Boston  to  any  Town 
between  it  and  Portsmouth  ....  in  the  same  Post  Stage, 
Curricle  or  Coach,  lately  improved  by  Mr.  John  Xoble. 

He  announced  that  fresh  horses  would  be  kept  at  Ipswich 
and  that  the  stage  would  reach  Newbury  the  same  night. 
Mr.  J.  S.  Hart  started  from  Portsmouth,  each  coach  making 
a  round  trip  every  week.  John  Greenleaf  announced  in 
1776,^^  that  he  had  provided  himself  with  a  genteel  coach, 
to  be  used  as  a  stage-coach  between  Portsmouth  and  Boston. 
Daniel  Prince,  Postrider  to  Portsmouth,  informed  the  pub- 
lic in  1784  that  he  left  Salem  at  7  o'clock  every  Tuesday 
morning  and  reached  Portsmouth  the  same  day.  "He  car- 
ries bundles  and  transacts  business  with  care  &  punctuality 

*'  Boston  Gazette,  Dec.  30,  1776. 


INNS    AND    INN    KEEPERS  89 

and  at  reasonable  rate."'^  ^Ir.  Akerman  succeeded  Mr. 
Prince  as  Postrider  and  he  announced  on  Sept.  21st,  1784, 
that  by  order  of  the  Postmaster  General,  he  would  leave 
Boston  every  Tuesday  and  Portsmouth  on  Friday,  and  that 
a  mail  would  leave  Boston  every  Friday  on  the  Portsmouth 
stage,®-  Two  Postriders  made  their  weekly  trips  in  Octo- 
ber.38 

Frequent  allusion  is  made  in  letters  and  diaries  of  the 
period  to  the  extreme  discomfort  of  travellers  in  Winter, 
over  the  rough  roads,  chilled  to  the  bone  by  the  piercing 
winds,  alighting  at  intervals  for  a  hasty  lunch  and  being 
roused  before  daylight  at  the  wayside  inn  to  resume  the 
journey.  Mid-summer  brought  experiences  equally  trying. 
On  Monday,  July  2,  1798,  there  was  such  excessive  heat,  that 

the  four  coach  horses  belonging  to  Mr.  Greenleaf's  stage 
coach,  which  started  from  Boston  for  Ipswich  with  the  mail 
and  passangers  were  so  excessively  hurt  by  the  heat  of  the 
day  that  their  lives  or  limbs  are  actually  dispared  of,  and 
the  four  which  started  from  Ipswich  for  Portsmouth,  really 
died  soon  after  their  arrival  in  tov^Ti.'* 

But  the  constantly  increasing  population  and  the  growth 
of  business  compelled  travel  and  its  volume  increased  by 
leaps  and  bounds,  until  in  a  single  day  in  1838,  seventeen 
stage  coaches  and  four  post  chaises  passed  through  the  Town. 
With  the  building  of  the  railroad  in  1839,  this  all  ceased. 
The  Courts  were  removed  and  the  Registries  of  Probate  and 
of  Deeds.  The  highways  were  silent,  travellers  were  few, 
and  many  a  wayside  inn  closed  its  door. 

**  Salem  Gazette,  June  29.  1784. 
»  Salem  Gazette,  Sept.  21,  1784. 
»  Salem  Gazette,  Oct  19,  1784. 
••  Sale;-n  Gazette,  Aug.  3.  1798. 


CHAPTER  V. 
Laws,  Couets  and  Judges. 

By  Royal  edict,  after  the  accession  of  William  and  Mary 
to  the  English  throne,  Superior  and  Inferior  Courts  of  Judi- 
cature were  established  and  Courts  of  General  Sessions. 
Each  of  these  held  a  regular  session  in  Ipswich  and  the 
quiet  life  of  the  ancient  Town  was  greatly  stirred  by  the 
coming  of  the  Court,  the  assembling  of  jurors,  and  trial  of 
oases  of  every  sort,  civil  and  criminal. 

The  Superior  Court,  composed  of  a  Chief  and  four 
Associate  Justices,  was  the  tribunal  of  final  appeal.  For 
many  years,  Samuel  Sewall  was  one  of  the  Judges  at  the 
Ipswich  term  and  his  Diary  affords  most  entertaining 
glimpses  of  cases  tried  before  him  and  a  variety  of  inter- 
esting social  episodes. 

He  lodged  at  Sparks's  on  March  13,  1687-8  and  on  May 
21,  1695,  at  the  widow  Appleton's.^ 

May  24,  Friday.  Walk  to  Argilla  and  visit  Madam 
Symonds,^  who  sits  up  in  her  chair  but  is  weakly. 

May  25 :  In  our  way  home  divert  to  Col.  Apleton's*  who 
keeps  house  by  reason  of  a  Sore  Leg.  The  day  is  very  hot, 
which  makes  us  almost  faint  by  that  time  we  reach  Lewis's. 

He  was  at  Ipswich  again  on  Nov.  4,  1699  and  makes  his 
entry. 

*  Perhaps  Mrs.  Mary,  widow  of  Samuel  Appleton  3d,  son  of  Capt  John, 
who  died  Aug.  16,  1693. 

'Mrs.  Rebecca,  3d  wife  and  widow  of  Dep.  Gov.  Samuel  Symonds,  died 
July  21,  1695. 

"  Col.  Samuel  Appleton  at  the  Appleton  farm.    He  died  May  15,  1696. 

(90) 


LAWS^  COURTS  AND  JUDGES.  91 

Capt.Apleton*  of  Ipswich  dies.  He  was  an  Israelite  in- 
deed, a  great  Ornament  of  that  Church  and  Town, 

He  invited  the  ministers  to  dine  with  him  at  Mr.  Rogers's*^ 
on  one  occasion,  and  the  venerable  William  Hubbard,  Mr. 
Crerrish  of  Wenham,  Mr.  Payson  of  Rowley,  Mr.  Capen  of 
Topsfield  and  Mr.  Green  were  his  guests.  Governor  Joseph 
Dudley  came  to  Ipswich  May  15,  1711  on  his  return  from 
Piscataqua. 

In  the  evening  the  Court  waits  on  his  Excellency  at 
Madam  Wainwright's.  Went  with  Mr.  Rogers  to  our  Lodg- 
ing about  Nine. 

Returning  from  his  mother's  funeral  in  Newbury,  in  mid- 
winter, 1700-1,  where  he  spoke  a  tender  and  beautiful  eulogy 
at  her  grave — "I  could  hardly  speak  for  passion  and  tears," 
he  says — ^he  hurried  to  Ipswich  and  heard  Mr.  Rogers  preach 
the  lecture,  which  was  the  last  sermon  preached  in  the  old 
meeting  house.  "Mr.  Rogers  prai'd  for  the  prisoner  of 
death,  the  Newbury  woman,  who  was  there  in  her  chains." 

On  July  15,  1701,  he  notes: 

To  Ipswich:  Try  Esther  Rogers.  Jury  next  morning 
ask'  advice,  then  after  brought  her  in  Guilty  of  murdering 
her  Bastard  daughter.  July  17,  Mr.  Cooke  pronounced  the 
sentence.  She  hardly  said  a  word.  I  told  her  God  had 
put  two  children  to  her  to  nurse.  Her  mother  did  not 
serve  her  so.  Esther  was  a  great  Saviour:  she,  a  great  de- 
strover.     Said  did  not  do  this  to  insult  over  her  but  to  make 

■ 

her  sensible.® 

Sarah  Pilsbury  charged  with  murdering  her  young  child, 
was  tried  and  acquitted  in  May,  1706,  and  a  third  woman, 
Elizabeth  Atwood,  for  a  capital  offence  was  condemned  in 

•  Capt.  John  Appleton,  brother  of  Col.  Samuel. 

'  Rev.  John  "Rogers,  son  of  President  John  Rogers. 

•  The  Court  ordered  the  Sheriff  to  erect  a  gibbet  at  a  place  called  Pin- 
gry's  Plain,  still  known  as  the  "Gallows  L.ot." 


92  IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSAC HrSETT.S    BAY    COLONY. 

1720  and  executed.  Governor  Shiite  himself  brought  two 
suits  which  were  argued  before  the  Court  in  1718  and  both 
were  decided  against  him. 

The  lower  Courts  passed  judgment  upon  all  crimes  and 
misdemeanors  of  a  less  serious  nature,  apportioned  the  Prov- 
ince tax,  issued  licenses  for  the  sale  of  strong  drink,  and 
settled  a  multitude  of  civil  cases.  Their  records  reveal 
many  secrets  of  the  Past  that  were  best  forgotten,  but  many 
Iiav^e  curious  and  abiding  interest  as  illustrations  of  the 
common  life  of  the  times. 

The  Court  itself  was  of  imposing  size.  The  Court  of 
General  Sessions  at  Ipswich  in  March,  1699,  was  held  by 
Justices  William  Brown,  John  Hathorne,  Jonathan  Corwin, 
Daniel  Pierce,  Dudley  Bradstreet,  John  Higginson  and  John 
Appleton.  Judge  Appleton  was  of  Ipswich,  and  also  John 
Wainwright  who  did  not  sit  at  this  session.  In  March, 
1718-19,  sixteen  of  the  Kings  Justices  were  present  includ- 
ing John  Appleton,  Daniel  Epes,  Symonds  Epes,  John  Whip- 
ple, Daniel  Rogers  and  John  Wainwright,  all  of  Ipswich. 

To  meet  the  needs  of  Courts  of  such  dignity,  a  Town-House, 
as  it  was  called,  was  erected  by  the  Town  with  the  help  of 
the  County,  in  1704.  The  vote  adopted  by  the  Towm  speci- 
fied a  building  about  32  feet  long,  28  feet  wide  and  18  or 
19  feet  stud  "with  a  flat  roof  raised  about  5  foot"  It  was 
located  on  the  grass  plot  in  front  of  the  ilethodist  meeting 
house,  close  to  a  huge  ledge  that  reached  nearly  to  its  eaves, 
which  was  blasted  awav  manv  vears  asro.  A  school  room 
was  provided  in  the  lower  story  and  the  Court  room  occupied 
the  upper  floor.  The  King's  arms  were  set  up  forthwith 
and  the  Court  convened  with  becoming  dignity.  In  Dec. 
1718,  Major  John  Denison,  the  sheriff,  presented  his  account 
of  £9  paid  for  painting  the  King's  arms  for  the  Court  House, 
which  was  regarded  as  an  exorbitant  charge  by  Abraham 
Francis,  the  workman  who  did  it,  and  the  Sheriff  was  in- 
structed not  to  pay  so  much  unless  he  was  forced.     A  steeple 


LAWS^  COURTS  .\ND  JUDGES.  ^^'^ 

was  added  after  a  few  years  and  changes  in  the  interior 
were  planned  in  ilarch,  1722.  Col.  John  Appleton,  Major 
John  Whipple  and  John  Wainwright,  Esq.  were  appointed  to 

view  and  consider  whether  y''  Court  Chamber  at  Ipswich 
may  be  enlarged  and  made  more  convenient  by  removing  y^ 
Judges  seats  or  Benches  as  also  by  nmning  y^  stairs  into  y* 
steeple  part  &  taking  down  y^  Chamber  Chimney  &  if  they 
find  it  can  be  done  conveniently  y*  they  get  it  done  as  soon 
and  as  cheap  as  they  can. 

The  account,  amoimting  to  £43-3-4  was  allowed  in  August, 
1722,  bv  the  thriftv  Justices  of  the  Court. 

Crimes  of  violence  were  dealt  with  severely.  In  1697, 
Joseph  Metcalf,  indicted  by  the  Grand  jury,  for  "attempting 
to  poison  his  wife,  Rebecca,  by  putting  rat's  bane  into  her 
broth  and  rum  and  urging  her  to  drink  &  eat  of  the  same," 
was  sentenced  "to  be  severely  whip*  on  his  naked  back 
this  day  after  lecture,  3D  lashes  and  give  bonds  for  £100 
for  gowl  behaviour."  Three  midnight  revellers,  Robert 
Cross,  John  White  and  James  Holmes,  for  assaulting  and 
breaking  open  in  a  riotous  manner,  the  house  of  Thomas 
Knowlton,  Jr.  were  sentenced  to  pay  a  fine  of  £10  each  or 
be  whipped  20  stripes  on  the  naked  back. 

Where  as  great  disorders.  Inconveniences  &  mischiefs  have 
been  occasioned  by  reason  of  some  persons  not  attending  y* 
rules  &  directions  of  y®  Laws  of  this  Province  for  y*  orderly 
consummation  of  marriages, 

the  Court  declared  its  purpose  in  1700  to  prosecute  at 
once  "all  such  as  have  or  shall  presume  to  marry  persons 
contrary  to  said  Act."  Whereupon  John  Appleton,  the 
County  Treasurer,  made  complaint  against  the  Rev.  John 
Emerson,  minister  of  Gloucester,  for  marrying  Beamsley 
Perkins  and  Hannah  Glasier,  both  of  I])8wich,  in  the  year 
1697,  contrary  to  the  law  regarding  publishment.     He  was 


94         IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

sentenced  by  the  Salem  Court  to  pay  a  fine  of  £50  and  be 
"forever  hereafter  disabled  to  joyn  persons  in  marriage." 
He  appealed  to  the  Superior  Court,  but  died  before  the  case 
was  settled.     More  mortifying  still  to  the  sensibilities    of 
the  Ipswich  folk,  was  the  complaint  which  Mr.  Appleton 
brought  against  the  venerable  Pastor  of  the  Ipswich  church, 
Rev.  William  Hubbard,  the  historian  of  his  time,  in   the 
Ipswich  Court,  for  marrying  Thomas  Larcum  and  Abigail 
Woodberry,  both  of  Beverly,  in  February,  1699-1700,  with- 
out proper  publishment,  but  he  was  sentenced  to  pay  the 
same  penalty.     The  Court  sentenced  Humphrey  Clark,  an 
Ipswich  soldier,  who  had  deserted  from  Capt.  Heath's  com- 
pany, the  garrison  at  York,  in  May,  1704,  "to  sit  upon 
the  gallows  in  Ipswich  with  a  rope  about  his  neck,  the  other 
end  thrown  over  the  gallows  for  the  space  of  one  hour  on 
the  8*^  of  June  next,  at  4  o'clock,  also  to  suffer  three  months 
imprisonment  and  pay  the  costs  of  prosecution." 

The  Sabbath  day  was  guarded  watchfully.  Joseph  Bishop 
of  Beverly  was  fined  5  shillings  and  costs  in  1698  for  speak- 
ing profane  words  on  the  Sacrament  day;  and  Ebenezer 
Stewart  of  Newbury,  for  scoffing  at  the  Lord's  supper  on 
the  Lord's  day,  was  sentenced  to  be  whipped  ten  stripes  on 
his  naked  back  and  pay  costs  or  pay  40  shillings  fine  and 
costs.  John  West,  an  Ipswich  farmer,  was  summoned  into 
Court  to  answer  to  the  charge  of  being  six  weeks  wilfully 
absent  from  the  public  worship  of  God  in  1730.  He  made 
an  effective  plea  that  he  was  deaf  and  very  infirm  and  was 
discharged.  Old  Zaccheus  Newmarch,  charged  with  the 
same  offence,  pleaded  that  he  was  old  and  not  well  able  to 
travel  and  that  he  was  of  the  Church  of  England  and  went 
to  church  at  J^'ewbury  when  the  weather  and  ways  were 
suitable.  He  too  was  dismissed  on  payment  of  costs.  Wil- 
liam Bennett  of  Rowley  received  less  favor  at  the  Ipswich 
Court  in  March,  1732.  He  was  sentenced  to  pay  a  fine  of 
twenty  shillings  or  "sit  in  the  stocks  from  half  an  hour 


LAWS,  COUBTS  AND  JUDGES.  95 

after  four  on  Thursday  next,  till  six  and  pay  costs."  Rich- 
ard Stevens  excused  his  absence  from  the  Ipswich  church  in 
1734  by  his  lack  of  proper  winter  clothing  and  was  dis- 
missed, but  Israel  Tucker  and  Elizabeth  Hart,  wife  of 
ITathaniel  Hart,  the  cooper,  could  give  no  suflScient  reason 
and  were  fined  twenty  shillings. 

Sunday  travelling  was  severely  frowned  upon.  Mr. 
Henry  Sharp  of  Salem  was  arraigned  in  Dec.,  1701  for 
sending  or  suffering  his  calash  to  go  out  of  town  and  return, 
but  he  proved  that  it  was  necessary  to  carry  Mr.  Buckley 
newly  arrived  from  sea,  very  sick  and  since  dead,  who  was 
able  to  get  no  farther  than  Lynn. 

On  a  November  Sunday,  in  1745,  Joseph  Hidden  of  New- 
bury with  six  other  men  and  Elizabeth  Bailey,  appeared 
to  answer  to  the  charge  of  Sabbath  breaking.  With  unusual 
discrimination,  the  Jury  found  in  the  case  of  Hidden,  that 
on  November  11^  he  was  a  member  of  the  church  in  New- 
bury and  usually  attended  there,  but  that  "on  the  morning 
of  that  day  he  travelled  to  Ipswich  with  an  Intent  to  attend 
the  public  worship  of  God  there  and  did  it  accordingly.  If 
this  be  a  breach  of  the  Law  of  the  Province,  we  find  the 
said  Joseph  guilty,  otherwise,  not  guilty."  The  Court  de- 
cided that  his  action  was  not  a  breach  of  the  law.  John 
Appleton,  Jr.,  yeoman,  paid  a  fine  of  twelve  shillings  and 
costs  inl785  for  imnecessary  working  on  the  Lord's  day. 

In  January,  1761,  the  Province  Laws  regarding  the  ob- 
servance of  the  Lord's  Dav  were  amended,  as  former  laws 
'Tiave  not  been  duly  executed  and  notwithstanding  the  pious 
intention  of  the  legislators,  the  Lord's  Day  hath  been  greatly 
and  frequently  prophaned."     It  was  therefore  enacted 

That  no  person  whatsoever  shall  keep  open  their  shops, 
warehouses  or  work  houses,  nor  shall,  upon  the  land  or  water, 
do  in  exercise  any  labour,  business  or  work  of  their  ordi- 
nary calling  nor  any  sport  game,  play  or  recreation  on  the 


9G  IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOXY. 

Lord's  Day,  (works  of  necessity  and  charity  only  excepted), 
upon  pain  of  forfeiting  not  less  than  ten  nor  more  than  twenty 
shillings. 

That  no  traveler,  drover,  horse-coarser,  waggoner,  butcher, 
higler  or  any  of  their  servants,  shall  travel  on  the  Lord's 
Day  or  any  part  thereof — except  by  some  adversity  they 
shall  have  been  belated  and  forced  to  lodge  in  the  woods, 
wilderness  or  highways,  the  night  before  (and  in  such  case 
it  shall  1x3  lawful  to  travel  no  further,  on  the  Lord's  day, 
than  to  the  next  inn  or  house  for  entertainment  of  travellers.) 

Vintners,  retailers  of  strong  liquors,  innholders  or  any 
one  keeping  a  house  of  public  entertainment  were  forbidden 
to  entertain  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  several  towns  or 
allow  them  to  si)end  their  time  about  their  premises  in  drink- 
ing or  idling.     It  was  enacted  as  well, 

That  if  any  person  or  persons  shall  be  recreating,  disport- 
ing or  unnecessarily  walking  or  loitering  or  if  any  persons 
shall  unnocossarilv  fi.'^semblc  themselves  in  any  of  the  streets, 
lanes,  wharves,  highways,  commons,  fields,  pastures  or  or- 
chards, he  shall  pay  a  fine  of  five  shillings. 

If  any  person,  being  able  of  body,  and  not  otherwise  nec- 
essarily ])re vented,  shall,  for  the  space  of  one  month  together, 
absent  themselves  from  the  publick  worship  of  God  on  the 
Lord's  Da}^  they  shall  forfeit  and  pay  the  sum  of  ten  shil- 
lings. 

That  no  sexton,  grave-digger,  porter  or  bearer  shall  be 
assisting  at  the  funeral  of  any  person  on  the  Lord's  Day, 
or  any  part  thereof,  and  no  person  shall  toll  any  bell  for 
such  funeral,  unless  license  be  given  by  a  justice  of  peace, 
on  penalty  of  twenty  shillings. 

"Inasmuch  as  many  persons  are  of  the  opinion  that  the 
Sal)l)ath  or  time  of  religious  rest  begins  on  Saturday  even- 
ing," it  was  further  enacted  under  penalty  of  ten  shillings. 

That  no  ])erson  shall  keep  open  any  shop  ....  or  hawk 
or  vsell  any  provisions  or  wares  in  the  streets  or  lanes  of  any 
town  or  district,  or  be   present  at  any  concert  of  musick, 


LAWS^  COURTS  AND  JUDGES.  1^7 

dancing  or  other  public  diversion  on  the  evening  next  pre- 
ceding the  Lord's  Day. 

Innholders  were  bound  to  the  same  restrictions  as  on  the 
Sabbath. 

To  secure  the  enforcement  of  these  laws  it  was  enacted 
that  wardens  should  be  chosen  in  every  community,  "being 
of  good  substance  and  of  sober  life  and  conversation,"  who 
were  authorized  to  enter  inns,  or  challenge  any  persons  on 
the  highways  and  report  the  names  of  all  offenders  to  a 
justice  of  the  peace  or  the  grand  jury. 

Ministers'  salaries  were  greatly  curtailed,  when  paid  in 
depreciated  currency,  and  Rev,  John  Wise  sought  relief  from 
the  Ipswich  Court  in  1722.  The  Court  recognized  the 
justice  of  his  complaint,  declared  that  he  ought  to  be  paid 
in  the  lawful  money  of  New  England  instead  of  bills  of 
credit  but  dismissed  the  suit,  with  a  recommendation  to  the 
Committee  of  the  Parish  to  compose  the  matter.  Rev.  John 
Rogers  of  Boxford  received  judgment  in  1748  against  his 
parish.  Opposition  to  the  ministry  in  Chebacco  culminated 
on  March  11,  1744,  when  Daniel  Giddings,  Thomas  Cheat 
and  James  Eveleth  "by  loudly  speaking  to  and  opposing 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Theophilus  Pickering,  tainting  his  doctrine 
he  then  preached,  did  greatly  interrupt  and  obstruct  the 
celebration  of  the  public  worship  of  Grod."''  They  were 
arraigned  in  Court  but  were  cleared  by  the  verdict  of  the 
Jury. 

Theft  was  a  serious  matter  to  the  thief  when  apprehended, 
and  particular  severity  was  meted  out  to  colored  thieves. 
Dick  Singer,  a  young  negro,  who  lately  belonged  to  Mrs. 
Haskit  of  Salem  and  had  already  been  sentenced  to  be 
branded  in  the  forehead  with  the  letter  B,  being  found 
guilty  of  fresh  burglaries  in  Aug.  1710,  the  Court  ordered 
that  the  person  to  whom  treble  damage  was  due  under  the 

'  The  church  was  divided  by  the  withdrawal  of  those  friendly  to  the 
revival  movement  of  Whltefleld  and  Tennent. 


98  IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

law  should  dispose  of  the  offender  to  any  of  her  Majesty's 
subjects  "for  y*  Term  of  his  natural  life  and  to  return  the 
overplus  if  any,  to  this  Court." 

Major  Epes  had  a  mulatto  slave,  William  Smith  by  name, 
notorious  for  his  thieving.  He  escaped  and  fled  from  the 
neighborhood  but  the  widow  Martha  Holms  was  indicted 
for  receiving  the  plundered  goods,  "well  knowing  they  were 
stolen,"  and  sentence  was  passed,  that  she  "be  whipt  15 
stripes  on  y*  naked  back  severely  laid  on  &  pay  treble  damages 
to  owners  of  goods." 

Caesar,  alias  Aimiball,  a  mulatto  man  of  Ipswich,  laborer, 
on  March  20***,  1737,  with  force  &  arms  entered  the  fulling 
mill  of  Caleb  Warner  in  Ipswich.  He  stole  a  piece  of  all 
woolen  cloth  of  brownish  color,  about  13  yards,  valued  at 
£8.  The  sentence  was  that  he  pay  £24  damage  and  be 
whipped  10  stripes  on  his  naked  back  at  the  public  whipping 
post.  He  stole  also  8  yards  of  bluish  drugget  cloth  valued 
at  £5,  for  which  the  penalty  was  £15  and  10  stripes.  As 
he  was  unable  to  pay,  the  Court  ordered  that  Warner  may 
sell  him  to  any  suitable  person  for  six  years. 

Two  negro  slaves  were  convicted  of  poisoning  their  master, 
Captain  Codman  of  Cambridge.  Sentence  was  passed  upon 
them  in  August,  1755.  The  Boston  Gazette  noted  the  judg- 
ment of  the  Court 

That  Mark  be  drawn  to  the  place  of  execution  and  hanged 
by  the  Neck  until  dead.  That  PhiUis  be  drawn  to  the  Place 
of  Execution  and  be  burnt  to  Death,  which  the  Chief  Justice, 
after  having  made  an  excellent  Speech,  pronounced  in  a  most 
solemn  and  affecting  manner,  [although  the  Execution  must 
be  shocking,  'tis  not  doubted  but  the  Sheriff  may  supply 
himself  with  an  Executioner  of  the  Law  without  going  out 
of  the  County]. 

An  executor  of  the  dreadful  sentence  was  duly  foxmd  and 
"the  greatest  number  of  Spectators  ever  known  on  such  an 
occasion"  witnessed  the  grim  spectacle. 


LAWS^  COURTS  AlH)  JUDGES.  99 

Changes  came  to  the  Court  as  ^e  years  passed  away. 
Peculiar  pathos  attaches  to  the  death  of  Daniel  Rogers. 
He  was  the  son  of  President  John  Eogers  of  Harvard  and 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Gen.  Daniel  Denison,  and  brother  in 
law  of  his  associate  on  the  bench,  John  Appleton,  who  mar- 
ried his  sister,  Elizabeth.  He  was  graduated  from  Harvard 
in  1686  in  his  nineteenth  year  and  became  the  teacher  of 
the  Grammar  School.  He  presented  a  certificate  of  appro- 
bation signed  by  Rev.  William  Hubbard,  Rev.  John  Rogers, 
his  brother,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Qerrish  to  the  Court  at  Ipswich 
in  March,  1702  and  was  admitted  to  practice  law.  Return- 
ing from  Hampton  on  the  first  day  of  December,  1722,  he 
missed  his  way  in  Salisbury,  took  a  wrong  path  that  led 
into  Salisbury  marshes,  where  he  was  bewildered  and  lost. 
He  called  twice  at  the  nearest  house,  explaining  that  he  was 
bewildered  and  praying  for  help  and  guidance  that  he  might 
reach  the  ferry  over  the  Merrimac.  His  body  was  found 
some  days  later. 

His  gravestone  stands  in  the  old  burying  ground,  its  in- 
scription now  scarcely  legible. 

Here  Lyes  Buried 

ye  body  of 

Daniel  Rogers,  EsqV. 

who  DecM  December  ye  Ist 

1722.     AEtatis  56. 

Turbidus  ad  Laetos  Solari  Lumine  Portus 
SoUicitos  Nautas  per  mare  fert  Aquilo : 

Me  Borealis  Agens  Nilidum  super  AEtheris  Axem 
Justitiae  Solis  Luce  beavit  Hvems. 

It  may  be  translated  freely : 

The  stormy  North  wind  drives  the  anxious  sailors  over  the 
sea  to  the  harbors  rejoicing  in  the  sim  light. 

The  Xorthem  Winter,  bearing  me  above  the  blasts,  hns 
blessed  [me]  with  the  light  of  the  Sun  of  Ri^teousness. 


100        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Col.  John  Appleton,  son  of  Capt  John  Appleton  and  grand- 
son of  Samuel,  the  immigrant,  built  about  1710  the  house 
on  the  corner  of  Market  and  Central  Streets,  now  owned  by 
Mr.  Moritz  B.  Philipp.  Here  he  made  his  home  for  the 
rest  of  his  life.  He  represented  the  Tovm  in  Gteneral  Court 
in  1697,  was  a  member  of  the  Council  from  1698  to  1723, 
commanded  a  regiment  in  the  expedition  against  Port  Royal 
in  1707.  After  many  years  of  service  as  Judge  of  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas,  he  was  removed  from  the  bench  in  1732 
by  Governor  Belcher  on  the  ground  of  his  age,  as  he  was 
then  eighty,  but  was  made  Judge  of  Probate  in  the  follow- 
ing year  and  survived  until  1739.  His  death  was  the  oc- 
casion of  many  eulogies  and  sermons- 
Col.  John  Wainwright,  bom  in  1691  and  a  Harvard 
graduate,  in  the  class  of  1709,  after  eight  years  service  as 
Clerk  of  the  House,  became  a  Justice  of  the  Court  and  Com- 
mon Pleas.     He  died  on  Sept  1, 1739. 

Thomas  Berry,  Physician,  Colonel  in  the  militia,  a  Har- 
vard graduate  in  1712,  Judge  of  Probate  as  well  as  a  Justice 
of  the  Common  Pleas  Court,  continued  on  the  bench  for 
many  years.  He  died  on  Aug.  10,  1756.  Col.  John  Choate, 
Representative  to  Greneral  Court  for  fifteen  years  between 
1730  and  1761,  and  a  member  of  the  Executive  Council  from 
1761  to  1765,  was  also  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Sessions  and 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  and  was  Chief  Justice  for  the 
last  ten  years  of  his  life.  Col.  Daniel  Appleton,  son  of  Col. 
John,  and  Dr.  Samuel  Rogers  were  also  Justices  of  the  Court 
of  Sessions. 

As  the  century  drew  to  its  close,  cases  of  a  new  sort  ap- 
peared, incident  to  the  Revolutionary  War.  The  Rev. 
Joshua  Wingate  Weeks  of  Marblehead  was  complained  of 
by  that  Town  "as  being  inimical"  in  October,  1777.  The 
verdict  of  the  jury  was  that  he  was  "not  a  person  so  inimical 
to  this  the  united  States  that  his  residence  is  dangerous  to 
the  public  peace  and  safety",  and  the  counsel  for  ihe  Town 


LAWS,  0OUET8  AND  JUDGES,  101 

said  that  he  would  not  carry  the  case  farther.  The  Ipswich 
Court  of  March  28,  1780,  tried  the  case  of  Jonathan  Tyler 
of  Boxford,  yeoman,  charged  with  purchasing  4000  lbs.  of 
salted  pork.  The  Jury  found  him  guilty  of  purchasing  the 
pork  at  a  cost  of  £600,  in  violation  of  a  law  of  this  State 
entitled  '*An  Act  against  Monopoly  and  Oppression".  He 
was  sentenced  to  pay  a  fine  of  £3000,  five  times  the  value 
of  the  pork,  one  half  to  go  to  the  prosecutor  and  the  other 
to  the  Town  of  Methuen,  where  the  offence  was  committed. 
The  costs,  amounting  to  £185-17-  8,  were  added  to  the  fine. 

The  Supreme  Court,  constituted  late  in  the  century,  held 
an  annual  session  in  Ipswich  in  April  of  each  year.  The 
famous  trial  of  Pomp,  the  Andover  negro,  for  killing  Charles 
Furbush  on  Feb.  10^,  1795,  occurred  in  June  1795.  He 
had  been  confined  in  Ipswich  jail  since  Feb.  12,  and  after 
sentence  of  death  had  been  passed,  he  was  held  in  jail  until 
the  day  of  his  execution,  when  he  was  taken  to  the 
"Gallowes  field",  on  the  comer  of  the  Rowley  Road  and 
Mile  Lane,  and  there  hanged.  The  sentences  were  notably 
severe  at  this  period.  John  Williams,  convicted  at  the  Ips- 
wich session  in  June,  1799,  of  a  felonious  assault  at  night, 
was  sentenced  to  "sit  on  the  gallows  one  hour  with  rope 
around  his  neck  and  one  end  thereof  cast  over  the  gallows 
and  publicly  whipped  on  his  naked  back  20  stripes  and 
pay  costs." 

Stephen  Sessions  of  Boxford  convicted  of  theft,  was  sen- 
tenced to  pay  to  the  injured  party  $15.40  "which  with  the 
goods  returned  is  treble  damages.  If  he  does  not  pay  in 
30  days,  Davis  may  dispose  of  him  in  service  to  any  person 
for  3  months."  An  Ipswich  shoemaker  was  arraigned  in 
April,  1801,  charged  with  the  serious  offence  that 

being  a  person  of  immoral,  profane  and  irreligious  life 
and  conversation  (he)  did  wilfully  blaspheme  the  holy  name 
of  God  by  contumeliously  reproaching  Jesus  Christ,  viz.  by 
speaking  and  uttering  the  following  profane  and  blasphe- 


102        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLOIST. 

mous  words  viz.  "I  am  Christ  Jesus  crucified,"  to  tte  great 
dishonor  of  morality  and  religion,  to  the  disgrace  and  de- 
struction of  good  morals  and  good  manners  against  the  peace 
and  contrary  to  the  form  of  the  Statute  in  that  case  made 
and  provided. 

For  this  he  was  sentenced  to  six  months  imprisonment 
and  for  assaults  on  three  diflFerent  men,  fines  were  imposed. 

Cato  Haskell,  a  negro,  for  an  imnatural  crime,  had  to 
sit  in  the  pillory  for  an  hour,  pay  costs  and  s^)eiid  3  months 
in  prison.  Ichabod  Paine  of  Ipswich  had  in  his  possession 
a  counterfeit  ten  dollar  bill  of  the  Farmers'  Exchange  Bank 
and  was  sentenced  to  the  State  Prison,  five  days  solitary 
confinement  and  six  months  at  hard  labor.  John  Williams 
stole  five  pair  of  shoes,  valued  at  $5  from  the  shop  of  Joseph 
Hodgkins,  Esq.,  in  1808.  His  sentence  was  solitary  im- 
prisonment for  two  months,  followed  by  bard  labor  for  two 
jears  in  the  State  Prison.  The  theft  of  three  silver  watches 
sent  Edmund  Patrick  to  prison,  twenty  days  solitary  confine- 
ment and  a  vear  of  hard  labor. 

John  Bates  stole  two  silver  teaspoons  valued  at  $2,  from 
the  house  of  Nathaniel  Rust  and  was  sentenced  to  solitary 
imprisonment  thirty  days  and  a  year  of  hard  labor.  "Sally" 
Choate,  as  she  was  familiarly  kno^\^l,  kept  a  shop,  probably 
in  her  dwelling,  still  standing  on  the  turn  of  the  road,  oppo- 
site Mr.  Clark  Abell's.  John  and  Charles  Whitehouse  broke 
in  and  stole  fifteen  yards  of  bed  ticking  valued  at  $8.  They 
were  sentenced  to  hard  labor  in  the  State  Prison  for  three 
years,  the  first  fifteen  days  solitary.  Stephen  Merrill  Clark 
of  Newburyport,  not  yet  twenty-one  years  old,  convicted  of 
setting  fire  to  a  building  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged  at 
Salem  in  October,  1820. 

From  time  to  time  the  most  eminent  lawyers  appeared 
as  counsel  in  the  Ipswich  Court.  Once  at  least,  Daniel 
Webster  conducted  a  case  and  addressed  the  jury  with  mar- 
vellous power.     The  late  Peter  Harvey  used  to  tell  the  story 


JJLWa,  COUBTS  AND  JUDGES.  103 

with  great  zest.®  One  Friday  afternoon  in  the  year  1817, 
three  men  called  on  Mr.  Webster  at  his  Boston  office.  Over- 
whelmed with  fatigue  from  his  Congressional  duties,  he  was 
on  the  point  of  slipping  away  for  a  fortnight's  fishing  and 
gunning,  and  he  had  detsrmined  to  refuse  any  demand  upon 
his  services.  His  visitors  proved  to  be  friends  and  neighbors 
of  Levi  and  Laban  Kenniston,  accused  of  robbing  a  certain 
Major  Goodridge  on  the  highway,  whose  trial  would  take  place 
at  Ipswich  the  next  day.  They  desired  him  to  undertake 
the  defence,  saying  that  no  member  of  the  Essex  bar  would 
act  on  their  behalf.  Mr.  Webster  refused  point  blank  on 
the  ground  of  his  fatigue  and  declared  that  no  fee  could 
tempt  him  to  forego  his  vacation  trip.  "Well",  was  the  re- 
ply of  one  of  the  delegation,  "it  isnH  the  fee  that  we  think 
of  at  all,  though  we  are  willing  to  pay  what  you  may  charge ; 
but  its  justice.  Here  are  two  New  Hampshire  men  who 
are  believed  in  Exeter  and  Newbury  and  Newburyport  and 
Salem  to  be  rascals ;  but  we  in  Newmarket  believe,  in  spite 
of  all  evidence  against  them,  that  they  are  the  victims  of 

some  conspiracy We  suppose  that  men  whom  we 

know  to  have  been  honest  all  their  lives  canH  have  become 
such  desperate  rogues  all  of  a  sudden."  "But  I  cannot  take 
the  case",  persisted  Mr.  Webster,  "I  am  worn  to  death  with 
overwork,  I  have  not  had  any  real  sleep  for  forty-eight  hours. 
Besides  I  know  nothing  of  the  case."  ....  "But  you're  a 
New  Hampshire  man,"  he  continued,  "and  the  neighbors 
thought  that  you  would  not  allow  two  innocent  New  Hamp- 
shire men  however  humble  they  may  be  in  their  circum- 
stances, to  suffer  for  lack  of  your  skill  in  exposing  the  wiles 
of  this  scoundrel  Goodridge.  The  neighbors  all  desire  you 
to  take  the  case." 

Their  simple  plea  carried  him  back  to  his  coimtry  home, 
and  the  kindly  offices  of  the  neighbors  in  every  time  of  sick- 

•The  speeches  and  Orations  of  Daniel  Webster  with  an  Introductory 
Essay  by  Edwin  P.  Whipple,  page  XV. 


104        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAT  COLONY. 

ness  or  trouble  he  had  known  so  often  in  his  boyhood,  "Oh ! 
said  he,  ruefully,  "if  the  neighbors  think  I  may  be  of  ser- 
vice, of  course  I  must  go"  and  with  his  three  companic»is, 
he  was  soon  seated  in  the  stage  for  Ipswich,  where  he  ar- 
rived about  midnight.  The  court  met  the  next  morning 
and  his  management  of  the  case  is  still  considered  one  of 
his  masterpieces  of  legal  acumen  and  eloquence. 

Circumstantial  evidence  seemed  to  settle  the  guilt  of  his 
clients  beyond  question.     N"o  respectable  lawyer  would  risk 
his  own  reputation  in  their  defence.     No  motive  could  be 
imagined,  which  should  prompt  Goodridge  to  wound  and  rob 
himself.     But  Mr.  Webster  after  a  cross-examination  of  the 
accuser,  which  rivalled  the  tortures  of  the  Inquisition,  turned 
to  the  jury.     Addressing  them  familiarly  in  simple  language, 
as  though  he  were  discussing  the  case  at  one  of  their  own 
firesides,  he  assailed  the  argument  for  the  prosecution,  and 
appealed  to  the  jury  to  say  under  their  oaths,  whether  such 
inconsistencies  and  improbabilities  should  have  any  weight, 
"It  is  for  the  jury  to  say",  he  repeated  after  every  period 
and  when  the  case  was  given  to  them,  they  said,  "Not  guilty." 
Not  only  were  the  Kennistons  vindicated  but  the  public 
which  almost  unanimously  had  denounced  them  as  villains, 
deserving  the  severest  punishment,  soon  recognized  their  inno- 
cence. 

Goodridge  disappeared  soon  after  the  trial.  Some  twenty 
years  after,  Mr.  Webster  while  travelling  in  western  New 
York  stopped  at  a  village  tavern  for  a  glass  of  water.  The 
hand  of  the  man  behind  the  bar  who  gave  it  to  him,  trembled 
violently.  Mr.  Webster,  looking  him  steadily  in  the  eye, 
recognized  Goodridge  and  it  was  evident  that  Goodridge  knew 
him. 

Eight  years  after  this  famous  trial,  in  April,  1825,  another 
case  came  before  the  Court,  of  especial  significance.  The 
facts  were  very  commonplace.  Mine  host,  Samuel  Smith, 
innkeeper  of  the  famous  old  tavern,  which  is  identical  in 


I«AWS^  COURTS  AND  JUDGES.  105 

part,  with  the  present  residence  of  Dr.  William  E.  Tucker, 
had  a  bay  mare,  which  had  been  hired  by  Mr.  John  0. 
Kimball,  the  cooper,  to  take  a  load  of  cider  barrels  to  Salem. 
Mr.  Ammi  Smith,  who  owned  the  old  Massachusetts  Woolen 
Factory,  where  Caldwell's  Block  now  stands,  had  obstructed 
the  highway,  as  it  was  claimed,  with  three  cords  of  wood. 
The  loaded  wagon  struck  the  wood,  and  an  empty  cider  barrel 
fell  on  the  mare  and  made  her  lame  for  five  months.  The 
case  had  been  tried  in  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  the  coim- 
sel  for  Mr.  Smith  being  Rufus  Choate,  then  a  young  fledg- 
ling of  a  lawyer.  He  secured  a  verdict  for  his  client  and 
Mr.  Smith  recovered  the  cost  of  the  suit,  "taxed  at  $3.48." 
Mr.  Smith  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court,  Mr.  Choate  ap- 
pearing again  and  Asa  Andrews,  Esq.  and  John  Pickering 
for  the  prosecution.  The  verdict  was  sustained  and  Mr. 
Smith  recovered  $32.79,  the  costs  of  the  suit  In  November 
of  the  same  year,  1825,  Eufus  Choate,  Esq.,  bringing  a  cer- 
tificate of  his  liberal  education  and  legal  studies,  which 
a£Srmed  that  he  had  practised  law  for  two  years  "with  fi- 
delity and  ability,"  was  admitted  to  practise  as  an  attorney 
before  the  Supreme  Court. 

For  years  afterwards,  the  sitting  of  the  Court  in  Ipswich 
was  a  great  event,  for  the  reputation  of  the  young  advocate 
grew  rapidly  and  he  was  frequently  present  Remembrance 
of  his  coal  black  hair,  his  piercing  eye,  and  persuasive  elo- 
quence still  lingers.  In  the  Spring  session  of  1829,  he  ap- 
peared as  counsel  in  three  suits  and  won  his  case  in  every 
instance.  In  one  of  these,  Xicholas  Woodberry  of  Hamil- 
ton, appellant  versus  Joseph  Patch  of  Hamilton,  who  charged 
him  with  burning  a  school  house,  Asahel  Huntington  was 
associate  counsel  with  Mr.  Choate  and  Leverett  Saltonstall 
and  Ebenezer  Shillaber  appeared  for  the  defence.  The  plain- 
tiff secured  the  verdict:  "$250  damage  for  defaming  good 
name  and  costs  of  suit,  $167.81." 

Other  famous  advocates  came  and  went     Caleb  Cashing 


106        IPSWICH^  IN   THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLOXY. 

was  counsel  in  an  action  for  debt  in  April,  1826.       Asa 
Andrews,  Esq.,  the  Ipswich  attorney,  was  a  familiar  figure. 

Many  weighty  cases  were  ai^ed  but  the  greater  part  were 
of  small  account  They  are  interesting  to  the  student  of 
history,  chiefly  from  the  extreme  severity  of  the  sentences 
imposed  and  their  striking  inequality. 

In  1824,  Charles  Farrars  of  Salem,  convicted  of  stealing 
eight  herrings,  six  crackers  and  a  junk  of  tobacco  valued 
at  twenty  cents,  was  sentenced  to  six  days  solitary  confine- 
ment and  six  months  hard  labor ;  and  on  a  second  charge  of 
stealing  fifty  cents  worth  of  nails  and  a  gimlet,  etc  worth 
thirty  cents,  a  similar  sentence  was  imposed,  to  be  suffered 
after  the  expiration  of  the  first  John  Jones  of  Essex  broke 
into  the  shop  of  George  W.  Heard  one  night  in  1826,  forced 
open  a  desk  and  stole  a  spy  glass  and  some  bank  bills.  He 
was  sentenced  to  six  days  solitary  confinement  and  eighteen 
months  hard  labor  in  the  State  prison.  For  stealing  one 
silver  tablespoon,  valued  at  three  dollars  from  the  house  of 
Henry  Russell,  William  Morison  was  sentenced  to  six  days 
solitary  and  a  year  of  hard  labor.  John  Emerson's  theft  of 
articles  of  clothing  from  William  Lakeman  cost  him  a  day 
solitary  and  eighteen  months'  imprisonment 

From  time  to  time,  a  note  of  alarm  was  sounded,  indicat- 
ing that  projects  for  the  removal  of  the  Courts  from  Ipswich 
were  being  considered.  The  Town  Meeting  on  Dec.  24***, 
1782  adopted  a  minute;  That  the  Law  Courts  should  be 
held  in  the  same  places  as  "most  conducive  to  the  peace  and 
quiet  of  the  County  of  Essex."  In  Sept,  1783,  the  towns 
of  Newbury  and  Araesbury  having  petitioned  the  General 
Court  that  the  Courts  of  Law  and  Offices  of  Registry  of 
Deeds  and  of  Probate  and  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas  and  Sessions  for  the  County  of  Essex  may  be  held 
and  kept  for  the  future  in  Ipswich,  the  order  of  the  Court 
thereon  was  read  in  Town  Meeting  and  the  Town  voted 
"That  the  Town  is  in  favor,"  and  also  "That  the  Town  will 


Ulwb,  ooitbts  and  judges.  107 

not  be  wanting  in  Iheir  Endeavors  for  the  convenient  accom- 
modation of  said  Courts."  The  sincerity  of  the  Ipswich 
X>eople  was  further  manifested  in  the  building  of  a  new  Town 
House  and  Court  House  jointly  with  the  County  in  1793,  on 
the  same  spot  occupied  by  the  old  building,  built  in  1704. 

In  Ifovember,  1808,  a  remonstrance  to  the  General  Court 
aficainst  the  proposed  removal  of  the  Supreme  Court  from 
Ipswich  and  Newburyport  wm  drawn  up.  It  affirmed  that 
one  term  of  the  Supreme  and  two  terms  of  Common  Pleas 
Had  been  held  for  a  long  time  here,  and  that  lately  the  Legis- 
lature had  established  the  whole  of  the  Courts  of  Sessions 
at  Ipswich;  also  that  monthly  and  regular  Probate  Courts 
have  always  been  and  now  are,  and  that  the  Town  had  lately 
built  a  Court  House  and  that  chimneys  had  been  erected  in 
said  house  and  a  stone  jail  had  been  built  lately  at  a  cost 
of  $27,000.  As  other  towns  grew  into  cities  and  Ipswich 
fell  into  a  steady  decline,  the  pressure  upon  the  General 
Court  to  remove  the  Courts  from  Ipswich  to  larger  centers 
of  population  grew  more  and  more  insistent.  It  was  pro- 
posed in  1848  that  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  should  be 
removed  to  Haverhill  and  Lawrence  and  Charles  Kimball 
and  Greorge  Haskell  were  appointed  a  Committee  to  oppose 
this  plan.  For  a  time  the  Town  succeeded  in  its  opposition 
but  the  removal  was  soon  again  in  debate.  The  Town  re- 
newed its  remonstrance  in  February,  1854,  but  in  June  of 
that  year,  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  sat  for  the  last  time. 
The  Court  house  was  removed  to  the  corner  now  occupied 
bv  the  Damon  Block  and  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1894. 
The  bell  used  by  the  Court  Crier  proclaiming  with  his  Oyez, 
Oyez,  the  coming  of  the  Court,  and  two  large  lustre  pitchers 
which  adorned  the  Bar,  the  only  reminders  of  the  ancient 
glory  of  the  Ipswich  Court  which  survive,  are  now  in  the 
cabinet  of  the  Ipswich  Historical  Society. 

The  R^stry  of  Deeds  and  of  Probate  was  continued  in 
Ipswich   for  many  years  later.     From   the   earliest  times, 


108        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAT  COLONY. 

Ipswich  had  supplied  the  Justices  of  Prohate  and  the  Regis- 
ters- Robert  Lord,  the  first  Clerk  of  the  old  Quarter  Ses- 
sions Court,  served  from  1648  to  1683,  and  Col.  Thomas 
Wade,  the  second  clerk  of  writs,  held  his  office  from  1684 
to  1696.  Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  long  and 
useful  services  of  Col.  John  Appleton,  Col.  Thomas  Berry  and 
Col.  John  Choate. 

Daniel  Rogers,  whose  tragic  death  has  been  described,  was 
Register  of  Probate  as  well  as  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas,  serving  from  October  23,  1702  until  his  death,  De^ 
cember  1,  1722. 

Col.  Daniel  Appleton  succeeded.  He  was  son  of  Judge 
John  Appleton  and  brother-in-law  of  Judge  Thomas  Berry. 
His  term  of  service  covered  nearly  forty  years,  from  January 
9,  1723  to  August  17,  1762,  the  date  of  his  death.  He  too, 
combined  with  this,  the  dignity  of  a  Justice  of  the  Court  of 
Sessions.  Dr.  Samuel  Rogers  succeeded  in  the  office  of  Reg- 
ister and  continued  in  office  the  rest  of  his  life,  from  August 
26,  1762  to  Dec.  21,  1772.  He  was  the  son  of  Rev.  John 
Rogers  and  grandson  of  President  John  of  Harvard.  A 
Harvard  graduate  of  1725,  he  served  the  Town  and  Colony 
in  many  positions  of  honor  and  usefulness,  as  physician, 
Town  clerk.  Colonel  of  a  regiment.  Justice  of  the  Court  of 
Sessions  and  Representative  to  the  G^eneral  Court 

For  another  forty  years,  Daniel  Noyes  was  the  Register. 
He  was  a  Harvard  graduate  in  the  class  of  1758,  and  taught 
the  Grammar  School  from  1762  to  1774.  In  that  year  he 
was  a  delegate  to  the  Congress  of  the  United  Colonies,  and 
in  1775  he  became  Postmaster,  succeeding  Deacon  James 
Foster,  the  first  Postmaster  of  the  Town.  He  was  appointed 
Register  of  Probate  on  Sept.  29,  1776  and  held  the  office 
until  his  death,  March  21,  1815.  He  owned  and  occupied 
the  house  on  the  comer  of  Market  and  County  Streets,  now 
owned  by  Mr.  M.  B.  Philipp,  which  had  been  the  home  of 
Judge  John  Appleton  and  his  son  Daniel  Appleton. 


LAWS,  COUETS  AND  JUDGES.  109 

The  next  Register  was  Nathaniel  Lord,  3**,  "Squire  Lord" 
as  he  was  familiarly  known,  who  had  been  Clerk  to  Mr. 
Noyes.      He  was  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1798.     Coming 
to  the  office  of  Register  with  the  experience  gained  as  Clerk, 
it  is  said  that  he  performed  his  duties  with  such  orderliness 
and  neatness  and  originality  of  method,  that  the  Registry 
became  a  model  office.     His  term  extended  from  May  29, 
1S15    to    1851.     During   his   term    of   office,    the    Probate 
Court    and  Registry   attained   the   dignity   of   a   building, 
erected    for  its  own  use.     For  many   years,   the  valuable 
records  had  been  kept  probably  in  the  dwelling  of  the  Regis- 
ter, but  a  room  was  fitted  up  in  the  new  Court  house  in  1798 
for  the  accommodation  of  the  Probate  office  and  the  safeguard- 
ing of  the  books  of  the  Registry.       In  the  year  1817,  the 
County  erected  a  brick  building  forty  feet  long,  twenty-eight 
feet  wide  and  one  story  high,  which  was  occupied  December 
15,  1817  and  at  last  the  Records  were  deposited  in  a  secure 
vault. 

Mr.  Lord's  three  sons  all  entered  the  legal  profession. 
Otis  P.  became  an  eminent  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
Nathaniel  J.  attained  high  rank  and  George  R.  succeeded 
his  father  as  Register.  In  the  year  1852,  the  Regis- 
try and  its  Records  were  removed  to  Salem  and  Mr. 
George  R.  Lord,  having  removed  to  Salem,  became  Assis- 
tant Clerk  of  Courts,  holding  the  office  until  his  death. 
True  to  the  family  tradition,  his  son  George  R.  Lord  has 
filled  a  responsible  office  in  the  Clerk  of  Courts  for  many 
years. 

The  Probate  Court  continued  to  sit  semi-annually  until 
September  15,  1874,  holding  its  sessions  in  the  Town  Hall. 
During  the  War  of  the  Rebellion,  the  vacant  Probate  build- 
ing was  occupied  as  the  barracks  of  a  military  company  re- 
cruited here  by  Capt.  John  A.  Hobbs.  It  was  sold  to  the 
Lodge  of  Odd  Fellows,  December  26,  1867  and  was  enlarged 
by  the  building  of  an  addition  on  the  western  end  and  the 
addition  of  a  second  story. 


CHAPTER  VL 


Division  in  the  Pabish  I 

I 


I 


The  Hamlet — LinebrooJc — The  Great  AwaJeening — The 

South  Parish 

The  ministerial  salary  occasioned  difficulties  of  a  very 
serious  nature.  All  the  inhabitants  were  assessed  the  min- 
isterial rates.  Many  f amilies,  however,  who  dwelt  in  remote 
districts,  worshipped  regularly  with  the  congregations  in 
neighboring  towns  near  their  homes  and  contributed  to  the 
support  of  these  churches.  This  caused  a  double  burden, 
from  which  very  naturally  they  sought  relief.  The  Chebacco 
Parish  had  been  established  by  vote  of  the  Town  on  Febru- 
ary 15,  1680  and  since  that  time,  the  residents  in  that  section 
had  supported  their  own  minister,  and  had  been  relieved 
of  any  obligation  to  the  old  parish. 

Forty  families  of  the  Hamlet,  including  sixty-five  men, 
addressed  a  lengthy  petition  to  the  Town  on  May  1**,  1712, 
praying  that  they  may  be  allowed  to  build  a  meeting  house 
and  be  set  off  as  a  separate  precinct.  They  affirmed  that  the 
Ipswich  meeting  house  was  too  far  removed,  and  that  they 
worshipped  regularly  and  with  greater  convenience  with 
the  church  in  Wenham.  But  this  meeting  house  was  over- 
crowded, and  some  other  provision  was  necessary. 

The  Town  voted  to  allow  the  petition  on  May  22,  1712, 
if  a  meeting  house  be  erected  and  an  orthodox  minister  be 
called  to  the  pastorate.  The  boundaries  of  the  new  precinct 
were  also  defined.  But  this  vote  did  not  exempt  the  Hamlet 
people  from  their  regular  ministerial  rate  to  Ipswich  and 

(110) 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PABISH.  Ill 

the  vote  of  the  Town  declared  that  such  payment  was  neces- 
sary. 

It  will  be  considered  that  we  have  two  ministers  to  main- 
tain,  whose  salaries  must  not  be  diminished  and  as  there  have 
been  two  ministers  here  maintained  from  the  foundation  of 
the  world,  so  we  hope  there  will  continue  to  be  to  the  end 

of  the  world If  it  should  ever  be  otherwise,  it  will 

be  a  shameful  degeneracy  from  the  piety  of  our  ancestors. 

The  Hamlet  people  petitioned  the  General  Court  to  be 
set  off  as  a  separate  precinct,  and  their  request  was  granted 
on  October  14,  1713.  But  the  Ipswich  people  were  not 
disposed  to  assent  to  complete  separation.  The  Town  voted 
on  December  3** : 

In  consideration  of  the  expense  of  building  the  meeting 
house  at  the  Hamlet,  all  in  that  precinct  be  relieved  of  min- 
ister's rate  in  Ipswich  for  that  year. 

and  on  April  8,  1714: 

That  our  friends  in  the  Hamlet  be  freed  from  charge  about 
y*  repairing  our  meeting  house,  sweeping  sd  house  &  ringing 
y^bell. 

In  the  following  year,  another  petition  was  addressed  to 
the  General  Court,  and  on  June  7,  1715,  the  Town  voted 

That  Col.  Samuel  Appleton,  Esq.,  Nehemiah  Jewett,  Esq. 
or  either  of  them  Represent  y*  Town  of  Ipswich  &  attend 
upon  y*  Gten"  Court  to  make  answer  to  y*  Petition  y*  our 
Neighbors  in  y*  new  precinct  called  y*  Hamlett  hath  made 
to  y*  said  Gen"  Court  for  y*  adding  some  more  Inhabitants 
to  y'  precinct. 

Some  spirited  passages  followed  between  the  contending 
parties,  but  in  the  course  of  a  few  months,  the  families  were 
definitely  apportioned  and  the  new  Parish  began  its  inde- 
pendent career  with  the  erection  of  its  meeting  house  and 
settling  Rev.  Samuel  Wigglesworth  as  Pastor. 


112        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAT  COLOlTr. 

This  did  not  involve  a  territorial  division  however.  The 
Hamlet  precinct  was  not  incorporated  as  a  separate  town  un- 
til June  21,  1793,  when  the  name  Hamilton  was  chosen  hy 
Dr.  Manasseh  Cutler  because  of  his  admiration  for  Alexan- 
der Hamilton. 

Encouraged  by  the  success  of  the  Hamlet  petitioners,  a 
group  of  families  living  in  the  district  now  known  as  Line- 
brook  made  their  petition  in  1714,  and  on  April  8,  the  Town 
voted : 

That  y*^  severall  persons  hereafter  named,  who  petitioned 
y**  Town  for  Ease  of  y"^  Taxes  of  y*  Ministers  rate  (by  reason 
of  y*  distance)  be  abated  their  head  or  Poll  money  in  y*  Tax, 
viz. 

Abram  How  Sam"  Potter 

Sam"  Perley  Thom.  Potter 

Jn®  Perley  Stephen  Perly 

Neh.  Abbott  Caleb  Foster  * 

Isaac  Foster  Jn®  Lampson 

Abram  Foster  Daniel  Foster 

Jacob  Foster  Isaac  Cummings 

Abram  How,  Jun'.  Abijah  How 

Xehemiah  Abbott,  John  Lampson  and  some  others  peti- 
tioned in  June,  1729  that  they,  with  their  families  and 
lands  might  be  set  off  to  Topsfield.  This  was  referred  to  a 
Committee,  which  reported  that  as  their  taxes  had  already 
been  remitted  by  the  First  Parish  to  those  who  went  to  Tops- 
tield,  the  petition  should  be  refused,  and  it  was  so  voted. 

Four  years  later,  the  men  of  the  neigl;iborhood  again  pre- 
sented their  grievances,  but  now  addressed  the  Parish. 

March  the  21"*,  1733-4. 
To  the  First  Parish  in  Ipswich  now  assembled. 

Gentlemen.  Greeting.  We,  the  Subscribers,  Humbly 
shew  that  whereas  the  Scitnation  of  our  habitation  is  such 
that  we  Should  Labour  under  great  Difficulty  in  attending 


DIYISION  IN  THE  PABISH.  113 

Divine  service  where  we  properly  belong,  It  being  six  miles 
therefrom  in  General  And  that  it  is  short  of  Three  miles  in 
General  to  Topsfield  where  we  Constantly  attend  the  pub- 
lick  Worship  of  Qod.  Therefore  we  pray  that  you  would 
take  our  Great  Difficulty  into  your  Compassionate  Consid- 
eration and  abate  to  us  and  our  Heirs  the  one  half  of  our 
parish  rate  in  Ipswich  so  Long  as  we  shall  attend  Divine 
service  in  Topsfield  that  so  we  may  be  the  better  Enabled 
to  pay  where  we  hear,  and  in  so  doing  you  will  oblige  your 
Humble  petitioners. 

Abraham  Foster  John  Neland 

liOtt  Conant  Abr*"  Foster,  Jun. 

Abraham  How  John  Hewlett 

Caleb  Foster  John  Lampson,  Jun. 

Samuel  Parley  Deborah  Parley 

Thomas  Potter  John  Lampson 

Isaac  Cummings,  Jr.  John  Abbot 

INehemiah  Abbott  Jonathan  Perley 

Samuel  Potter  Jonathan  Foster 

Mark  How  Joseph  Cummings 

The  Parish  granted  their  petition,  March  21"*,  1738. 
StiU  they  were  not  content  and  Lett  Conant  and  his  neigh- 
bors addressed  another  petition  to  the  Town  at  the  March 
meeting  in  1736.  Whereupon  the  Town  refused  their  speci- 
fic request  but  made  a  considerable  compromise : 

Voted  that  Lott  Conant,  John  Lampson,  Caleb  Foster, 
Edward  Neland,  Samuel  Potter,  Philip  Nealand,  Thomas 
Potter,  John  Abbott,  Isaac  Cumings,  Jun.,  Joseph  Oumings, 
Mark  How,  Jonathan  Foster,  Allen  Perley,  Abraham  Fos- 
ter, Jun.,  John  Howlett,  Samuel  Perley,  Jonathan  Perley, 
John  Lampson,  Junr.,  that  petitiond  the  Town  of  Ipswich 
at  their  Annual  Meeting  the  Seventh  of  March  Currant. 
to  be  sett  off  to  the  Town  of  Topsfield  be  &  hereby  are  Dis- 
charged from  all  Parish  Charge  as  soon  as  they  shall  Obtain 
from  the  Great  &  Gren^  Court  the  Privileges  &  Immunities  of 
Parishioners  in  the  Town  of  Topsfield. 

They  repeated  their  request  to  be  set  off  on  May  5^^,  1737, 


114        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  0OI.ONY. 

setting  forth  the  difficulties  due  to  remoteness  from  the 
meeting-house  and  declaring  that  the  Town  of  Topsfield  had 
invited  them  to  be  part  of  their  town.  Isaac  Cummings, 
of  the  same  neighborhood,  desired  that  he  might  continue 
in  the  First  Parish.  The  Committee  reported  adversely,  but 
suggested  again  that  they  be  relieved  from  paying  parish  tax 
to  the  old  Parish,  and  it  was  so  agreed,  on  condition  that 
they  pay  parish  charges  where  they  worshipped,  and  that 
the  approbation  of  the  General  Court  be  secured. 

It  was  reported  to  the  Town  on  March  5,  1739-40,  that 
the  Town  of  Topsfield  refused  to  receive  Lot  Conant  and 
others  as  members  of  the  Parish  only.  Col.  John  Choate 
then  proposed  that  the  First  Parish  relieve  them  of  taxes, 
yet  allow  them  room  in  the  meeting-house  for  worship,  and 
a  Committee  be  chosen  to  negotiate  with  them.  A  Com- 
mittee of  the  First  Parish  conferred  with  them  and  reported 
on  Dec.  2,  1742,  that  the  West  end  should  not  become  a 
Parish  but  should  maintain  worship.  But  on  April  12,. 
1744,  the  Parish  voted  that  they  be  set  off  as  they  desired 
and  on  June  7,  174C,  the  General  Court,  upon  petition  of 
John  Fowler,  James  Davis  and  others,  Inhabitants  of  the 
westerly  part  of  Ipswich  and  the  southerly  part  of  Rowley 
ordered  that, 

They  be  erected  into  a  distinct  and  separate  Precinct, 
excepting  the  following  Persons  and  their  Estates,  viz.* 
John  Chaplain,  Moses  Hopkinson,  Samuel  Stickney,  Jun*", 
John  Dickenson,  Thomas  Dickenson,  George  Kilburn,  Tho- 
mas Wood,  Thomas  Wood,  Jr.,  John  Chaplin,  Jun"^,  Job  Pin- 
gre,  Aaron  Pingree,  Jedediah  Kilburn,  David  Perley,  Elipha- 
let  Kilburn,  Stephen  Pingre,  unless,  the  above  said  Persons 
give  unto  the  Secretary's  office  under  their  hands  that  they  be 
willing  to  be  joined  to  said  Precinct  within  twelve  months.^ 

The  farm  folk  of  the  "Village''  as  the  district  adjoining 

*  Acts  and  Resolves  XUl,  470,  600. 

For  the  history  of  the  new  Parish,  see  Chapter  on  The  Linebrook 
Parish. 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAEISH.  115 

Rowley  has  been  called  for  many  years,  who  worshipped 
with  the  church  in  Rowley,  began  their  contention  on  March 
4,  1730,  when  Moses  Bradstreet  and  others  desired  to  be 
set  off  to  Rowley. 

This  was  referred  to  the  First  Parish  and  was  not  ap- 
proved. A  second  petition  followed  a  few  years  later,  and 
met  with  a  better  reception,  but  the  end  was  not  yet 

Samuel  Dresser,  Moses  Davis,  John  Harris,  Nathaniel 
Bradstreet,  Daniel  Dresser,  Purchase  Jewett  and  Moses 
Jewett  addressed  a  Petition^  to  the  Governor  and  Council 
on  March  5,  1746,  declaring  that  they  lived  much  nearer 
Tlowley  than  Ipswich  and  aifirming 

Many  of  us  belong  to  the  first  church  in  Rowley  and 
Constantly  attend  the  publick  worship  there  and  so  did  our 
Predesessors  Ever  Since  the  first  settlement  of  Rowley  as 
we  have  understood. 

They  complained  that  they  were  assessed  the  parish  tax 
and  allowed  no  abatement  and  prayed  that  they  might  be 
set  off  to  Rowley.  The  First  Parish  replied  in  May,  deny- 
ing many  of  the  statements  made  by  the  petitioners  and 
affirming  the  weakness  of  the  Parish. 

With  regard  to  this  Parish  our  Circumstances  are  bad 
enough  already  for  besides  two  Parishes  formerly  taken  out 
of  it  about  a  year  agone,  We  sett  off  a  large  part  of  a  third 
to  joyn  with  some  others  and  this  Court  was  pleased  to  add 
thereto  a  considerable  Quantity  of  Land  more  than  we 
granted  or  even  than  they  themselves  Expected.  Our  In- 
come is  greatly  diminished  by  the  almost  total  decay  of  our 
Trade  &  Fishery,  which  used  to  be  a  considerable  part  of 
our  profit.  Xot  only  so,  our  Charge  is  much  Increased  as 
the  Poor  by  this  means  are  Multiply'd  upon  us.  We  have 
always  maintained  a  weekly  Lecture  and  are  now  in  Build- 
ing two  Meeting  Ilouses. 

s  Acts  and  Resolves,  Vol.  Xni,  p.  696. 


116        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAT  COLONY. 

Despite  this  appeal,  the  General  Court  granted  the  peti- 
tioners and  their  estates,  together  with  the  estate  of  Francis 
Pickard  and  Jonathan  Piekard  lying  on  the  North  side  of 
Egypt  Eiver  "(and  that  do  not  now  belong  to  the  West 
Parish  in  Ipswich)"  to  be  set  off  from  the  First  Parish  and 
annexed  to  the  First  Parish  in  Rowley,  Nov.,  1748.* 

In  the  midst  of  these  contentions,  the  "Great  Awakening", 
as  it  was  called,  swept  over  New  England.  In  central  Mas- 
sachusetts, Rev.  Jonathan  Edwards  of  Northampton  had 
produced  a  profound  spiritual  impression  by  his  sombre  and 
powerful  preaching  and  his  services  in  the  pulpit  were  in 
great  demand.  The  famous  Rev.  George  Whitefield  arrived 
in  Philadelphia  from  England  in  November,  1739  and  mul- 
titudes flocked  to  his  preaching.  He  did  not  reach  Boston 
until  September,  1740.  Great  congr^ations  assembled  in 
the  old  Brattle  Street  church  and  in  the  Old  South  and  were 
greatly  moved.  He  came  to  Ipswich  on  his  way  to  Maine 
and  was  entertained  at  the  home  of  Rev.  Mr.  Rogers*  and 
preached  to  a  great  assembly.  "The  Lord  gave  me  free- 
dom", he  entered  in  his  Journal,  "and  there  was  a  great 
melting  in  the  congregation."  On  his  return,  he  preached 
again  and  the  tradition  is,  that  not  only  were  men  and  womeu 
struck  with  an  awful  sense  of  sin  but  Satan  himself  was  so 
discomfited  that  he  rushed  up  the  steeple  stairs  and  leaped 
down  on  the  rocky  ledge,  where  his  massive  foot-print  is 
still  found  by  curious  searchers. 

Rev.  Gilbert  Tennent  came  to  Boston  in  December,  1740, 
and  preached  there  until  March,  1741,  with  great  power. 
His  own  story  of  the  meetings  informs  us : 

Agreeable  to  the  numerous  bills  of  the  awakened  put  up 
in  public  sometimes  rising  to  the  number  of  sixty  at  once, 
there  repaired  to  us,  both  boys  and  girls,  young  men  and 
women,  Indians  and  Negroes,  heads  of  families,  aged  per- 

*  Acts  and  Resolves,  Vol.  Xni,  p.  529. 

*  Probably  Rev.  Nathaniel  Rogrers. 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PABISH.  117 

sons,  those  who  had  been  in  full  communion  and  going  on 
in  a  course  of  religion  many  years. 

Private  societies  for  religious  exercises  were  formed  by 
the  young  people  and  their  elders  as  well.  The  meeting 
houses  were  crowded  for  a  year  and  ministers  often  preached 
in  private  houses,  every  evening  except  Saturday,  for  a 
week  together.  Mr.  Tennent  preached  in  Ipswich  and  the 
neighboring  towns.  Rev.  Mr.  White  of  Gloucester  narrated 
lie  revival  work  in  his  own  church : 

There  was  poured  down  a  spirit  of  prayer  upon  young 
and  old,  especially  the  younger  sort,  and  children  of  five, 
six  or  seven  years  and  upward  would  pray  to  admiration. 
And  in  our  parish  there  have  since  been  formed  no  less  than 
nine  distinct  societies  of  young  and  old,  male  &  female, 
bond  &  free  (for  one  of  them  is  a  society  of  negroes,  who 
in  their  meetings  behave  very  seriously  and  decently)  who 
meet,  several  of  them,  twice  a  week,  to  pray  and  sing  as  well 
as  to  read  books  of  piety  and  the  rest  once  a  week.  And 
the  younger  say  their  catechism  to  the  head  of  the  meeting 
And  several  sermons  have  been  preached  to  them.  The  sing- 
ing of  Dr.  Watt's  Hymns  is  the  chief  recreation  of  Chris- 
tians when  they  convene. 

Nervous  women  and  men  of  an  excitable  temperament 
had  extraordinary  experiences.  Rev.  Ebenezer  Parkman  of 
Westborough  noted  in  his  Journal  in  February,  1742 : 

Mr.  James  Pay  came  for  me  to  go  and  see  Isaiah  Pratt, 
who  lay  in  a  strange  condition  at  his  house,  not  having  spoke 
nor  been  sensible  since  nine  o'clock  last  night  ....  When 
he  regained  his  senses,  he  said  he  had  not  been  asleep,  had 
seen  hell  and  seen  Christ,  and  said  Christ  told  him  his  name 
was  in  the  book  of  life,  though  the  devil  had  told  him  there 
was  no  room  for  him  in  heaven. 

In  September,  1742,  Mr.  Daniel  Rogers  of  Ipswich, 
brother  of  Rev.  Nathaniel,  was  his  guest,  having  preached 


118        IPSWICH^  IN   THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

lately  at  Marlborough.  The  meetings  were  then  accompanied 
with  crying  and  screaming  and  many  evidences  of  great 
mental  distress.  The  excitement  and  extravagances  grew 
apace.  In  June.  1742,  one  Rev.  James  Davenport  had  left 
his  home  in  Southold,  liOng  Island,  being  guided,  as  he 
affirmed,  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  directed  where  to  go,  what 
to  do,  what  to  say.  He  came  to  Boston  in  June,  but  the 
ministers  refused  to  allow  him  entrance  to  their  pulpits, 
and  he  preached  on  the  Common,  his  vagaries  rousing  much 
disorder.  On  August  6***,  he  visited  Ipswich  and  remained 
several  days  as  the  guest  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Rogers,  preach- 
ing in  his  pulpit.  No  record  of  his  services  in  our  town 
remain,  but  full  and  interesting  particulars  of  his  boisterous 
and  frantic  methods  were  narrated  by  Dr.  Chauncey,  the 
strongest  opponent  of  the  movement  in  his  "Seasonable 
Thoughts  on  the  State  of  Religion  in  New  England",  which 
he  published  in  1743.*^ 

After  narrating  the  confusion  occasioned  by  screaming, 
shrieking,  talking,  praying,  singing,  laughing  and  even  kiss- 
ing and  congratulating  one  another  on  their  deliverance  from 
the  bondage  of  sin,  he  continues : 

An  account  of  Mr.  D  .  .  .  t's  Preaching  not  altogether 
unlike  this,  a  Gentleman  in  Connecticut  wrote  to  one  of  the 
ministers  in  this  Town  upon  his  own  knowledge  in  these 
words : 

At  length  he  turned  his  Discourse  to  others  and  with  the 
utmost  strength  of  his  lungs,  addressed  himself  to  the  con- 
gregation under  these  and  such  like  expressions,  viz.  You 
poor  unconverted  Creatures  in  the  Seats,  in  the  Pews,  in  the 
Galleries,  I  wonder  you  don't  drop  into  Hell !  It  would  not 
surprise  me,  I  should  not  wonder  at  it,  if  I  should  see  you 
drop  down  now,  this  Minute  into  Hell.  You  Pharisees, 
Hypocrites,  now,  now,  now,  you  are  going  right  into  the 

'  It  was  published  by  subscription,  and  the  names  of  Hon.  Thomas  Berry> 
Mr.  Joseph  Calfe  and  Rev.  Mr.  John  Rogers  appear  in  the  list  of  sub- 
scribers.   Dr.  Chauncey  was  well  remembered  In  Ipswich. 


DIVISION  IX  THE  PAEISH.  119 

Tk>ttom  of  Hell.     I  wonder  you  don't  drop  into  Hell  by 

Scores  and  Hundreds. 

****** 

After  a  short  prayer,  he  called  for  all  the  Distrest  Per- 
sons (which  were  near  twenty)  into  the  foremost  seats. 
Then  he  came  out  of  the  pulpit  and  stripped  off  his  upper 
Garment  and  got  up  into  the  Seat  and  leapt  up  and  down 
sometime  and  clapt  his  hands  and  cried  out  in  these  words. 
The  War  goes  on,  the  Fight  goes  on,  the  Devil  goes  down, 
the  Devil  goes  down,  and  then  he  betook  himself  to  stamp- 
ing and  screaming  most  dreadfully. 

The  Boston  Post  Boy  published  a  narrative  of  the  disr- 
orders  occasioned  by  Davenport  and  others  like  him. 

This  frequently  frights  the  little  children  and  sets  them 
a  screaming  and  that  frights  their  tender  Mothers  and  sets 
them  to  Screaming  and  by  degrees  spreads  over  a  great 
Part  of  the  Congregation.  And  40,  50,  or  100  of  them 
screaming  all  together  makes  such  an  awful  and  hideous 
^NToise,  as  will  make  a  Man's  hair  stand  on  end.  Some  will 
faint  away,  fall  down  upon  the  floor,  wallow  and  foam. 
Some  women  will  rend  off  their  caps.  Handkerchiefs  and 
other  Clothes,  tear  their  Hair  down  about  their  Ears,  and 
seem  perfectly  bereft  of  their  reason. 

Frightful  as  were  these  portrayals  of  the  impending 
doom  of  the  impenitent,  they  were  no  wise  more  terrible 
than  Jonathan  Edwards's  sermon  ^^Sinners  in  the  hands  of 
an  angry  Grod,"  from  the  text,  "Their  foot  shall  slide  in 
(due)  time."  Puritan  divines  from  the  time  of  Rev. 
Thomas  Shepard  of  Cambridge  were  wont  to  dilate  on  the 
torments  of  the  lost  with  great  unction.  The  preaching 
during  the  Great  Awakening  was  not  so  offensive  to  the 
more  liberal  minded  men  of  the  times  as  the  gross  excesses 
encouraged  by  ignorant  and  fanatical  ranters,  and  this  was 
of  less  account  perhaps  than  the  discredit  and  abuse  cast 
upon    the   ministry.     Whitefield   began    to    assail    "uncon- 


120        IPSWICH.  IN  THK  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 


^f 


verted  ministers"  at  the  beginning  of  his  preaching.       k, 
correspondent  of  the  Boston  Evening  Post  wrote  that 

I  have  several  times  heard  Mr.  Tennent  declare  that  the 
greatest  part  by  far  of  the  Ministers  in  this  land  were  carnal, 
unconverted  men  and  that  thev  held  damnable  Arminian 
principles  and  have  heard  him  pray  that  the  Lord  would 
either  convert  them  or  turn  them  out  of  his  Vineyard. 

He  preached  a  sermon  on  "The  Danger  of  an  unconverted 
Ministry."  In  a  sermon  preached  at  Nottingham,  published 
by  the  Synod  at  Philadelphia,  Mr.  Tennent  indulged  in 
extraordinary   vituperative   epithets  against  the  ministers: 

Hirelings,  Caterpillars,  Pharisees,  plaistered  Hypocrites, 
Varlets,  the  Seed  of  the  Serpent,  dry  Nurses,  dead  Dogs  that 
cannot  bark,  blind  Men,  dead  Men,  Men  possessed  with  the 
Devil,  moral  Negroes,  Judases,  swarms  of  Locusts. 

As  a  natural  result  of  such  denunciations  by  these  promi- 
nent men,  a  great  number  of  ignorant  but  fervid  exhorters 
sprang  up  who  wandered  from  place  to  place,  professing 
that  thev  had  an  immediate  call  from  Heaven,  who  worked 
their  way  into  many  pulpits  and  failing  that,  held  forth  in 
private  houses,  and  sowed  seeds  of  discord  by  insinuating 
that  the  educated  ministry  were  not  sound  in  the  faith, 
and  were  false  to  their  ordination  vows. 

James  Davenport,  already  mentioned,  was  the  chief  of- 
fender, it  would  seem,  and  while  he  was  preaching  at 
Ipswich,  the  Grand  Jury  was  considering  the  charges  that 
were  made  against  him.  They  found  sufficient  cause  to 
draw  up  a  j^resentment  against  him. 

That  one  James  Davenport  of  Southold,  N.  Y.,  Clerk, 
now  resident  in  Boston,  under  the  pretence  of  praying, 
preaching  and  exhorting  at  diverse  places  in  the  Towns  of 
Boston,  and  Dorchester,  ....  in  the  month  of  July  last 
and    August  current  ....  did  in   the   Hearing  of  great 


DIVISION  TX  THE  PAKISH.  121 

numbers  of  the  Subjects  of  our  Lord  the  King,  maliciously 
]iablish   and   with  a  lond  Voice  utter  and  declare  many 
Slanderous  and   reviling  Speeches   against  the  godly   and 
faithful  Ministers  of  the  Gospel  in  this  Province  .... 
That  the  greatest  part  of  the  said  Ministers  ....  were 
carnal  and  unconverted  men;  that  they  knew  nothing  of 
Jesus  Christ  and  that  they  were  leading  their  People  blind- 
fold down  to  Hell  and  that  they  were  destroying  and  mur- 
dering of  Souls  by  Thousands,  ....  the  said  James  Daven- 
port, at  the  same  time,  directing  and  advising  their  hearers 
to  withdraw  from  them,  the  said  Ministers,  and  not  to  hear 
them  preach,  nor  frequent  the  Assemblies  of  Public  Worship, 
where,  they,  the  said  ministers,  taught  and  preached,  for 
that  the  following  and  hearing  of  them  ....  was  as  de- 
structive to  the  Souls  of  those  who  heard  them,  as  swal- 
lo\ving  Rats  Bane  or  Poison  was  to  their  Bodies,  praying  the 
Lord  to  pull  them,  the  said  Ministers,  down  and  put  others 
in  their  place. 

Davenport  was  tried,  and  found  guilty  of  uttering  these 
words,  but  as  the  Court  very  charitably  regarded  him  as 
non-compos-mentis  when  he  spoke,  the  case  was  dismissed. 
While  he  was  in  Ipswich,  Mr.  Pickering,  Pastor  of  the 
Chebaeco  Church,  refused  to  allow  him  to  preach  in  his 
pulpit.  Some  of  his  people  were  dissatisfied  with  his  op- 
Ix)sition  to  the  revival,  as  they  regarded  it,  and  wished  him 
to  promote  it.  Meetings  were  held  in  his  Parish,  attended 
by  Mr.  White  of  Gloucester,  Mr.  Emerson  of  Maiden  and 
the  brothers,  Eev.  Nathaniel  and  Rev.  Daniel  Rogers  of 
Ipswich.  Mr.  Pickering  complained  of  their  intrusion  into 
his  domain  and  a  considerable  correspondence  with  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Rogers  resulted.  In  the  end,  the  dissatisfaction 
became  so  great  that  twenty-six  members  withdrew  and 
formed  a  new  church  in  Chebaeco,  called  the  Fourth  Church, 
in  March,  1744. 

Daniel  Rogers  was  evidently  very  progressive  in  his  atti- 
tude toward  the  established  polity  of  the  time.  In  »Tuly, 
1742,  he  was  ordained  at  York.     A  communication  in  the 


122        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Boston  Evening  Post  of  Xov.  22,  styles  it  an  unlawful  as- 
sembly 

to  ordain  the  said  R — s  at  large,  to  be  a  vagrant  preacher 
to  the  people  of  God  in  this  land ;  contrary  to  the  peace  of 
our  Lord  the  King  and  Head  of  his  Church  and  to  the 
good  order  and  constitution  of  the  churches  in  New  England 
as  established  by  the  Platform. 

Some  of  the  neighboring  ministers  refused  to  approve  this 
irregular  action.  An  extremely  exciting  episode  was  in- 
jected into  the  revival  services  in  Ipswich  by  the  appearance 
of  Richard  Woodbury  of  Rowley,  an  itinerant  exhorter,  who 
had  been  ordained  in  some  irregular  way  to  be  an  Evangelist. 
The  Boston  Gazette  of  July  24*^  1744,  tells  the  story : 

Here  his  language  was  blasphemous  and  profane  and  his 
public  and  private  conduct  ridiculous  and  absurd.  He  pro- 
fessed to  come  as  a  special  messenger  from  Gk)d,  authorized 
not  only  to  teach  but  to  pronounce  temporal  curses  on  the 
rebellious  ....  He  pretended  to  cast  out  devils  and 
work  other  miracles,  and  sometimes  he  drank  healths  to 
**King  Jesus"  and  to  "the  King  of  Kings  and  Lord  of 
Lords." 

The  venerable  Senior  Pastor,  Rev.  John  Rogers  testified 
that  notwithstanding  the  disturbance  thus  occasioned  for  a 
time,  the  good  work  of  grace  was  still  going  on  among  the 
people. 

Jonathan  Edwards  published  his  "Thoughts  on  the  Re- 
vival of  Religion  in  New  England"  in  1742  and  suggested 
in  that  work  that  a  history  of  the  progress  of  the  revival 
should  be  published  at  frequent  intervals,  to  receive  accounts 
from  every  quarter.  In  accordance  with  this  suggestion, 
Rev.  Thomas  Prince,  published  his  "Christian  History"  for 
a  little  while.  One  of  the  most  interesting  communications 
was  the  letter  from  Rev.  John  Rogers. 


DIVISION  IN  TUE  PARISH.  123 

Rev.  &  Dear  Brethren : 

I  shall  on  the  very  Day  of  your  proposed  meeting,  viz. 
July  7"*,  (God  continuing  my  Life  to  that  Day)  enter  on  the 
78'"*  year  of  my  Age  and  in  the  54'**  of  my  ministry.  And 
now  desire,  as  I  have  utmost  reason,  to  bless  God,  who  has 
given  me  to  see  a  Day  of  such  marvellous  Power  and  Grace, 
particularly  in  this  place,  and  since  the  Rev.  Mr.  White- 
field  and  Tennent  came  among  us,  wherein  great  numbers 
of  our  young  people  and  others  of  more  advanced  age,  give 
clear  evidence  of  a  saving  change  wrought  in  them,  and  by 
the  fruits  of  the  Spirit  shew  that  they  are  bom  of  the  Spirit, 
And  many  Persons  of  Christian  experience  before  have  been 
greatly  i^vived,  inriched  with  grace,  stablished  and  com- 
forted by  a  new  Influence,  in  &  through  the  Word  read  & 
preached.  This  I  have  found  by  my  best  Observations,  in 
general  and  more  intimate  Conversation  with  many  of  these 
Scores  yea,  I  think  I  may  say.  Hundreds  living  here  &  in 
the  Neighborhood  and  with  several  from  distant  places,  who 
universally  speak  the  same  language,  all  giving  testimony 
by  their  Experience  to  the  Truth  of  Gospel  Doctrines  of 
Grace. 

John  Rogers. 

Ipswich,  July  2,  1743. 

Mr.  Rogers  died  of  palsy  on  Dec.  28***,  1745,  in  his 
eightieth  year.  The  Parish  bore  the  expense  of  his  funeral, 
funeral  rings  £22-108.,  mourning  gloves  £7-10s,  Mr.  Pick- 
man  for  sundries  £22-15s.  and  miscellaneous  expense,  £141- 
14s.  Id.  The  gravestone  was  erected  at  the  expense  of 
the  Parish. 

The  strenuous  resistance  of  the  First  Parish  to  the  various 
petitions  for  division  which  have  been  considered,  will  ap- 
pear very  reasonable  and  justifiable,  when  due  regard  is 
paid  to  an  ominous  desire  for  a  separation  of  the  people 
of  the  South  side  of  the  Town,  which  was  evidently  gather- 
ing force  for  more  than  twenty  years  before  the  new  Parish 
was  established.  In  the  year,  1725,  a  petition  was  ad- 
dressed to  the  First  Parish  bv  certain  "inhabitants  of  the 


124        IPSWICU,  IX    THE   MASSACHUSETTS  BAY   COLONY. 

South  side  of  the  River,  praying  that  they  may  be  permitted 
to  build  a  meeting  house  and  support  a  minister  on  their 
own  account.     There  is  no  record  of  the  exact  nature  of 
this  petition,  but  it  is  a  matter  of  record  that  it  was  read 
at  a  legal  meeting  of  the  First  Parish,  N^ovember  17,  1725 
and  referred  to  a  Committee  consisting  of  Thomas  Berry, 
Esq.,   Samuel  Wallis,   Jr.,  Mr.  Edward  Eveleth,  Captain 
Daniel  Rindge,  Sergeant  Dillingham  Caldwell,  Mr.  Thomas 
Iforton,  Lieut  Robert  Lord,  Mr.   Jonathan  Fellows,   Mr. 
Daniel  Appleton,  Mr.  John  Choate,  Lieut  Nathaniel  Hart 
and  Mr.  John  Baker,  to  consider  the  petition  and  report 
at  the  next  meeting.     This  Committee  reported  on  the  eighth 
of  December,  1725,  and  it  was 

Voted,  That  when  and  so  soon  as  the  Petitioners  or  a 
major  part  of  the  Proprietors  or  Inhabitants  in  the  South 
side  of  the  River  have  erected  and  built  a  public  meeting 
house  on  the  South  side  the  River,  and  have  the  Word  of 
Gk)d  there  publickly  preached  and  do  acquit  their  Interest 
in  this  meeting  house  on  ye  Xorth  side  the  River,  Then 
they,  the  Petitioners  on  the  South  side  the  river  with  as 
many  of  the  Proprietors  and  Inhabitants  living  on  the  South 
side  the  river,  as  shall  see  cause  to  Joyn  with  them,  and  all 
those  that  may  regularly  and  legally  be  obtained  to  Joyn 
with  them  in  Building  said  meeting  house  or  in  Calling, 
Settleing  and  Maintaining  a  minister  with  them,  that  shall 
with  their  lands  and  estates  on  the  South  side  the  River, 
as  also  all  skirts  and  Pieces  of  land  belonging  to  out-town 
persons,  in  the  First  Parish  in  Ipswich,  be  set  off  to  become 
a  separate  and  distinct  Parish,  and  shall  be  freed  and  ex- 
empted from  paying  to  any  Parish  rate  and  Taxes  here  in 
the  North* 

For  reasons  to  be  noted  hereafter  the  petitioners  did  not 

avail  themselves  at  the  time,  of  the  liberty  thus  given 
them,  and  there  is  no  further  intimation  of  a  desire  for 
separation  until  1746,  though  we  may  imagine  that  this 
desire  may  have  been  stimulated  afresh  by  the  Parish  vote 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAEI8H.  125 

of  April  12**,  1744,  whereby  the  Linebrook  Parish  was  set 
off. 

The  meeting  house  erected  in  1699-1700  was  now  too 
small  for  the  accommodation  of  the  worshippers.  As  early 
as  1731  a  Committee  of  the  Parish  was  appointed  to  recom- 
mend plans  for  enlarging  the  house,  and  from  that  time  on- 
ward a  variety  of  makeshifts  was  constantly  proposed  to 
make  the  requisite  room.  The  old  house  was  rapidly  be- 
coming unfit  as  well  for  public  worship,  and  Committees 
on  repair  succeeded  each  other  rapidly.     The  great  revival 

under  the  preaching  of  Whitefield  and  Tennent  in  1742 
added  one  hundred  and  twenty  three  to  the  membership  in 

about  two  years  and  in  1746,  it  has  been  estimated®  that 
there  were  three  hundred  and  four  members.  On  the  third 
of  March,  following  the  death  of  the  Senior  Pastor,  Jona- 
than Wade,  Esq.,  Col.  John  Choate  and  a  large  number  of 
the  inhabitants  of  the  parish  "living  in  ye  south  side  the 
river'',  renewed  their  petition : 

The  Memorial  of  the  Subscribers,  Freeholders  and  other 
Inhabitants  of  y*  sd  First  Parish  Living  on  y**  South  side 
of  the  Kiver  called  Ipswich  River. 

Humbly  Showeth 

That  the  sd  Parish  thro'  y®  Favour  of  Divine  Providence 
were  so  increased  and  many  so  Remote  as  to  render  their 
Meetings  together  in  One  Place  Difficult  &  Inconvenient 
so  long  ago  as  that  in  the  year  1725  on  Application  made 
for  a  Separate  Parish  on  y®  s*  South  Side  by  a  large  num- 
ber of  s^  South  Side  Inhabitants  y®  s*  First  Parish  tho' 
Loath  to  part  with  us  were  so  Sensible  of  the  Reasonableness 
of  the  Request  as  to  pass  a  Vote  for  the  Dismission  of  so 
many  of  them  as  had  Joyned  or  should  thereafter  Joyn  in 
that  affair    .... 

That  y*  s*  Inhabitants  apprehending  their  Departing 
from  y*  s*  Parish  during  y®  Life  of  their  Dear  &  Venerable 
Pastor,  the  Rev.  M'  John  Rogers,  who  then  had  be^i  their 
minister  almost  Forty  years,  might  not  only  be  Grievious 

•  Felt,  History  of  Ipswich. 


126        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

to  him,  but  also  Deprive  themselves  of  y*  Benefit  of  his 
Future  Labours  in  which  they  have  had  the  greatest  Delight 
&  Satisfaction.  These  with  some  other  Considerations  have 
Induced  them  under  Circumstances  of  great  Difficulty  to  con- 
tinue with  y®  8^  First  Parish  until  this  Time  the  afores* 
Vote  Notwithstanding. 

But  a  Sovereign  God  having  lately  Removed  our  s*  Rev* 
Pastor  by  Death,  and  y**  Parish  being  too  large  &  Extensive 
for  one  Minister  to  take  Care  off,  or  to  meet  in  One  House, 
We  Conceive  it  necessary  to  Divide  into  Two  Parishes  And 
as  y®  s*  River  Running  thro'  y*  s*  Parish  Divides  y*  same 
in  a  Convenient  Manner  for  that  Purpose,  We  your  Memo- 
rialists Humbly  Pray   that  you  would  now  Sett  off   into 
a  Separate  Parish  all  y®  Persons  of  s*  Parish  living     on 
8*  South  Side  with  all  their  Lands,  Meadows  &  Estates, 
both  Real  and  Personal  now  belonging  to  y*  s*  First  Parish 
on  y®  South  Side  of  y*  s*  River  .... 


And  To  Enforce  this  our  Petition  We  would  Beg  Leave 
to  Assure  our  Brethren  of  the  First  Parish  that  it  is  not 
from  any  Dislike  off  or  Discontent  towards  them  or  our 
Surviving  Worthy  Pastor  y®  Rev**  Mr.  Nath^  Rogers  with 
whom  we  could  gladly  continue  were  it  longer  needful  or 
convenient  for  us,  which  that  it  is  not  may  Appear  from 
the  Following  Considerations. 

First.  For  that  the  Parish  at  this  Time  is  so  large 
that  is  sufficient  to  make  Two  either  of  which  will  be  Con- 
siderably larger  than  most  of  the  Parishes  round  about  us. 

Secondly,  For  Ihat  the  Parish  having  now  but  One  Min- 
ister and  their  Meeting  House  altogether  Unfit  to  meet  in, 
it  would  Seem  Unreasonable  for  us  to  joyn  in  y®  Charge 
of  another  Minister  &  House  where  we  can't  be  accommo- 
dated thereby,  but  must  be  attended  with  111  Consequences 
to  both  Parties. 

Thirdly,  For  that  We  Apprehend  it  would  be  Imprac- 
ticable to  Build  One  House  that  would  with  any  tolerable 
Conveniency  or  Decency  hold  all  the  People  at  this  Time, 
much  less  for  y*  future  should  our  Numbers  Increase  as  in 
Reason  we  may  Expect.  And  to  Build  an  House  with  a 
view  to  continue  together  that  in  Human  Probabilitv  wo'nt 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAEISH.  127 

Hold  y**  People  Crowded  never  so  much  or  thick  One  Quar- 
ter of  the  Time  the  House  will  last  must  be  a  Conduct  not 
easily  Accounted  for,  tho  we  Humbly  Hope  y®  great  Incon- 
venience that  has  attended  our  Familys  thro'  want  of  Sutable 
Hoom  in  the  Meeting  House  for  Twenty  Years  past  may 
^Excuse  us  of  Rashness  in  Desiring  more  Comfortable  Ac- 
commodations for  the  Future. 

Fourthly,  For  that  as  we  are  mostly  Farmers  with  large 
Familys  and  so  Remote  from  the  present  House  as  to  Ren- 
der it  Difficult  to  meet  there  or  to  Return  Home  between 
Meetings,  whereby  great  Loss  &  Damage  Ensue,  Unrea- 
sonable to  be  Bom  when  we  are  able  better  to  Provide  for 
ourselves  which  is  the  present  Case,  However  it  may  bo 
when  a  Parish  is  small  as  was  the  Case  when  they  first  Built 
together. 


Relying  Therefore  on  your  Justice  &  Goodness  upon  the 

Reason  Given  to  Grant  this  our  most  Reasonable  Petition, 
we  Subscribe  ourselves,  Gentlemen,  your  Friends  &  Brethren. 

Isaac  Appleton^  Stephen  Brown 

Joseph  Appleton  William  Brown 

Nath' Appleton  William  Brown,  Jr. 

Oliver  Appleton  John  Burnam 

Oliver  Appleton,  Jr.  Thos.  Burnam 

John  Baker  Thos.  Burnam  y®  4*** 

John  Bennett  John  Choate 

John  Boardman  Samuel  Choate 

John  Boardman,  Jr.  Philemon  Dane 

Timothy  "•  "•*  Bragg  Philemon  Dane,  Jr. 

Timothy  Bragg,  Jr.  John  Day 

Benj"  Brown  William  Dodge 

Elisha  Brown  Joseph  Fellows 

John  Brown  Joseph  Fellows,  Jr. 

Nath'  Brown  Joseph  Fowler,  Jr. 

'  These  names  have   been   arransred  alphabetically  for  convenience   of 
reference. 


128        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MAB8A0HUSBTTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Ebenezer  Fuller  Westly  Perkins 

Naty  Fuller  Anthony  Potter 

Benj.  Grant  Daniel  Potter 

Daniel  Hodgkins  Eobert  Potter 

Increase  How  Jeoffrey  Purcil 

Thomas  Hunt  Samuel  Einge 

Benj.  Kinsman  Daniel  Ross,  Jr. 

John  Kinsman  Jonathan  Boss 

PaP  Kinsman  Jacob  Smith 

Thomas  Kinsman  Stephen  Smith 

John  Lakeman  William  Stone^  Jr. 

Nath.  Low.  Jonathan  Wade 

Thos.  Xorton  Nath'  Wells 

Jacob  Perkins  Daniel  Wood 

The  Committee  to  which  this  petition  was  referred,  re- 
ported on  March  10"*,  1746-6,  that  it  should  be  granted, 
but  the  Parish  voted  in  the  negative.  A  new  complication 
now  arose.  On  the  death  of  Rev.  John  Bogers  in  Decem- 
ber, 1745,  Bev.  Mr.  Boby  was  invited  to  preach  a  month 
as  an  assistant  to  the  Bev.  Nathaniel  Rogers,  who  had  been 
the  colleague  pastor  since  1727.  His  brother,  Mr.  Daniel 
Rogers,  who  had  preached  "off  and  on  during  six  years", 
was  a  candidate.  Rev.  John  Walley  of  Boston  also  preached 
a  month^  and  on  June  12*^,  1746,®  was  chosen  to  be  assis- 
tant to  Mr.  Rogers  for  six  months  "by  a  great  majority." 
A  vigorous  minority  of  South  side  people,  however,  was 
pledged  to  Mr.  Daniel  Rogers  and  they  intimated  that  they 
should  desire  to  draw  off  and  settle  him  as  their  minister.*^ 

Every  effort  possible  in  the  interest  of  peace,  seems  to 
have  been  made  by  the  Parish.  A  Committee  was  appointed 
on  Sept.  1"*,  1746  "to  Consider  of  some  Form  &  Dimen- 
sions of  a  Meeting  House  &  of  a  place  to  Sett  it,  that  may 

*  Parish  Record,  First  MemorJal  to  the  General  Court. 
♦Parish  Record,  First  Parish. 
"  Parish  Record,  First  Parish. 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAKISH.  129 

be    acconimodable   for   this   Parish  .  .  .  ."     Col.    Thomas 
Berry,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  reported  a  week  later. 

....  Although  a  meeting  House  of  sixty  Feet  broad 
and  Eighty  feet  long  may  be  Built  and  erected  on  the  LeveP^ 
between  the  Bridge  &  Maj'  Appleton's  Garden,  which  might 
Accomodate  the  Parish  for  a  long  time  to  Come,  yet  in- 
asmuch as  a  considerable  number  of  Persons  on  y®  South 
Side  appear  very  Desirous  of  having  a  House  in  some  proper 
place  among  them  whereby  their  Attendance  on  the  publick 
Worship  of  (jod  may  be  rendered  more  convenient  and  ac- 
cordingly some  Determin'd  under  Couler  of  the  Parish  Vote 
Relating  to  a  Parish  on  s*  South  side  past  y®  Eighth  of  De- 
cember, A.  D.  1725  to  Separate  or  Draw  off  themselves  from 
this  Parish  unless  otherways  Provided  for  their  accommo- 
dation as  afores'd,  which  Separation  should  it  take  Effect 
beside  the  Hardship  it  might  Impose  on  a  great  if  not  a 
greater  Number  of  s*  South  Side  Inhabitants  who  appear 
to  be  against  it  might  &  probably  would  under  the  present 
Circumstances  of  the  Parish  Lay  the  Foundation  of  the 
greatest  Disorder  &  Confusion  if  not  Euin  of  the  whole. 

And  inasmuch  as  Two  Houses  may  be  Built  when  needed 
with  ye  same  or  less  Cost  than  the  House  proposed  and 
with  vastly  less  Difficulty  and  One  of  them  Sett  on  s*  South 
Side  convenient  for  the  Inhabitants  there  and  yet  not  so 
far  off  but  that  another  Minister  being  Settled  may  to- 
gether alternately  with  the  Kev**  Mr.  Nath*  Rogers  Preach 
in  either  of  them  wherby  the  Peace  and  Unity  of  this  People 
may  be  preserved  and  a  sad  Train  of  Evils  Prevented,  the 
Reason  of  s^  Vote  Satisfy'd  &  every  just  Complaint  of  s** 
South  Side  People  Removed. 

Therefore  that  a  convenient  Meeting  House  ....  be  at 
y*  Expense  of  y®  whole  Parish  forthwith  or  as  soon  as  may  be 
Built  &  Erected  on  y®  Green  between  y""  Homestead  of  Jona- 
than Wade,  Esq.  and  the  Homestead  late  of  y*'  Rev*  M"*  John 
Rogers,  Dec*,^^  ^f  ^^^  Dimensions  of  Forty  Feet  Wide  and 
Sixty  Feet  long  and  Twenty-Two  Feet  Stud,  to  have  a  suit- 
able proportion  of  Sash  Glass  Eights  &  Tens  to  Contain 
One  Tier  of  Galleries  Six  Seats  Deep  to  have  Sixty  Pew.i 

"Where  the  monument  to  the  "Unknown  Dead"  now  stands. 
»  The  southern  end  of  the  South  Common. 


130        IPSWIOH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

on  the  Floor  and  y*  remainder  of  y®  Floor  to  be  Built  with 
convenient  Seats  to  be  Cieled  Overhead  and  in  every  other 
Respect  to  be  Finished  in  a  comely  sutable  &  decent  Man- 
ner. That  Four  of  s*  Pews  in  such  part  as  y*  Parish  shall 
Direct  be  Reserved  for  the  Use  of  Strangers  Occasionally 
Meeting  there  and  the  Use  of  the  North  side  of  y*  River 
People  &  One  Ministerial  Pew  and  that  the  remaining  part 
of  s*  Pews  be  to  y*  Use  of  such  of  y*  Inhabitants  of  s* 
South  Side  as  shall  Chuse  to  Buy  them 

(The  Committee  further  recommended  that  when  the 
people  on  the  North  side  desired,  the  old  meeting  house 
should  be  taken  down  and  a  new  one  built  on  a  spot  deter- 
mined by  the  majority,  five  feet  wider,  five  feet  longer  and 
one  foot  higher,  with  similar  provision  for  seating.) 

And  inasmuch  as  a  speedy  Settlement  of  some  Ortho- 
dox godly  Minister  of  a  Blameless  Life  and  of  good  Report 
toward  all  as  a  Colleague  with  our  present  Pastor  y*  Rev* 
M'  Nathaniel  Rogers  to  Preach  &tc.  Interchangeably  with 
him  in  y*  s**  two  Houses  namely  the  One  in  the  Forenoon 
on  the  North  and  y*  other  on  y*  South  Side  and  to  Change 
in  the  afternoon,  whereby  People  of  different  Sentiments 
&  Inclinations  may  more  likely  be  Suited  at  least  for  one 
part  of  the  day  in  the  House  next  to  them  or  all  the  day 
by  going  to  y®  House  where  the  Minister  Preaches  they  best 
like,  which  any  Person  is  allow'd  to  do  without  Offence  to 
others  might  have  an  happy  Tendency  to  quiet  the  Minds  of 
all  and  continue  that  Peace  with  Truth  that  this  Parish  has 
so  long  been  Blest  with. 

The  Parish  voted  to  accept  this  report  but  the  Rogers 
party  made  such  factious  opposition  that  it  was  reconsidered 
on  October  25*^  and  on  Nov.  25"^,  1746,  Col.  Berry,  Mr. 
Joseph  Appleton,  John  Tredwell,  Increase  How,  Nathaniel 
Lord  and  Col.  Choate  were  appointed  a  Committee**  to 
agree  on  some  proper  method  of  enlarging  or  altering  the 
old  meeting  house  and  putting  it  in  good  repair. 

^  Parish  Record,  First  Memorial  to  General  Court 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAEISH.  131 

The  friends  of  Mr.  Walley  were  eager  to  secure  his  set- 
tlement and  pressed  the  Pastor  to  lead  in  the  matter.  Mr. 
Rogers  was  bitterly  opposed  to  him,  however,  for  reasons 
that  are  now  unknown.  Many  attempts  to  secure  harmony 
seem  to  have  been  made,  but  to  no  purpose.  A  letter  written 
by  Josiah  Willard,  Secretary  of  the  Province,  bearing 
no  address,  but  evidently  intended  for  Mr.  Rogers,  urged 
him  to  a  more  reasonable  mind.^* 

Sir: 

I  have  been  informed  of  the  good  affection  of  a  great 
Xiimber  of  People  in  the  first  Parish  of  Ipswich  to  M'  John 
Walley  &  their  Desire  of  having  him  settled  among  them 
in  the  Ministry  &  that  great  Difficulties  &  Obstructions  have 
arisen  in  this  affair  by  your  Conduct  &  especially  by  your 
diverting  the  Church  from  passing  such  Votes  and  Resolu- 
tions herein  as  they  would  certainly  do  if  they  were  admitted 
to  Signify  their  Minds  by  a  regular  Vote.  I  may  be  mis- 
informed in  these  Matters,  But  lest  there  sh*  be  too  much 
Ground  for  this  Complaint,  I  think  myself  obliged  to  let 
you  know  that  I  have  not  only  often  heard  Mr.  Walley 
preach,  but  have  a  very  intimate  and  familiar  Acquaintance 
with  him  &  esteem  him  to  be  a  sound  and  judicious  Divine, 
a  Serious  humble  inward  Christian  &  a  Person  of  great 
Prudence  &  excellent  Temper  &  one  that  is  like  to  be  the 
Instrum*  of  as  much  Happiness  to  you  and  your  People 
if  he  should  settle  among  you  as  any  Man  I  know  of  in  the 
World  and  I  must  intreat  you  to  consider  how  unhappy  the 
Consequence  may  be  of  your  preventing  the  peaceable  and 
....  settlement  of  a  Gentleman  of  so  good  &  unblemished 
a  Character  &  how  much  you  may  regrate  it  hereafter  if 
your  People  sh*  either  fall  into  grievous  Division  and  Con- 
tention if  a  Person  of  different  Qualitie  settled  among 
them 

Mr.  Rogers  refused  to  regard  this  and  every  other  appeal 
and  at  last,  despairing  of  securing  their  pastor's  approval, 
the  prominent  friends  of  Mr.  Walley,  Col.  Berry,  Major 
Appleton,  Mr.  Eveleth,  Mr.  Potter  and  others,  cast  in  their 

>«  Mass.  Archives  12:  375. 


132        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

lot  with  Jonathan  Wade  and  the  others,  inhabitants  of  the 
South  side,  already  clamoring  for  division. 

On  December  2°**,  1746,  sixty-eight  members  of  the  Parish 
signed  an  agreement  pledging  themselves  to  be  incorporated 
as  a  separate  Parish  as  soon  as  the  favorable  action  of  the 
General  Court  could  be  secured,  and  to  build  a  meeting 
house  on  the  "Green  or  Level  on  the  South  side".  They 
addressed  a  Memorial  to  the  First  Parish  on  December  19"* 
praying  to  be  set  off  as  a  distinct  body. 

That  in  Consideration  of  the  Insuperable  Difficulties  that 
have  &  do  still  attend  every  Method  taken  for  the  Settlement 
of  a  Minister  as  a  Colleague  with  our  present  Pastor  .... 
together  with  y®  great  Improbability  that  appears  of  keep- 
ing the  Parish  together  thereby  but  that  a  Division  seems 
inevitable ;  which  if  effected  in  the  Way  that  has  been  pur- 
sued to  us  looks  likely  to  bring  both  Parishes,  under  Unhappy 
&  Uncomfortable  circumstances. 

In  Consideration  also  that  a  Division  of  s**  Parish  in  y* 
Way  we  herein  after  propose  will  not  only  Accommodate 
y®  Inhabitants  with  convenient  Eoom  &  bring  a  Meeting 
House  nearer  to  many  of  those  that  now  Live  remote:  but 
will  likely  be  attended  with  peaceable  Effects  with  respect 
to  the  whole  inasmuch  as  every  Man  will  be  at  Liberty  to 
joyn  in  the  N'ew  or  Tarry  in  the  Old  House  as  he  Chuses; 
which  under  our  peculiar  Circumstances  seems  necessary  to 
be  Regarded  in  Order  both  to  our  Peace  and  Spiritual  Edi- 
fication For  which  purpose  a  Number  of  us  have  by  a  Writ- 
ing under  our  Hands  Covenanted  and  agreed  that  We  with 
our  Associates  with  the  Leave  of  the  Grovemment  will  Build 
a  Meeting  House  on  s^  South  Side  for  y®  publick  Worship 
of  God  and  Settle  therein  a  Gospel  Minister  as  by  a  Copy 
herewith  Exhibited  will  appear. 

Wherefore  W^e  Prav  that  vou  would  Sett  off  y®  Subscrib- 
ers  thereto  with  all  such  others  as  shall  hereafter  Associate 
or  Joyn  with  us  together  with  all  our  Estates  on  both  sides 
of  y®  River  into  a  distinct  &  separate  Parish,  We  paying 
Ministerial  Charges  with  you  that  may  necessarily  arise  un- 
til we  have  preaching  among  ourselves. 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PABISH. 


133 


Daniel  Appleton^' 
John  Appleton 
Joseph  Appleton 
Nath*  Appleton 
Oliver  Appleton 
Oliver  Appleton,  Jr. 
John  Baker,  jun'. 
Thomas  Berry 
John  Boardman 
John  Boardman  y*  3* 
Timothy  Bra^,  Jr. 
Stephen  Brown 
William  Brown,  Jr. 
Andrew  Burley 
Andrew  Burley,  Jr. 
John  Choate 
Samuel  Choate 
Emerson  Cogswell 
Philemon  Dane 
Abner  Day 
Edward  Eveleth 
Joseph  Foster 
Nathan  Foster 
Dan'  Fuller 
Ebenezer  Fuller 
Nath.  Fuller 
Benj.  Grant 
Xath.  Grant 


John  Hart 
Dan^  Hodgkin 
Thomas  Hodgkins 
Increase  How 
Sam^  Howard 
Eph.  Jewett 
Paltiah  Kinsman 
Stephen  Kinsman 
Joseph  Manning 
Thos.  Norton 
Thomas  Pears 
Westly  Perkins 
Aaron  Potter 
Jonathan  Prince 
Benjamin  Bobbins 
William  Bobbins 
Daniel  Ross,  Jr. 
Jonathan  Boss 
Dana  Smith 
Isaac  Smith 
Jacob  Smith 
Jeremiah  Smith 
Joseph  Smith 
Dan*  Staniford 
William  Stone 
Jonathan  Wade 
Timothy  Wade 
Sam*  Waite 


This  received  a  negative  vote  and  on  Dec.  24"*  they 
addressed  a  Memorial  to  the  General  Court  asking  their  fav- 
orable decree.  Notice  of  this  Memorial  was  sent  to  the 
First  Parish,  and  on  Jan.  6,  1747,  the  Parish  voted 

That  the  Parish  build  a  meeting  house  for  the  South 

^  These  Aames  are  arranged  alphabetically  for  convenience  of  reference. 


134        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MAflSAOHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

side  and  allow  a  separate  minister,  each  to  attend  where  lie 
pleased,  and  to  repair  the  old  house  for  the  present,  but 
continue  one  Parish. 

The  original  position  of  the  first  petitioners  for  a  meeting 
house  on  the  South  side,  that  this  was  necessary  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  South  side  people,  had  now  been  so 
confused  with  later  issues  that  had  been  injected  into  the 
controversy  that  at  this  juncture,  some!  of  the  leaders  in 
the  division  lived  near  the  meeting-house  on  the  North  side, 
and  many  of  the  South  side  folk  now  pronounced  in  favor 
of  repairing  the  meeting  house  and  preserving  the  unity 
of  the  Parish : 

To  the  First  Parish  in  Ipswich. 
Q^ntlemen : 

Whereas  it  is  apprehended  by  some  that  the  expence  & 
Difficulty  that  may  arise  from  the  Building  of  the  Two 
Meeting  Houses  and  Dividing  into  Two  Churches  as  Voted 
by  the  Parish  might  be  prevented  by  a  Settlement  together ; 
But  the  Liberty  that  the  South  Side  of  the  River  Inhabi- 
tants in  s*  Parish  have  of  Drawing  off  when  they  Please 
by  the  Parish  Vote  of  the  Eighth  of  December,  1725,  is  a 
Discouragement  to  our  Settling  &  Continueing  in  One  Parish 
tho'  greatly  desired  by  many.  Wherefore  To  Remove  such 
Discouragement  and  that  we  may  Settle  together  forthwith, 
We  the  Subscribers,  Inhabitants  of  s*  South  Side  do  hereby 
Promise  &  Engage  to  s*  Parish  that  in  Case  the  Parish  will 
Repair  the  Old  Meeting  House,  make  as  many  more  Pews 
for  the  Accommodation  of  the  People  as  with  Convenience 
they  can  and  Settle  as  afores'd,  that  then  neither  We  nor 
our  Heirs  will  take  any  Advantage  of  s*  Vote  for  Drawing 
off  until  there  be  another  Vacancy  in  the  Ministry,  or  if 
we  should  take  Advantage  of  s*  Vote  and  Draw  off  before 
such  Vacancy  happens.  We  will  take  the  minister  now  to  be 
Settled  and  Support  him  as  our  Pastor. 

Provided  that  no  Expense  shall  arise  to  our  Persons  or 
Estates  for  the  Building  a  New  Meeting  House  or  Settling 
any  other  minister  than  the  One  now  Proposed  to  be  Settled 
in  the  North  Side  without  the  Express  Consent  of  the  major 


DIVISION  IN  THE  PAKISH. 


135 


part  of  their  Interest  in  y®  e*  South  Side  Provided  also  that 
this  Agreement  shall  not  be  Binding  in  any  until  a  Major 
Part  of  the  Inhabitants  in  s*  South  Side  have  Sign'd  it  the 
whole  to  be  void  unless  signed  by  Monday,  the  second  of 
Mardi  next  at  Two  of  the  Clock  in  the  afternoon. 

Dated  February  y*  25"*,  1746. 


William  Adams 

David  Andrews 

Isaac  Appleton,  Jr. ' 

John  Appleton,  Jr. 

Joseph  Ayers 

Mary  ^^^^  Ayers 

Samuel  Ayers 

John  Bennet 

Abel  Boardman 

Jacob  Boarman 
Mary  Brown 

Maiy  ^^,^  Brown,  Jr. 

John  Bumam 

Joshua  Bumam 

Thos.  Bumam 
Thos.  Bumam  y*  4*^ 
George  Burroughs 

Josiah  Burroughs 

John  Caldwell,  jun' 

Samuel  Chipman 

John  Choate 

Francis  Cogswell,  Jr. 

Mr.  Francis  Cummings 

Isaac  CummingB 

Joseph  Cummings 

Joseph  Cummings,  Jr. 

Thomas  Cummings 

Philemon  Dane 

Stephen  Emerson 


Joseph  Fellows 

Joseph  Fellows,  Jr. 

William  Fellows 

Abraham  Fitts 

Ebenezer  Fitts 

Jeremiah  Fitts 

John  Fitts 

Joseph  Fowler 

James  Fuller 

John  Gfoodhue 

William  Fuller 

George  Hart 

Nath^  Hart 

Thos.  Hodgkins 

Increase  How 

Samuel  Howard 

Ezekiel  Hunt 
Thomas  Hunt 

William  Hunt 

William  Jones 

John  Kimball 

Benj.  Kinsman 

John  Kinsman 

Paltiah  Kinsman 
Isaac  Knowlton 

John  Lakeman 

Samuel  Lakeman 

Silvanus  Lakeman,  Jr. 

John  Lampson 


136        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 


John  Larapson,  Jr. 
Nath*  Low 
Thomdike  Low 
John  Manning 
Richard  Manning 
Tho.  Norton 
Thos.  Pears 
Francis  Perkins 
Jacob  Perkins 
John  Perkins 
Westlv  Perkins 
Anthony  Potter 
Dan*  Potter 
Jonathan  Potter 
Richard  Potter 
Robert  Potter 
Tho'.  Potter 
Samuel  Rindge 
Benj.  Robbins 


William  Robbins 
Samuel  Rogers 
Lydia  Smith 
Stephen  Smith 
Dan*  Staniford 
William  Stone 
Abraham  Tilton 
Jabez  Tredwell 
John  Tredwell 
Jonathan  Wade 
Timothy  Wade 
John  Wainwright  for  my 

interest  on  sd.  side 
Mr.  Robert  Wales 
Sarah  Wallis 
Daniel  Warner,  Jr. 
Moses  Wells 
Henry  Wise 
Daniel  Wood 


It  was  still  thought  that  peace  might  be  secured.  Work 
on  the  new  house  was  suspended  and  after  a  day  of  fasting 
and  prayer  for  guidance,  the  Church  and  Parish  by  a  very 
strong  vote  invited  Mr.  Walley  to  settle  with  them. 

Mr.  Rogers  now  discovered  fresh  difficulty,  *^Mr.  Walley 
was  against  inviting  into  his  pulpit  such  persons  that  had 
encouraged  the  separation  at  Boston."  It  was  proposed  that 
a  council  be  called  to  consider  this  or  any  other  objections 
in  the  way  of  Mr.  Walley's  settlement.  Mr.  Rogers  refused 
to  join  in  this  "alledging  he  had  light  enough  already,  and 
that  if  forty  of  them  came,  he  should  not  regard  them."^* 

May  twenty-first,  1747,  the  Parish,  having  learned  of  diffi- 
culties that  have  arisen  between  Mr.  Rogers  and  Mr.  Walley, 
voted  "That  the  Church  be  desired  to  use  their  endeavors 


^  Parish  Record,  Second  Memorial. 


DIVISION  JJS'  THE  PAKISH.  137 

that  said  difficulty  may  be  removed  that  so  ye  said  settlement 
may  be  consumated  as  soon  as  may  be." 

Mr.  Eogers  refused  utterly  to  lead  any  further  in  the  mat- 
ter, and  on  the  last  Wednesday  of  May,  1747,  Colonel  Berry 
and  others  addressed  a  second  Memorial  to  the  General 
Court,  stating  their  fresh  grievance  and  renewing  their  re- 
quest for  incorporation.  This  was  granted  June  nineteenth, 
and  on  July  21,  1747,  the  South  Church  was  organized. 
The  Parish  was  organized  August  4*^,  1747,  by  the  choice 
of  Thomas  N^orton,  Parish  Clerk,  and  Major  Daniel  Apple- 
ton,  Andrew  Burley,  Esq.  and  Mr.  Benjamin  Crocker,  a 
Committee  to  call  the  next  meeting. 

Repeated  appeals  to  the  General  Court  were  needed  to 
settle  the  details  of  the  division  of  the  old  Parish.  A  list 
of  those  who  were  set  off  to  the  new  Parish  was  approved 
by  the  Legislature  Sept.  5,  1747.  The  South  Church  ad- 
dressed a  Memorial  on  Dec.  26,  1751,  declaring  that  the  list 
of  names  lodged  in  the  Secretary's  office  had  been  consumed 
bv  fire  and  the  Pirst  Church  refused  to  furnish  a  new  list, 
etc.  In  April,  1752,  John  and  Pelatiah  Kinsman  petitioned 
to  be  set  back  to  the  First. 

The  question  of  ministeral  rates  proved  vexing.  William 
Dodge  and  others  sent  a  Memorial  to  the  South  Church 
regarding  the  taxation  of  estates,  which  belonged  to  the 
First,  on  March  23,  1753.  Abel  Huse,  Benj.  Dutch,  Jr.  and 
others,  in  a  similar  Memorial  of  the  same  date,  declared 
that  they  were  over-urged  to  leave  the  First  Parish  and  asked 
to  be  "released  from  paying  taxes  to  support  Mr.  Walley 
whom  we  do  not  hear."^''  On  March  29,  1753,  William 
Dodge  and  others  petitioned  to  be  restored  to  the  First  Parish. 

The  General  Court  adopted  a  Resolution  on  March  31, 
1753. 

That  the  South  Parish  hold  and  enjoy  1/2  Polls  and  Rate- 

"Mass.  Archives  13:  804-305,  309-321. 


138        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

able  estates  lying  within  the  limits  of  the  1"*  Parish  &  South 
Parish  inclusively  (saving  the  Polls  and  estates  that  were 
since  sett  off  to  Rowley  and  that  part  of  Mr.  Epes  farm 
lost  by  sand).  The  First  and  South  Parishes  must  agree 
on  the  bounds  and  divisions  of  the  Parishes. 

Finally  in  July  1763,  a  complete  list  of  the  members  of 
the  South  Parish  was  filed  in  the  Records  of  the  General 
Court  and  Col.  Berry's  Memorial  of  Sept.  5,  1753  stated 
that  the  list  of  polls  and  estates  had  been  satisfactorily 
adjusted.^® 

»Ma88.  Archives  18:  426,  427. 


CHAPTER  VII. 
Colonial  Cubbenoy  and  the  Land  Bank 

The  expedition  against  Quebec  under  Sir  William  Phips 
in  1690  seems  to  have  been  undertaken  with  perfect  confi- 
dence that  the  rich  spoils  of  war  would  provide  .for  the  great 
expense  incurred.  The  disastrous  result,  however,  involved 
the  Colony  in  a  debt  of  £40,000  and  to  meet  this  demand, 
an  issue  of  paper  currency  was  made.  Printed  bills,  none 
under  five  shillings  nor  over  five  pounds,  redeemable  at  any 
time  in  money,  were  put  in  circulation.  These  bills  passed 
at  their  pap  value,  but  as  successive  emissions  were  made  and 
the  date  of  redemption  was  pushed  farther  and  farther 
away,  until  in  1722  no  provision  for  redemption  was  made 
until  the  tax  levy  of  thirteen  years  later,  the  bills  depreciated 
rapidly  in  value.  In  1714,  the  bills  of  public  credit  in  cir- 
culation were  estimated  at  £240,000  and  silver  had  disa]> 
peared  almost  completely. 

Still  there  was  a  demand  for  more  currency  and  on  Dec. 
4,  1714,  an  Act  was  passed  authorizing  the  emission  of 
£100,000  to  be  distributed  among  the  counties  and  loaned 
to  inhabitants  of  the  Province  on  real  security  for  a  term 
of  five  years.  The  discussion  of  the  best  method  of  meet- 
ing the  exigencies  of  the  situation  and  providing  a  stable 
and  sufficient  medium  of  trade,  now  became  acute.  Private 
banks  were  suggested  and  a  series  of  spirited  pamphlets  pro- 
claimed various  remedies  for  the  public  relief.  One  of  these, 
entitled,  "The  Present  Melancholy  Circumstances  of  the 
Province  considered  .  .  .  ."  published  in  1719,  found  the 
key  to  the  situation  in  the  retrenchment  of  needless  and  ex- 

(189) 


140        IPSWICH^   IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS  BAY   COLONY. 

travagant  luxuries.     The  money  had  gone  out  of  the  coun- 
try, the  author  declared,  to  pay  for 

Silver  and  Gold  Lace,  worn  on  Cloathes  and  Shoes,  Velvet, 
Rich  Silk,  Sattin,  Silk  Stockings,  Fine  Broad  Cloths,  Cam- 
letts,  Perriwigs,  Fine  costly  shoes  and  Pattoons,  Ribbons, 
....  Silk  Handkerchiefs,  Fine  hats,  gloves  of  great  price 
and  little  worth,  China  Ware,  very  costly  Looking  Glasses, 
Cane  Chairs,  Costlv  Beds  and  Furniture  etc. 

There  was  too  great  indulgence  in  wine,  rum  and  brandy 
"(not  to  mention  Tea,  Coffee,  Chacolet,  which  People  here 
formerly  did  very  well  without)."  He  called  for  reform  in 
the  needless  expense  of  weddings  and  funerals  which  often 
impoverished  the  families,  and  suggested,  "no  gloves  but  of 
our  own  make  given  at  either,  nor  Drink  at  funerals  but  of 
our  own  produce,  nor  Scarves  but  for  Persons  of  some  dis- 
tinguished rank."  One  of  the  most  melancholy  results  of 
the  extreme  depreciation  of  the  currency  was. 

That  Salary  Men,  Ministers,  School  Masters,  Judges  of 
the  Circuit,  President  and  Tutors  at  College,  Widows  and 
orphans,  are  prickt  and  hurt  more  than  any,  for  while  they 
pay  it  may  be  double  or  more  for  imported  goods,  and  the 
produce  of  the  country,  yet  their  salaries  are  not  increased. 

Another  pamphleteer,  in  "An  Addition  to  the  Present 
Melancholy  Circumstances  .  ,  .  ."  inveighed  against  the 
drink  habit  of  the  times. 

These  Northern  Plantations  are  great  sufferers  by  the 
vast  quantities  of  Rum  spent  among  them  ....  If  it  could 
not  be  retailed  under  10s.  a  Quart,  I  believe  it  would  be  10 
times  better  for  the  Province  ....  If  the  high  price  might 
restrain  many  of  the  poor  laborers  from  getting  Rum  and 
Flip,  I  believe  their  needy  families  would  be  much  better 
provided  for.  Dont  some  men  say  that  when  Men  drink 
BO  much,  they  drink  the  blood  of  their  Wives  and  Children. 


COLONIAL  CURRENOY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     1-il 

One  independent  disputant  refused  to  believe  that  the 
conditions  were  so  bad  and  criticized  another  writer. 

He  don't  tell  us  concerning  Newbury,  Ipswich,  Cape  Ann, 
Marblehead,  Salem,  (not  to  mention  other  places)  all  within 
our  Province,  that  none  of  thern  carried  on  so  large  a  For- 
eign Trade  during  the  late  French  War  as  they  do  now, 
and  that  some  of  them  carried  on  no  trade  at  all;  but  he 
would  make  us  believe  that  by  heavy  Duties  we  have  driven 
away  Trade  to  our  Neighbors. 

But  the  pamphlet  which  brought  the  question  home  to 
Ipswich  people  and  made  it,  no  doubt,  a  theme  of  conversa- 
tion in  every  household,  was  one  which  bore  the  cumbrous 
titie, 

A 
WORD  OF  COMFORT 

TO  A 

MELANCHOLY  COUNTRY 

OR   THE 

BANK  OF  CREDIT 

ERECTED    IN    THE 

MASSACHUSETTS  BAY 
Fairly  Defended  by  a  Discovery  of  the  Great  Benefit, 
accruing  by  it  to  the  Whole  Province ;  With  a  Remedy  for 
Recovering  a  Civil  State  when  Sinking  under  Desperation 
by  a  Defeat  on  their  Bank  of  Credit 

By  Amicus  Patriae 

Maximus  in  Repnblica  nodus  est,  et  ad  Res  Praetor  (  ?) 

Gerendas  Impedimentum,  Inopia  Rei  Pecuniaris.     Cicero. 

The  Want  of  Money  (or  a  Sufficient  Medium  of  Trades) 

is  the  greatest  of  all  Interruptions  in  a  Common  Wealth ; 

and  puts  by  or  Obstructs  the  carrying  out  of  Business  in  a 

Flourishing  Manner.^ 

Boston,  Printed  in  the  Year  1721. 

There  can  be  no  question  that  Amiens  Patriae,  the  author, 
was  Rev.  John  Wise,  the  famous  Pastor  of  the  Chebacco 

*  Colonial  Currency  Reprints.    Prince  Society  Vol.  II:  p.  169. 


142        IPS\riOH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Parish.  Thirty-four  years  before,  in  August,  1687,  he  had 
assailed  the  Andros  government  and  had  led  his  townsmen 
in  their  resistance  to  tyranny.*  He  was  now  in  his  seven- 
tieth year  but  his  keen  wit  and  biting  sarcasm  were  not 
abated. 

Our  Medium  of  Trade  is  so  Exceeding  short  and  insuf- 
ficient that  Business  begins  to  Clogg;  or  does  not  go  on  so 
roundly  as  it  might  do,  were  it  more  redundant  and  full. 
As  for  the  Money  Medium,  we  have  none  at  all,  its  quite 
Exhausted;  and  the  Bills  which  have  supplyed  its  Place, 
they  are. grown  very  scarce,  which  is  evident  by  the  Loud 
Complaints  of  Town  and  Country. 

I  would  speak  of  one  particular  Example  further  in  our 
carryings  on  and  that  is  with  respect  to  our  College.  Oh, 
what  Begging  and  Contributing  was  there ;  even  from  every 
poor  Girl  and  Boy  that  had  but  a  Penny  to  part  with  to  a 
Beggar,  to  bring  venerable  HARVARD  into  its  first  Brick  ? 
And  now,  Alas  I  at  a  word's  speaking  up  goes  another  Paral- 
lel with  that,  and  we  hear  nothing  of  Begging  or  of  any 
Groans  in  its  Birth.  Oh!  Dear  Coimtry!  These  Bills  are 
of  a  very  impregnating  Nature,  they  will  beget  and  bring 
forth  whatsoever  you  shall  please,  to  fancy. 

«  *  «  *  #  -X- 

When  we  had  a  little  Silver  Money,  it  was  always  high 
Prized  and  other  things  were  in  great  subjection  to  it;  And 
it  held  such  a  sway  and  to  such  a  degree  of  Tyranny  from 
the  rate  it  was  kept  at  and  from  the  continual  escape  it 
was  making,  it  had  brought  us  into  a  pitiful  heap  of  Cir- 
cumstances and  especially  as  to  our  Ministry  in  Church 
order,  for  before  the  Bills  came  into  use,  it  would  make 
me  sick  to  tell  over  the  Story  of  these  things;  Oh  the  Re- 
pining, higling,  complaining  of  Poverty ;  with  bad  and  poor 
payments;  Criminal  and  Dreadful  Behindments,  as  tho' 
Sacrilidge  were  no  Sin  or  but  a  very  venial  one,  and  not 

*  Ipswich  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony.    Vol.  I:  Chap.  XIV,  p.  225. 
See  also  his  Diary  while  chaplain  in  the  Quebec  Expedition,  Ditto,  p.  525. 
His  polemic  Essays  on  Church  Government  have  been  considered  In 
Chapter  one. 


COLONIAL  CURRENCY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     143 

only  in  this  or  that  poor  village  but  too  Epidemically.  But 
since  the  Bills  have  been  in  Force,  these  Annuities  have  not 
only  been  Augmented,  but  Frankly  and  Seasonably  payed, 
and  I  believe  it  has  been  so  throughout  the  Country.  And 
do  we  think  these  Reverend  Men  don't  find  that  they  can 
make  as  good  a  Dinner  on  the  Bills  of  Credit  as  on  Qold 
and  Silver?  Yesl  every  whit  and  where  due  Additions 
Iiave  been  made  the  seasonableness  and  round  Payments 
have  made  their  lives  much  more  easy  and  comfortable,  than 
when  Silver  Ruled  the  Rost. 

Oh,  say  some,  we  will  try  a  Com  and  Provision  Medium, 
till  the  Money  comes  .  .  •  .  manufactures,  foreign  trade, 
immigration  of  our  good  Brethren  out  of  North  Britain  and 
Ireland,  who  will  bring  with  them  equal  Religion  with  us, 
but  a  Superior  Ingenuity  and  Skill  in  Manufactures. 

Many  of  our  Old  Towns  are  too  full  of  Inhabitants  for 
Husbandry ;  many  of  them  living  upon  small  Shares  of  Land, 
and  generally  all  are  Husbandmen,  or  if  they  are  any  of 
them  Tradesmen,  their  Husbandry  hinders  their  Trade; 
And  also  many  of  our  People  are  slow  in  Marrying  for 
want  of  Settlements,  whereas  in  old  Countries  they  generally 
Marry  without  such  Precaution  and  so  increase  infinitely 
&tc.  We  have  Old  Batchelours  with  Dames  to  Match  them, 
to  settle  several  Towns  etc.  And  when  we  have  accom- 
plished this  Projection,  We  may  expect  that  manufactures 
will  go  on  amain  in  our  Country. 

****** 

Question,  How  shall  we  keep  up  the  Value  of  our  Bills 
of  Publick  Credit. 

Gentlemen,  You  must  do  by  your  Bills  as  all  Wise  Men 
do  by  their  Wives,  Make  the  best  of  them.  It  is  an  acknowl- 
edged Theorem  that  there  is  no  doing  without  Wives.  The 
Lonesome  and  sower  Phylosopher  would  frankly  confess 
that  Women  were  necessary  Evils:  For  without  their  As- 
sistance the  whole  Humane  Race  must  vanish :  And  unless 
they  are  Metamorphozed  into  things  called  Wives,  the  whole 
Species  would  soon  Laps  into  an  heard  of  Brutified  Annimals. 
The  great  Skill  is  to  cultivate  the  necessity  and  make  it  a 
Happiness,  for  that  end  Wise  Men  Love  their  Wives:  and 


144        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

what  ill-conveniences  they  find  in  them  they  bury:  and  what 
Vertues  they  are  enrich't  with  they  Admire  and  Magnifie. 
And  thus  you  must  do  by  your  Bills  for  there  is  no  doing 
without  them;  if  you  JDivorce  or  Disseize  yourselves  of 
them,  you  are  undone:  Therefore  you  must  set  them  high 
in  your  Estimation 

*         *         «         -x-         «         * 

He  affirmed  that  British  trade  must  be  shortened  by 
greater  economy  in  living. 

Therefore  I  say  if  we  will  Live  upon  Ground-Nuts  and 
Clams,  and  Cloath  our  Backs  with  the  Exuviae  or  Pelts  of 
Wild  Beasts,  we  may  then  lower  our  Expences  a  great  Pace ; 
and  renounce  this  Branch  of  our  Merchandize;  but  if  we 
intend  to  Live  in  any  Garb  or  Port  as  becomes  a  People  of 
Religion,  Civility,  Trade  and  Industry,  then  we  must  still 
supply  ourselves  from  the  Great  Fountain. 

An  ill-tempered  reply  to  Mr.  Wise's  "Word  of  Comfort", 
in  the  form  of  an  anonymous  communication,  appeared  in 
the  Boston  Gazette  of  Monday,  February  20,  1720-1. 

N.  E.  Castle  William 

February  1720-1. 
'N,  B.  That  Amicus  Patriae  a  late  Author  is  Worldly  Wise 
Man,  and  has  spoke  two  Words  for  himself  and  not 
One  for  his  Country,  as  Actions  will  better  show  a  Man's 
designs  than  his  Words:  it  would  have  been  but  the  ingen- 
ious part  in  him,  to  have  told  us,  that  from  Twenty  Years 
long  experience  he  has  not  been  able  to  pay  Literest  for 
Money  borrowed  of  Private  People  and  of  Twelve  Hundred 
and  Fifty  Pounds  (of  his  Miracle  working  Paper  Money) 
borrowed  of  this  Government  by  himself  and  two  Sons,  he 
has  yet  paid  but  £250  of  it  again,  'tis  therefore  that  he  de- 
clares and  will  insist  on  it  as  the  best  way  to  enrich  his 
Country,  to  make  Paper  Bills  enough  for  everybody  to  take 
what  they  please  and  further  (in  his  whole  bustle  oi  words) 
sayeth  not. 


COLONIAL  CURRENCY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.      145 

Two  sons  of  Mr.  Wise,  Ammi  Kuhamah  and  Henry,  were 
both  prominent  Ipswich  residents  and  actively  engaged  in 
business  and  in  public  affairs.  The  "Castle  William  ad- 
vertisement" as  it  was  called,  involved  the  private  affairs 
of  the  family  and  must  have  created  much  excitement  in 
the  whole  community.  Mr.  Wise  replied  at  once  in  a  com- 
munication  "A  friendly  check  from  a  friendly  relation",  in 
which  he  included  "a  letter  from  Amicus  Patriae  to  his 
Son",  dated  Feb.  23,  1720-1. 

The  Report  from  Castle  William  is  so  mean  a  thing,  so 
little  in  Argument,  and  Pevish  in  Temper,  its  Beneath  a 
Wise  Man  to  Resent  it :  at  least  no  other  ways  than  you  see 
in  the  Inclosed.  But  however  to  satisfy  yourself,  as  to 
my  Domestick  Affairs,  which  you  tho  so  nearly  Related 
are  a  stranger  to. 

Therefore  some  time  within  less  than  Three  Years,  we 
took  out  1000  1.  and  put  into  the  Publick  Bank,  an  estate 
of  2000  1.  which  we  would  not  take  Five  and  Twenty  Hun- 
dred for  now.  (Indeed  such  fat  things  Draw  these  Hungry 
Crows  by  a  strange  Instinct)  We  thought  it  might  be  very 
proper  both  for  the  Publick  good  and  our  own  priofit  so 
to  do.  And  thro  Mercy  we  have  Reaped  great  Ease  and 
Benefit  by  it.  For  that  we  have  solved  our  former  Money 
obligations  and  furnished  the  business  of  the  Family  (under 
your  Brothers  Sole  management)  to  very  great  purpose, 
for  since  that  our  Business  has  gone  on  with  such  Success, 
that  we  have  payed  iuto  the  Bank  about  200  1.  with  the 
Interest:  and  have  another  100  1.  ready  to  answer  in  that 
Affair.  And  not  only  so  but  the  Temporal  Business  of  the 
Family  is  so  well  Qualified  and  Adjusted,  that  thro  Divine 
goodness  and  by  the  Assistance  of  the  Auspicious  and  Pros- 
perous Bills,  we  do  not  fall  short  of  Three  Hundred  Pounds 
Annual  Income.  And  not  only  so,  but  tho'  the  Pevish 
Gentleman  (If  he  be  a  Man)  does  allow  if  we  put  in  2000  1. 
which  is  already  grown  in  Value,  but  also  their  Remains 
in  our  hands  no  ways  intangled  by  the  Bank  in  Rich  housen, 
honest  [  ]  ad.  Remote  Lands  and  other  Estates  to  the 
Value  of  One  Thousand  Pounds,  or  not  much  under,  That 
considering  what  we  have  Done  in  less  than  Three  Years 


146        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

towards  the  solving  of  the  Bank  &tc,  I  am  full  of  Assurance 
that  in  the  Remaining  Six  Years  by  Divine  Aid  and  by 
a  Frugal  and  Prudent  Management  we  are  quite  out  of 
Danger,  as  to  Crows  and  Vultures. 

Therefore  what  I  have  Wrote  on  the  Bank  of  Credit  was 
purely  in  Love  to  my  Country,  that  all  Men  in  their  Affairs 
may  be  as  Prosperous  as  I  have  been.  At  Least  that  our 
Country  may  Universally  Flourish  in  their  Outward  Affairs. 

Your  Loving  Father, 

Amicus  Patriae. 

If  any  doubt  remained  as  to  the  identity  of  "Amicus 
Patriae",  it  was  effectually  dispelled  by  the  sharp  retort  of 
his  opponents,  who  now  published  in  full  in  the  Boston 
Gazette*  of  March  13"*,  Mr.  Wise's  appeal  to  the  Court,  less 
than  two  years  before. 

To  His  Majesty's  Honorable  Justices  of  the  Quarter  Sessions 
met  in  Newbury,  this  29***  of  September,  1719. 

Worshipful  and  much  Honoured 

The  Subscriber  being  imder  the  Benign  Umbrage  of  your 
Authority,  Petitions  your  Fa\'our  in  his  present  Grievances 
relating  to  his  Temporal  Support.  The  Salary  allowed  by 
this  Precinct  is  in  the  Original  Grant  but  a  poor  business 
to  maintain  a  Family  Sick  &  Well,  it  being  but  Seventy 
Pounds  in  Money:  That  to  diminish  or  any  ways  weaken 
it  must  needs  stand  under  the  head  of  Oppression  if  not  a 

heavier  denomination My  Good  Neighbors  who  are 

obliged  by  God  and  the  Law  to  make  this  annually  good  to 
me  as  appears  by  Covenant ;  They  demur  upon  my  demands 
for  Money  and  offer  to  pay  in  Bills  of  Publick  Credit  as 
pretending  they  are  Money,  Tho'  they  do  also  themselves 
answer  their  own  Plea  by  an  allowance  they  make  of  1.  20 
superadded  and  so  make  up  the  1.  70  ....  1.  90  Poimd. 
Whereas  if  Bills  were  really  Money  in  their  account,  I  have 
no  reason  to  think  thev  would  vield  so  to  do :  neither  if  thev 
were  truly  so  could  I  claim  any  such  Addition.  I  acknowl- 
edge I  am  very  loth  to  ex)ntend  with  my  Neighbors  but  out 
of  a  due  respect  to  ray  Just  Interest  and  Temporal  Support, 

*  The  orlgrlnal  document  has  disappeared  from  the  Court  Files. 


COLONIAL  CUBEENOY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     147 

I  cannot  submit  to  any  other  Terms,  but  to  have  my  Salary 
paid  in  proper  Specie,  or  in  a  full  Equivalent     Your  Hon- 
ours do  very  well  know  this  Question  has  been  very  effect- 
ually answered  in  Mr.  Adam   Cogswell's  case,  viz.     Any 
thing  at  a  Valuation  will  answer  the  Money  in  Specie  as 
well  as  Bills  of  Publick  Credit.     I  believe  you  also  are  very 
sensible  how  Men  value  Money  in  Competition  with  the 
Sills,  and  in  what  Proportions  the  Exchange  is  made.     As 
1  have  been  informed  some  Wise  and  Just  Men  ask  Cent  for 
Cent  some  80  or  90  per  Cent,  and  at  the  lowest  Rate  Twelve 
Shillings  per  ounce  is  allowed  and  I  cannot  be  lower,  for 
this  will  not  make  a  full  Equivalent  in  purchasing  of  Pro- 
visions &tc.     That  (may  it  please  your  Honours)  The  ut- 
most of  my  desires  at  this  time  is,  That  Your  Honours  will 
do  me  the  favour  as  to  signify  in  a  few  words  to  my  Neigh- 
bors that  they  must  needs  perswade  themselves,  That  Bills 
are  not  Money  nor  must  they  be  so  understood;  and  also 
that  they  must  pay  me  in  the  proper  Specie  the  Place  In- 
dented for  near  Twenty  Years  ago:  or  otherwise,  if  they 
pay  in  Bills,  then  to  do  it  to  my  Satisfaction.     And  this 
I  shall  leave  to  your  Honours  to  Umpire  upon  either  of  the 
fore-recited  Proportions:  and  if  your  Honours  shall  please 
to  fix  on  the  middle  way,  which  I  think  is  most  safe  ac- 
cording to  the  old  saying,  In  medio  tutissime,  It  will  be 
most  pleasing  to  me. 

I  have  ordered  my  Son  to  lay  this  Address  before  this 
Honorable  Sessions,  Seven  Months  are  Expired  and  the  half 
Years  Salary  not  paid;  To  live  till  the  next  Quarter  Ses- 
sions without  any  Recruit  will  be  very  mortifying. 

I  hope  for    your  Honours  Clemency,  Care  and  Expedite 
Measures  at  least  that  my  Brethren  may  be  directed  and 
Quickened  to  their  Duty. 
So  Right  Worshipful,  I  Rest 

Your  Humble  and  Devoted 

Servant  in  Christ 

John  Wise. 

In  March,  1720-1,  the  private  bank  schemes  were  brought 
to  nought  by  the  vote  of  the  Province,  to  loan  £50,000,  to 
be  distributed  among  the  towns  and  loaned  to  individuals 


148        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

in  real  or  personal  security,  the  interest  on  the  loans  being 
intended  for  the  benefit  of  the  towns.  These  loans  were  to 
be  repaid,  £10,000  a  year,  between  the  years  1726  and  1730. 
On  May  11,  1721,  Ipswich  voted: 

That  this  Town  will  receive  and  draw  their  proportion 
of  the  fifty  thousand  pounds  in  Bills  of  Credditt  out  of  y* 
Province  Treasury  as  Emitted  by  the  late  Great  &  Generall 
Court  or  assembly  in  their  last  Sessions 

Voted  that  the  Town  will  now  proceed  to  the  Choice 
of  Trustees  to  receive  our  proportion  of  the  abovesaid  Bills 
of  Credditt. 

Voted  That  this  Town  will  choose  but  three  Trustees. 

On  May  25, 1721,  it  was  further 

Voted  that  this  Town's  proportion  of  the  fifty  tiiousand 
pounds  when  received  shall  be  let  out  at  interest. 

The  Town  voted,  on  Oct  5,  1721. 

That  Maj^  Symonds  Epes,  CoP.  John  Denison  &  John 
Wainwright  Esq.  be  Trustees  to  receive  out  of  the  Province 
Treasury,  the  sum  of  fourteen  hundred  &  Twenty  nine 
Pounds  &  when  they  have  received  it,  to  notifie  the  Select- 
men that  they  may  call  a  meeting  to  receive  this  &  give  them 
proper  discharge  from  the  same  &  to  Improve  said  money 
as  the  Town  shall  judge  will  be  most  for  their  interest 

Meeting  again  on  Oct.  12,  it  was 

Voted  that  the  said  money  shall  be  left  at  Interest  at 
6  p.  Ct.  per  annum. 

Voted  that  the  Town's  proportion  be  let  to  three  or  more 
persons  of  the  Town,  that  will  give  good  &  sufficient  landed 
security  &  pay  to  the  Town  6  per  ct.  annual  interest  They 
are  then  to  be  responsible  to  the  Town  for  it  ...  .  may 
let  the  money  to  citizens  who  will  give  good  security,  but  no 
one  person  shall  borrow  or  hire  more  than  fifty  pounds  .... 
for  their  pains  &  trouble,  those  who  hire  from  the  Town 
shall  have  2  per  ct.  for  as  luuch  as  they  pay  interest  on,  y' 
Two  per  ct.  they  shall  receive  out  of  the  Town  Treasury. 


COLONIAL  CUHKENOY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK,      149 

A  week  later,  the  Town  met  again  and  settled  the  remain- 
ing details. 

Voted  that  the  interest  shall  not  commence  till  the  expi- 
ration of  two  months  from  the  dates  of  the  mortgages. 

Voted  that  the  Town  Treasurer  be  directed  to  deliver  to 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Jabez  Fitch,  the  sum  of  One  Hundred  pounds, 
part  of  the  abovesaid  money,  he  giving  a  good  &  sufficient 
mortgage  for  repayment  of  the  same. 

Voted  that  Col.  John  Denison  &  Major  Symonds  Epes 
&  Ensign  Thomas  Choate  shall  receive  1,329  pounds 

Provision  was  made  for  inspection  of  the  mortgages  to  see 
that  tiie  titles  were  free  and  clear,  and  for  due  notification, 
80  that  any  inhabitant  may  be  supplied. 

An  interesting  group  of  prominent  citizens  of  the  time  is 
brought  to  notice  in  this  connection.  Col.  John  Denison  was 
the  son  of  the  Rev.  John  Denison,  colleague  of  Rev.  John 
Rogers,  and  great  grandson  of  Major  (Jeneral  Denison,  who 
married  Patience,  daughter  of  Governor  Thomas  Dudley, 
and  had  a  son  John  and  daughter  Elizabeth.  The  daughter 
became  the  wife  of  John  Rogers,  President  of  Harvard. 
John  Denison,  the  son,  married  a  daughter  of  Deputy  Gov- 
ernor Samuel  Symonds  and  had  a  son,  John, 

a  very  Learned,  ingenious  Young  Gentleman  and  an  ex- 
cellent Preacher,  who  died  here  Sept.  14,  1689,  very  greatly 
Beloved  and  Lamented  in  the  24™  Year  of  his  age.  But 
before  his  Decease  he  had  Married  the  only  Daughter  of 
the  Hon.  Col.  Nathaniel  Saltonstall  Esq.  of  Haverhill,  of 
whom  Col.  Denison  was  bom  at  Ipswich  on  the  20***  March ; 
after  his  Father's  Death. 

This  Gentlewoman  afterwards  Marrying  the  Rev.  Mr.  Row- 
land Cotton  of  Sandwich,  this  her  son,  removed  hither  with 
her  and  there  had  his  Education  till  1706,  when  he  entered 
the  College,  where  he  took  his  1**  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts 
in  1710  and  of  Master  in  1713.  After  this,  intending  for 
the  Ministry,  he  preached  a  Year  or  two  occasionally  to  good 
acceptance,  till  his  Bodily  weakness  obliged  him  to  desist. 
Upon  whidi  he  settled  in  Ipswich,  where  his  Paternal  Estate 


150        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLOZSTT. 

lay,  applyed  himself  to  the  Study  of  the  Law,  and  Serv'd 
the  said  Town  several  times  as  their  Representative  in  the 
General  Assembly,  wherein  he  made  a  considerable  Figure, 
and  industriously  served  his  Country.  About  this  time  he 
was  made  one  of  the  High  Sheriffs  of  the  County  and  Lieut 
Col.  of  a  Regiment  He  was  much  Esteemed,  Valued  and 
Loved  and  at  his  Death  was  greatly  Lamented. 

In  1720,  he  married  the  Younger  Daughter  of  Rev.  & 
Hon.  John  Leverett,  Esq.,  late  President  of  the  Collie,  and 
by  her  has  left  one  son  and  one  daughter.* 

Col  Denison  died  on  'Nov.  25**,  1724,  at  the  age  of  35 
years.  His  only  son,  John,  (Harvard,  A.  M.)  died  on  Aug. 
28,  1747,  at  the  age  of  25  years,  and  with  him,  the  Denison 
name  became  extinct.  His  widow  became  the  wife  of  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Rogers,  Dec.  25,  1728,  upon  the  completion  of 
the  stately  dwelling  on  High  Street,  still  known  as  the  Rogers 
Manse. 

Major  Symonds  Epes  inherited  the  Castle  Hill  farm  from 
his  father,  Capt  Daniel  Epes.  He  was  a  Justice  of  the 
General  Sessions  Court  and  a  member  of  the  Governor's 
Council  from  1724  to  1784.  He  died  at  his  dwelling  in  the 
Hamlet  on  Aug.  30*^,  1741,  leaving  a  widow,  Mary  (Whip- 
ple) who  became  the  third  wife  of  Rev.  Edward  Holyoke, 
President  of  Harvard.  The  tender  obituary  notice*^  reveals 
a  character  of  singular  beauty  and  devotion. 

A  Gentleman  of  conspicuous  Piety,  Integrity  and  Charity: 
of  a  most  humble,  peaceable  courteous  and  obliging  Temper: 
Given  to  Hospitality,  ready  to  distribute  and  willing  to  com- 
municate, Which  amiable  Qualities  make  his  Departure 
(however  ripe  vrith  Age)  to  be  greatly  regretted.  Many 
Poor  about  us,  especially,  have  cause  for  their  own  sakes 
to  lament  him. 

He  had  about  twelve  Days  before  his  Demise  been  seiz'd 
with  a  Fever,  but  was  so  far  advanced  in  his  Recovery  as 

*  Obituary  in  Boston  News  Lietter.Dec.  8-10,  1724. 

*  Boston  News  Letter,  Sept.  3-10,  1741. 


COLONIAI.   C17BREN0Y   AND   THE   LAND   BANK.  151 

to  walk  about  his  Chamber  for  some  Days:  on  Saturday 
night  was  able  to  offer  the  Family  Evening  Sacrifice  and 
went  to  Bed  with  the  desirable  Signs  of  a  speedy  Return 
to  perfect  Health :  But  who  knoweth  what  a  Day  or  Night 
may  bring  forth!  Early  next  morning  being  observed  to 
lie  still  in  his  Bed,  he  was  let  alone  for  some  Hours  .... 
on  supposition  that  he  was  asleep,  until  at  length  upon  a 
more  critical  Observation  he  was  found  to  have  "Slept  in 
Jesus."     Aged  79  years. 

John  Wainwright,  son  of  the  merchant  of  the  same  name, 
was  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1711  and  was  just  begin- 
ning his  useful  career  in  the  public  service.  He  was  chosen 
Town  Clerk  in  1719-20,  and  held  the  office  for  many  years, 
writing  his  records  in  a  notably  bold  and  graceful  hand.  In 
1720,  he  was  elected  a  Representative  and  remained  in  office 
almost  continuously  until  1738,  being  Clerk  of  the  House 
from  1724  to  1728  and  from  1734  to  1736.  He  was  also 
Colonel  of  a  Regiment,  Justice  of  the  General  Sessions  Court, 
and  was  often  called  to  positions  of  trust  and  responsibility 
in  the  Province.  He  died  on  Sept.  1,  1739,  in  his  forty- 
ninth  vear.® 

The  first  payment,  a  fifth  part  of  the  loan  of  £1429  be- 
came due  in  1726  and  the  disastrous  results  of  a  constantly 
depreciating  currency  became  evident  in  very  painful  fashion 
in  one  case  at  least.  One  wise  pamphleteer  had  revealed 
the  hardships  imposed  upon  the  ministers  and  all  salaried 
men  by  the  instability  of  the  currency. ''^  Rev.  Jabez  Fitch, 
the  colleague  pastor  with  the  venerable  John  Rogers,  had 
been  allowed  a  loan  of  £100  by  special  vote  of  the  Town, 
though  it  had  been  decided  that  no  loan  should  exceed  £50. 
For  this  he  executed  a  mortgage  upon  his  house  and  two 
acres  of  land,  at  the  rate  of  "five  pounds  per  ct.  per  an- 
num"®    It  appears  that  Mr.  Rogers  had  been  allowed  a 

*  Ipswich  Village  and  the  Old  Rowley  Road,  p.  7. 
» Page  140. 

•  Essex  Co.  Deeds  39:  96. 


152        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

similar  loan,  and  on  Oct.  C,  1726,  he  made  a  pitiful  plea  to  the 
Parish  for  relief.  He  declared  what  every  body  knew  well 
enough,  that  for  years  his  salary  "has  not  been  made  good 
to  me  in  vallue,  however  it  might  be  in  Sum."  His  dimin- 
ished salary  had  obliged  him  to  borrow  and  mortgage  a  good 
part  of  his  estate  and  sell  one  part  after  another  and  at  last, 
in  his  old  age,  he  was  obliged  to  ask  the  kindly  help  of  his 
people.  Ready  response  was  made  and  the  Parish  "freely 
and  cheerfully"  promised  to  discharge  the  mortgage  he  had 
given  to  the  Town  for  £100  of  the  £50,000  loan.® 

In  1727,  loans  made  imder  the  £100,000  issue  matured, 
and  the  Gteneral  Court  recognized  the  scarcity  of  money  by 
allowing  the  Province  tax  to  be  paid  in  commodities  and 
manufactured  goods  at  specified  prices.  The  Collectors  of 
the  tax  were  instructed  by  the  Town  to  receive  the  sums 
assessed  upon  the  freeholders  and  inhabitants,  "agreeable  to 
the  Tax  Act  of  the  General  Court  this  present  year.'* 

Payment  could  be  made  in  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats  and 
Indian  com,  in  fish,  beef  and  pork,  flax  and  hemp,  butter, 
bees  wax,  bay-berry  wax,  and  many  other  products  "all  which 
species  shall  be  of  the  growth,  produce  &  manufacture  of 
tnis  Province."^^ 

A  second  emission  of  £60,000  was  made  in  Feb.  1727-8 
and  Ipswich  secured  £1,560,  5s.  as  its  portion  of  the  loan. 
In  mid-summer  of  1731,  the  Province  treasury  was  empty 
and  the  Greneral  Court  and  Gov,  Belcher  were  at  a  dead  locL 
An  appeal  was  made  to  the  Towns  and  a  Town-meeting  was 
called  for  September  7.     The  record  is : 

The  representation  from  the  House  of  Representatives  was 
read  and  a  considerable  debate  was  had  thereon  and  on  the 
Motion  made  &  seconded,  the  Question  was  put  Whether 
the  Town  will  chuse  a  Committee  to  prepare  Instructions 

*  First  Parish  Records  and  Page  14. 

^*  The  Schedule  of  Values  Is  entered  under  Nov.  7,  1727  in  the  Town 
Records. 


COLONIAL  CURRENCY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.      153 

for  our  Bepresentatives  in  the  weighty  affair  of  Supplying 
the  province  Treasury  and  report  their  Opinions  to  the  Town 
thereon  ? 

This  was  negatived,  as  well  as  the  motion  to  give  any 
advice  or  instruction  to  the  Ipswich  representatives.     Jona- 
than Pellows  and  Mr.  John  Choate,  Jr.  were  the  represen- 
tatives that  year.     Mr.  Choate  was  serving  his  first  term. 
He  was  a  young  man  of  thirty-four  years,  a  lawyer  by  pro- 
fession, though  not  a  college  graduate,  and  the  confidence 
reposed  in  him  by  the  Town  in  this  serious  juncture  is  a  fine 
tribute  to  his  ability.     He  was  destined  to  have  a  very  con- 
spicuous part  in  the  financial  wrangles  of  this  period  and  in 
the  sharp  variances  with  the  Eoyal  Governor  of  the  Province. 
In  February,  1736-7,  a  new  issue  of  bills  of  credit  was 
made  of  £18,000  "of  the  present  form"  and  £9000  in  bills 
of  a  new  form.     These  were  called  the  "New  Tenor"  bills, 
and  it  was  specified  that  they  had  a  fixed  value  in  gold  or 
silver.     A  new  complexity  was  now  introduced,  as  henceforth 
all  values  were  computed  in  both  Old  Tenor  and  New  Tenor. 
Two  rival  schemes  for  bettering  the  financial  situation  now 
assTuned  great  prominence.     In  December,  1740,  John  Col- 
man,  who  had  been  a  prominent  figure  in  the  financial  de- 
bates for  many  years,  had  secured  nearly  four  hundred  sub- 
scribers to  a  scheme  for  emitting  bills,  secured  by  mort- 
gages on  the  real  estate  of  those  who  held  the  loans.     The 
company  desired  incorporation,  but  the  Governor  and  Council 
were  opposed,  action  on  the  petition  was  delayed  and  even- 
tually the  company  issued  its  bills  without  incorporation. 

These  bills  were  signed  by  some  of  the  directors,  and  were 
in  the  form  of  a  promise  in  behalf  of  the  signers  and  their 
partners  to  receive  the  same  in  all  payments  at  the  expressed 
value,  lawful  money,  six  shillings  and  eight  pence  per  ounce, 
and  after  twenty  years  to  pay  the  same  in  the  produce  or 
manufactures  enumerated  in  their  scheme.*^ 

^  Cuirency  and  Banking  in  the   Province  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay, 
Andrew  McFeirland  Davis,  Part  I:  p.  130. 


154        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

This  was  known  as  the  "Land  Bank"  or  "Manufactory 
Scheme."  Some  Boston  merchants  organized  an  opposition 
project,  which  was  known  as  the  "Silver  Bank"  or  "Silver 
Scheme",  which  proposed  to  issue  notes,  redeemable  in  silver 
at  a  given  rate  per  ounce,  and  secured  the  agreement  of  the 
subscribers  to  refuse  to  receive  the  bills  of  other  govern- 
ments, except  under  certain  conditions,  and  to  refuse  the 
Land  Bank  notes  altogether.  This  company  also  asked  in- 
corporation. 

The  Directors  of  the  Land  Bank  were  Robert  Auchmuty, 
William  Stoddard,  Samuel  Adams,  father  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary patriot,  Peter  Chardon,  Samuel  Watts,  John  Choate, 
Thomas  Cheever,  Gteorge  Leonard  and  Robert  Hale.  Mr. 
Choate  became  prominent  at  once  in  the  fi^t  for  incor- 
poration. The  Committee  of  the  General  Court,  appointed 
to  investigate  these  rival  schemes,  reported  adversely  to  the 
Land  Banks  in  March,  1739-40,  but  the  House  voted  to  refer 
both  schemes  to  the  May  session,  both  companies  being  pro- 
hibited from  issuing  notes  in  the  meantime. 

When  the  Assembly  met,  the  Governor  and  Council  were 
hostile  to  the  Land  Bank  but  in  favor  of  the  Silver  Scheme. 
The  House  was  in  hearty  sympathy  with  the  Land  Bank. 
Petitions  from  the  towns  were  filed,  favoring  or  opposing 
each  scheme.  The  Ipswich  petition,  written  apparently  by 
John  Choate,  made  a  vigorous  appeal  for  the  Land  Bank, 
which  was  very  popular  in  this  community. 

To  His  Excellency,  Jonathan  Belcher,  Esq.,  Captain  (Gen- 
eral &  Gt)vemor-in-Chief  in  &  over  his  Majesty's  Province 
of  the  Massachusetts  Bay.^- 

To  the  Honorable,  His  Majesty's  Council  &  house  of  Rep- 
resentatives in  Greneral  Court  assembled,  this  fifteenth  day 
of  June,  annoque  Domini,  1740. 

The  Petition  of  us,  the  Subscribers,  Lihabitants  of  the 
Town  of  Ipswich,  sheweth 

^Ma88.  Archives,  102:  44. 


COLONIAI.  CUBBENCT  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     155 

That  yoiir  Petitioners  being  apprehensive  the  land  Bank 
Scheme,  now  under  your  Consideration,  may,  with  former 
amendments  k  alterations,  not  at  all  destructive  of  its  Essence, 
be  greatly  serviceable  to  the  people  of  this  Province,  under 
their  present  diJEcult  circumstances,  on  the  following  ac- 
cotmts,  first.  For  that  the  Want  of  a  Medium  of  Trade 
is  BO  great  so  that  almost  every  body's  Business  very  sensibly 
decays  by  means  therof . 

2"^.  For  that  it  will  tend  to  take  away  the  unreasonable 
advantage  that  the  Jitter  of  Money  at  Interest  has  &  im- 
proves over  the  needy  &  necessitous  Borrower. 

3"^-  For  that  it  will  remove  the  Occasion  of  so  much 
Truck  &  Barter  trade,  the  mischief  &  oppression  of  which, 
is  daily  (&  we  believe)  very  justly  complained  of  &  groaned 
tinder. 

4*^.  It  will  greatly  tend  to  industry  &  to  increase  our 
home  manufactures  &  by  degrees  bring  the  Balance  of  trade 
in  our  favour,  the  Contrary  of  which  (as  we  take  it)  &  as 
we  think  might  be  (as  it  proves)  in  the  main  Cause  &  has 
all  along  been  so  of  sinking  the  Credit  of  Paper  money,  & 
on  this  account,  May  it  please  Yr  Excel*^  &  Honour,  we 
with  Submission,  deem  it  preferable  to  any  Emission  of  the 
form  that  the  coim.try  has  ever  yet  had,  in  the  following 
Respects. 

I.  For  that,  whereas  former  Emissions  not  being  calcu- 
lated to  encourage  our  own  Manufactures,  but  to  enable  the 
Merchants  &  Factors  to  carry  their  foreign  Trade  &tc.  to  an 
imequal  &  overbearing  pitch,  the  following  ill  effects  have 
been  produced,  as 

J.  The  Silver  (of  which  we  had  once  enough),  was  all 
sent  home,  to  make  Eemittances ; 

2"^.  The  Faith  of  the  Government  pawned  for  the  Credit 
of  their  Bills  has  been  thereby  shamefully  tho'  unavoidably 
as  to  them  broke,  to  the  great  Scandal  of  the  Province  & 
hurt,  if  not  Ruin,  of  many,  by  means  of  the  Extravagant 
Price  the  necessitous  Merchant  &c.  have  from  time  to  time 
given  for  Silver,  for  the  aforesaid  Purpose;  for  whatever 
Price  their  Necessities  obliged  them  to  give,  to  support  their 
Credit  abroad,  that  became  immediately  the  Value  of  our? 
Paper  Money,  yea  &  the  Price  of  their  Gk)ods  too;  &  how 
this  oppres'd  the  Consumer  &  imposed  on  the  Gbvemment, 


156        IPSWICH,  IX  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

we  need  not  say :  &  here  we  beg  leave  to  observe  that  altho' 
the  land  &  Trading  Interest  are  inseparable,  when  duly  regu- 
lated &  kept  in  an  equal  balance:  yet  when  the  latter  out- 
grows the  former,  it  must  need  be  attended  with  a  vast  num- 
ber of  ill  Consequences ;  converts  that  into  Shame  &  Poison, 
which  otherwise  would  be  for  the  Health  &  Glory  of  the 
Common-wealth. 

A  Second  Respect,  in  which  the  present  Scheme  is  pre- 
ferable to  others,  is  in  that  it  brings  none  of  those  Distresses 
upon  the  people,  y*  a  publick  Emission  must  always  un- 
avoidably do,  in  it's  final  Redemption,  when  drawn  in  by 
a  Tax,  none  here  being  obliged  to  procure  the  Bills,  but  the 
immediate  Possessor,  whereas  in  those,  many  Thousands  may 
be  taxed  for  their  Quota,  that  have  none  &  know  not  how, 
or  by  what  means  to  obtain  them,  not  to  say  anything  of  the 
Impropriety  or  present  Difficulty  of  the  (Government's  emit- 
ting Money. 

^.  In  that  it's  direct  Tendency  is  to  take  away  the 
Occasion  of  any  Paper  Medium  at  all,  which  we  hope  this 
Scheme  will  in  Time  effect,  by  the  Increase  of  our  said 
Manufactures,  lessening  our  Importations,  &  thereby  stop- 
ping the  Channel,  which  if  kept  open,  will  as  heretofore, 
always  carry  away  Silver  &  Gold  from  among  us,  as  well 
that  which  may  be  deposited  for  the  Redemption  of  a  Paper 
Emission  as  any  other,  when  once  it  ge  .  .  .  .  dear  of  its 
confinement  &  then 

^.  If  a  distant  day  of  Payment  of  these  Notes  or  Bills 
of  Credit,  is,  as  by  many  thought,  a  Cause  of  their  Sink- 
ing, tho  negotiable  in  the  Interim,  then  this  Scheme  is  in 
this  Respect  preferable  there  being  always  a  Stock  in  the 
Treasury,  which  (we  think)  never  yet  in  any  Emission,  Pub- 
lick  or  Private,  was  the  Case  &  promis'd  it  was  only  so: 
never  provided,  but  here  it  must  be,  or  the  Mortgage  is 
forfeited  &  sold  to  procure  it. 

And  will  not  all  these  Advantages  atone  for  some  small 
Defects  in  the  present  Scheme,  or  the  Trouble  of  amending 
it  &  over  balance  the  unreasonable  Cry  &  Clamour,  that  is 
by  y®  Merchants  &  Factors  made  against  it?  Whose  just 
&  reasonable  trade,  we  doubt  not  will  be  well  served,  thereby 
&  further  we  are  not  concerned,  unless  it  be  to  prevent  it, — 
Upon  the  Reasons  thus  briefly  hinted,  with  a  great  many 


ooLpOniax  currency  and  the  land  bank,         157 

Thousands  more  in  this  Province,  Landed  men,  Traders, 
Tradesmen  &c.  the  main  Prop  &  Support  of  the  Common- 
wealth should  [....]  quite  dispirited,  thro  the  Want  of 
Money,  having  hardly  any,  to  carry  on  their  common 
business,  or  to  answer  their  daily  Necessities,  or  hope 
left,  in  any  other  way  of  obtaining  any,  but  what  at 
best,  will  be  abused  in  its  use,  &  at  last  leave  them,  in 
as  perplexed  a  Condition  or  worse,  than  at  present,  &  as 
in  r)uty  bound  shall  pray  &c. 

John  Choate  Francis  Choate 

Andrew  Burley  Nathaniel  Wells 

Robert  Choate  Jacob  Pirkins 

John  Boardman  John  Fuller 

James  Eveleth  John  Perkens 

Thomas  Choate,  Jr.  William  Dodge 

The  Land  Bank  grew  rapidly  in  popular  favor.  On  July 
30,  upwards  of  800  subscribers  were  enrolled.  Six  of  the 
leading  members  of  the  House  were  Directors  and  many  of 
the  members  were  subscribers.  The  subscriptions  were  for 
small  sums,  in  the  main,  and  the  friends  of  the  Silver  scheme, 
whose  subscriptions  were  notably  large,  twitted  the  Land 
Bank  people  that  their  supporters  were  people  of  the  com- 
mon class.  The  contest  grew  bitter  and  personal.  The 
merchants  of  New  England  petitioned  Parliament  to  forbid 
the  continuance  of  the  Land  Bank.  Gov.  Belcher  threatened 
to  remove  supporters  of  the  Bank  from  ofBce.  Justices  of 
the  Peace,  who  had  been  commissioned  by  the  Grovernor,  did 
not  wait  removal.  They  sent  him  their  resignations.  John 
Choate  was  one  of  the  first  to  resign. 

May  it  please  Your  Excellency.*' 

In  as  much  as  by  your  Excellency's  Proclamation  of  the 
Fifth  Currant  the  holding  of  a  Commission  Under  your 
Excellency  is  made  Inconsistent  with  prosecuting  the  Manu- 
factory Scheme,  in  which  we  are  Concerned  and  whereon  in 

<*Ma8s.  ArchlveSt  102:  90. 


158        IPSWIOH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

our  humble  opinionB  the  Interest  of  our  Native  Country  so 
much  depends  as  to  Require  the  Utmost  of  our  Endeavours 
to  promote  the  same. 

Therefore  as  with  a  Grateful!  Sense  of  your  Excellency's 
Favour,  We  Received  our  Commissions  and  Trusts,  so  with 
the  Same  Sense  for  your  so  long  Continuing  us  therein, 

We  now  with  your  Excellency's  leave,  Resign  these  Trusts 
being  concerned  that  our  being  out  of  Town,  Deprived  us 
of  the  oppertunity  of  accompanying  those  Gtentlemen  that 
have  this  day  Resigned  before  us. 

We  are  your  Excellency's  Dutif ull  and  hum**^*  Serv** 

Samuel  Adams 
John  Choate 

Nov.  10,  1740. 

To  Go  Belcher,  Esq. 

.  .  .  .  al  &  Govemour  in  chief 

Boston 

Major  Ammi  Ruhamah  Wise,  who  also  held  the  commis- 
sion of  a  Justice  of  Peace,  with  several  others,  was  removed 
from  office  on  Jan.  1,  1741,  for  receiving  and  passing  the 
notes  of  the  Land  Bank  "and  persisting  therein.^'  The 
Registers  of  Deeds  were  commanded  to  send  in  the  names  of 
all  who  had  mortgaged  their  property ;  a  Proclamation  was 
issued  by  the  Governor,  forbidding  all  persons  holding  com- 
missions in  the  militia  "to  have  any  hand  in  this  scheme  for 
defrauding  the  people";  (Nov.  1,  1740)  and  on  Dec.  11, 
orders  were  issued  to  Col.  Berry  and  the  other  commanding 
officers  to  investigate  their  subordinates  and  discharge  all 
involved.** 

Andrew  Burley  was  summoned  to  appear  before  the  Gov- 
ernor and  Council.  His  reply**^  was  not  lacking  in  cool  de- 
fiance. 

Worthy  Sir : 

I  this  moment  Received  yours  of  y*  26*^  December  for  his 

"Mass.  Archives,  102:  88,  99. 
*«Mas8.  Archives.  102:  121. 


.    IPSWICH  LAND  BANK 


COLONIAL  OUBBENCY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     159 

Magestie^s  Service  and  should  have  Cheerfully  waited  on 
liis  Excellency  and  the  Council  acording  to  the  Direction 
of  the  Board  But  yesterday  meet  with  a  blow  on  my  leg 
which  disables  me  from  Rideing  a  journey:  as  to  the  com- 
plaint Exhibited  against  me  for  Receiving  and  pasing  Manu- 
factory Bills  Since  His  Excellency's  Proclamation,  I  frely 
acknowledge  I  have  Don  and  am  determin'd  so  to  doe  at 
presant. 

I  am 

Sir,  Your  humble  Ser*, 

Andrew  Burley. 
December  31**,  1740. 

While  the  final  decision  as  to  the  Land  Bank  was  still 
pending,  a  bank  was  organized  and  a  petition  for  incor- 
poration was  addressed  to  the  General  Court  by  Edward 
Eveleth,  Ebenezer  Stevens  and  John  Brown.  The  Council 
voted  to  refer  the  petition  to  a  joint  Committee  but  the  House 
refused  to  concur.  This  bank  actually  printed  and  circu- 
lated notes  of  small  denominations,  only  four  of  which  are 
known  to  be  in  existence.  They  were  dated  at  Ipswich, 
May  1,  1741  and  were  payable  to  the  order  of  Mr.  James 
Eveleth. 

A  new  Assembly  met  on  May  27,  1741.  The  Ipswich 
Representatives  were  John  Choate  and  Richard  Rogers. 

Samuel  Watts,  a  Director  of  the  Land  Bank  was  chosen 
Speaker,  but  the  Gbvemor  disapproved  this  choice.  Wil- 
liam. Fairbanks,  a  supporter  of  the  Bank,  was  then  chosen 
and  the  election  was  approved,  but  as  the  Assembly  was 
evidently  in  favor  of  the  Bank  the  Governor  dissolved  it 
and  ordered  a  new  election.  John  Choate  and  Andrew 
Burley  were  chosen  the  Representatives  from  Ipswich  and 
when  the  new  House  met,  it  organized  with  the  choice  of 
Mr.  Choate  as  Speaker  and  the  Governor  again  sharply  dis- 
approved. John  ITobson  was  then  chosen  and  the  business 
of  the  session  was  begun. 


160        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

(Governor  Belcher  was  relieved  of  his  office  in  August,  1741. 
In  the  summer  of  1739  or  the  year,  1739,  he  had  received  or- 
ders to  promote  enlistments  for  an  expedition  under  Admiral 
Vernon  against  the  Spanish  settlements  in  the  West  Indies. 
He  issued  a  loan  and  made  appointments  of  the  necessary 
officers.  Major  Ammi  Ruhamah  Wise  of  Ipswich,  who  had 
been  ejected  from  the  office  of  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  his 
support  of  the  Land  Bank  was  appointed  one  of  the  ten 
captains.  A  contemporaneous  author^®  remarks  upon  this 
action  of  the  Governor. 

There  was  indeed  among  other  extraordinary  Circumstan- 
ces of  his  Ex  .  .  .  cy's  Behaviour  respecting  tike  Land  Bank 
Scheme  during  the  late  Session  of  the  Assembly  one  that 
seems  particularly  Remarkable. 

Major  Wise,  a  trader  in  Ipswich  and  the  Representative 
of  that  Town,  was  publicly  known,  both  from  the  List  of 
the  Subscribers  to  the  Land  Bank  Scheme  and  that  of  the 
Voters  in  favor  of  it  in  the  House  of  Representatives,  as 
well  as  other  Transactions,  to  be  a  very  considerable  Sub- 
scriber to  and  Promoter  of  that  Scheme;  and  it  appears 
that  on  the  9*^  of  July,  about  a  week  after  the  second  Me- 
morial of  the  Merchants  had  been  presented  to  his  Ex  -  .  cy 
and  the  C  ...  1  against  the  Scheme  and  his  Ex  .  .  .  cy's 
strong  Promises  to  'em  that  he  would  discountenance  it 
and  endeavor  to  suppress  it,  his  Ex  ...  cy  in  C  ...  1 
appointed  the  Captains  of  the  ten  Companies  proposed  to 
be  raised  in  this  Province  for  his  Majesty's  Service  in  the 
late  Expedition  against  the  Spanish  Settlements  in  the  West 
Indies,  and  that  Major  Wise  was  the  second  Captain  in 
his  Ex  .  .  .  cy's  List. 

The  writer  says  that  the  Governor  had  "refused  the  ser- 
vices of  two  Persons  for  raising  each  of  them  a  Company, 
both  of  'em  of  superior  Pretensions  to  those  of  Mr.  Wise." 

The  Boston  N"ew8  Letter,  July  31 — Aug.  7,  1740  reports: 

"An  Account  of  the  Rise,  Progress  &  Consequence  of  the  two  late 
schemes,  etc.— Boston,  1744,  In  the  Colonial  Currency  Reprints,  Prince 
Society. 


COI-ONIAL   CURRENCY   AND   THE   LAND  BANK,  161 

Maj.  Wise  of  Ipswich,  having  Compleated  his  Company^'' 
of  Voluntiers  in  the  County  of  Essex,  they  came  to  Town 
Yesterday  and  consist  of  a  Number  of  lusty  Men,  able  to 
endure  Hardships  and  to  appearance  capable  of  serving  his 
Majesty  in  the  important  Expedition  propos'd  against  the 
Spaniards  with  Courage  and  Resolution. 

An  Act  of  Parliament  declared  all  the  transactions  of  the 
two  Bank  Schemes  illegal  and  void  and  ordered  that  they 
should  be  entirely  abandoned  on  or  before  Sept.  29,  1741, 
under  penalty  of  treble  damages.  This  Parliamentary  in- 
terference, as  it  was  regarded  by  the  friends  of  the  Land 
Bank,  was  bitterly  resented  and  there  were  signs  of  a  violent 
uprising  in  several  towns.  Had  Governor  Belcher  remained 
in  power,  it  is  possible  and  even  probable  that  the  first  col- 
lision with  Great  Britain  would  have  occurred  at  this  time.^® 
Happily  his  successor,  Gov.  Shirley,  appreciated  the  extreme 
delicacy  of  the  situation.  He  found  the  Land  Bank  party, 
which  was  very  numerous  throughout  the  Province  irri- 
tated and  inflamed  to  such  a  degree  that  they  seemed  ripe 
for  tumult  and  disorder.  Two  thirds  of  the  members  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  were  either  partners  or  abettors 
of  the  Land  Bank  Scheme  and  a  general  opposition  by  them 
to  all  the  measures  of  the  Government  was  feared.^® 

Wiser  counsels  prevailed  and  on  Sept.  28,  the  Directors 
declared  that  the  scheme  was  relinquished,  although  there 
was  stormy  opposition.  The  Silver  scheme  had  already 
been  abandoned.  Many  years  elapsed  however,  before  a  final 
settlement  of  the  affairs  of  the  Land  Bank  was  reached. 

The  names  of  the  Ipswich  subscribers  and  partners  have 
been  preserved  in  several  lists  in  the  Archives  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, the  Essex  Coimty  Registry  of  Deeds  and  else- 

"  The  Roll  of  the  Company  has  not  been  preserved. 

«  Currency  and  Banking:  In  the  Province  of  Mass.  Bay.  A.  McP.  Davis. 
Part  n,  p.  191. 

"•An  Account  of  the  Rise.  Progrress  and  Consequences  of  the  two  late 
Schemes.     Colonial  Currency  Reprints. 


162       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSA0IIUSETT8    BAY   COLONY. 

where.  Some  apparently  signed  their  names  to  the  original 
subscription  list,  but  never  took  any  of  the  notes,  as  no 
record  of  mortgages  appears,  frightened  perhaps  by  the  un- 
expected opposition  and  the  seriousness  of  the  conflict. 
Some  became  sharers  in  the  enterprize  after  the  earliest 
lists  had  been  published.  Strangely  enough,  John  Choate's 
name  is  omitted  in  some  lists,  though  he  was  a  Director  and 
one  of  the  most  conspicuous  supporters.  The  complete  list 
of  the  Ipswich  men  who  were  identified  in  greater  or  less 
degree  with  the  Land  Bank  is  as  follows.^® 


Thomas  Adams,  yeoman. 

£100 

John  Boardman,  gentleman, 

£500 

John  Brown 

John  Brown,  Jr.,  yeoman, 

£100 

Andrew  Burley,  Esquire, 

£500 

Francis  Choate,  Grentleman, 

£500 

John  Choate,  (Director  of  the  Company) 

Robert  Choate 

Thomas  Choate,  Jr.,  gentleman. 

£500 

Parker  Dodge 

£100 

William  Dodge 

Benjamin  Dutch 

£100 

Edward  Eveleth 

Isaac  Eveleth 

1 

James  Eveleth 

Josepli  Fowler,  gentleman, 

£100 

William  Giddings 

Benjamin  Gilbert 

£200 

John  Gilbert 

Joseph  Gilbert,  yeoman. 

£100 

Abraham  Knowlton 

Ebenezer  Knowlton,  yeoman, 

'^Mr.  Andrew  McFarland  Davis  in  AnnendiY  TC.  Part  TT 

£300 

nf  Ilia    vmf*1r   nn 

Currency  and  Banking  has  made  an  exhaustive  study  of  the  lists  of  part- 
ners.    The  following  list  is  compiled  from  his  summary. 


COLONIAL  CUKKENCY  AND  THE  LAND  BANK.     108 

Samuel  Knowlton 

John  Patch 

Jaoob  Perkins 

John  Perkins,  yeoman,  £200 

Samuel  Kogers 

Timothy  Wade 

John  "Whipple,  Jr.,  Gentleman,  £400 

Joseph  Whipple,  Jr. 

Ammi  R.  Wise,  Esquire, 

£250 


;} 


Daniel  Wise,  Shopkeeper, 

The  only  Ipswich  subscribers  to  the  Silver  Bank,  so  far 
as  known,  were  Daniel  Appleton,  Esq.  and  Eev.  ilTathaniel 
Rogers. 

In  pursuance  of  an  Act  for  more  speedy  finishing  of  the 
Land  Bank,  passed  Oct.,  1Y43,  and  another  Act  passed  Au- 
gust, 1744,  assessments  were  levied  on  the  Ipswich  sub- 
scribers.^^ 

£  .  £ 

Thomas  Adams  4  Joseph  Fowler  4 

John  Boardman  10  Benjamin  Gilbert  8 

John  Brown  4  Joseph  Gilbert  4 

Andrew  Burley  30  Abraham  Knowlton  4 

Francis  Choate  10   Ebenezer  Kiiowlton  12 

John  Choate,  Esq.  20  John  Patch  2 

Thomas  Choate,  Jr.,  20  John  Perkins  4 

Parker  Dodge  4  John  Whipple,  Jr.   ,  8 

Benjamin  Dutch  4  Ammi  &  Daniel  Wise    22-10 

The  settlement  of  the  Land  Bank  still  remained  incom- 
plete. An  Act  of  February,  1Y59,  to  finish  the  business, 
authorized  an  assessment  of  £3000  on  such  surviving  members 
as  the  "Commissioners  should  judge  of  ability  as  to  estate." 
The  Commissioners  assessed  the  Ipswich  members  on  Sep- 
tember 8"*,  1763.22 

'^  Boston  News  Letter,  Jan.  2,  1746  Supplement. 
"The  Boston  Gazette,  Sept.  12.  1768. 


164      IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MA8SA0HUSETTB   BAY   COLONY. 

£     8.   d. 

Thomas  Adams  7-  0-  0 

John  Boardman  17-10-  0 

Francis  Choate  14-  0-  0 

John  Choate,  Esq.  ^^  87-10-  0 

Thomas  Choate,  Jr.  31-10-  0 

Benjamin  Dutch  7-  0-  0 

John  Patch  3-10-  0 

John  Whipple,  Jun.  14-  0-  0 

On  March  22,   1764,  the  Commissioners  levied  another' 
assessment.^*     The  Ipswich  share  holders  who  were  assessed, 
under  penalty  of  their  estates  being  sold  if  payment  were 
not  made  in  thirty  days  were  as  follows. 

£    8.  d. 

John  Brown  5-12-  0 

Andrew  Burley  42-  0-  0 

Parker  Dodge  5-12-  0 

Joseph  Fowler  5-12-  0 

Benjamin  Gilbert  11-4-0 

Abraham  Knowlton  5-12-  0 

Ebenezer  Knowlton  16-16-  0 

Ammi  &  Daniel  Wise  31-10-  0 

Several  persons  who  were  assessed  Sept  8,  1763,  as  sur- 
viving partners,  having  deceased,  their  estates  are  assessed 

£  s.  d. 
John  Boardman  14-  0-  0 

Benj.  Dutch  5-12-  0 

The  Commissioners  advertised  in  the  Evening  Post  on 
August  27,  1765,  that  a  large  portion  of  the  assessments 
remained  unpaid  and  that  they  should  proceed  to  collect  on 
October  4^. 

Col.  Choate  was  cordially  supported  by  the  majority  of 

^  The  maximum  assessment. 

»*  The  Boston  Gazette,  March  26,  1764. 


COLONIAL   CTJKKENCY   AND   THE   LAND   BANK.  165 

his  fellow  citizens.  He  was  elected  to  the  House  every  year 
until  1750  and  in  several  subsequent  years.  In  1745,  he 
obtained  leave  of  absence  to  go  with  Pepperell  to  Cape 
Breton.^*^  He  was  enrolled  as  Colonel  and  Captain  of  the 
First  Company  of  the  8^  Mass.  Eegiment  in  the  Louisbourg 
campaign  and  performed  efficient  service  later  at  Albany. 
In  1747  and  1748,  the  Town  voted  to  elect  but  one  Repre- 
sentative and  the  honor  fell  to  him.  There  was  a  very  dis- 
cordant minority,  however,  as  the  following  communication 
to  the  Boston  News  Letter  clearly  reveals. 

Ipswich,  May  15,  1747. 
The  Inhabitants  of  the  Town,  Yesterday,  at  a  legal  Meet- 
ing, elected  to  represent  them  the  ensueing  Year,  in  the 
General  Assembly,  John  Cheat,  Esq.,  who  we  are  fully  sen- 
sible has  for  many  years  served  this  Town  and  Country  in 
a  publick  Capacity  with  Faithfulness  and  Integrity,  notwith- 
standing the  injurious  Misrepresentations  of  many,  but  more 
particularly  the  incessant  detestable  Endeavours  of  an  in- 
famous Chatterer,  who  at  all  Opportunities  is  essaying  to 
asperse  the  Characters  of  worthy  Men  in  a  publick  Station, 
and  has  thereby  rendered  himself  the  Scorn  and  Contempt 
of  all  honest  men  on  both  sides  of  the  Water,  Who  have  had 
the  Unhappiness  of  being  pestered  and  plagued  with  his  im- 
govemable  malicious  Tong. 

It  may  be  true,  as  has  been  affirmed,  that  the  long  and 
heated  currency  conflict  led  up  to  those  consultations  of  the 
Representatives  with  the  Selectmen  of  the  towns  which  prob- 
ably suggested  the  Committees  of  Correspondence  through 
which  so  much  was  accomplished  in  the  days  of  the  Revolu- 
tion ;  while  the  arbitrary  suppressioon  of  the  Land  Bank  com- 
pelled men  to  face  the  question  whether  such  legislation  as 
that  through  which  the  closure  was  accomplished  could  pos- 
sibly be  tolerated  by  a  free  people. 

«  See  Chapter  vm.    French  and  Indian  War. 


CHAPTER  VIII 

The  FjiENOH  and  Indian  ob  Seven  Yeabs  Wae,  1755-1762 

AND 

The  Acadians  in  Ipswich. 

The  four  years  war  between  France  and  England,  1744- 
1748,  which  terminated  with  the  Treaty  of  Aix-La-Chapelle, 
was  the  occasion  of  one  brilliant  event  on  this  side  the  Atlan- 
tic, the  capture  of  the  fortress  of  Louisbourg  in  Cape  Breton 
by  the  English  and  Colonial  forces.  An  expedition  under 
the  command  of  William  Pepperell  of  Kittery,  a  merchant 
of  large  wealth  but  with  slight  military  experience,  sailed 
from  Boston  on  the  24***  of  March,  1745.  The  siege  was 
conducted  with  great  vigor  and  the  fortress  surrendered  in 
two  months. 

Edward  Eveleth  had  been  commissioned  Lieut.  Col.  and 
Captain  of  the  2"**  Co.  of  the  5***  Massachusetts  Regiment, 
Col.  Robert  Hale,  on  Feb.  7,  1744.  He  was  present  at  the 
siege  and  capture  and  many  Ipswich  men  were  no  doubt  in 
his  company.  Unfortunately  none  of  the  Military  Rolls 
of  that  expedition  have  been  preserved.^  On  or  about  the 
first  of  June,  1745,  Col.  John  Choate  of  Ipswich,  Lieut 
Col.  William  Williams  and  Major  ITathaniel  Thwing  re- 
ceived their  commissions  from  Gov.  Shirley,  and  under  his 
instructions  proceeded  to  raise  the  8*"^  Mass.  Regiment,  con- 
sisting of  ten  companies  of  forty  men  each.  They  arrived 
with  eight  companies  about  the  fifth  of  July,  the  other  two 

^  The  principal  record  is  the  Pepperell  Papers,   Mass.  Hist,  Soc.  ColL 
Sixth  Seriesp  Vol.  X.    This  narrative  is  based  upon  these  papers. 

(166) 


THE   FRENCH   AND   INDIAN   WAJR.  167 

companies  being  expected  at  any  time,  and  found  to  their 
^inexpressible  joy,''  that  the  city  had  already  surrendered. 
Their  late  arrival,  for  which  they  were  no  wise  responsible, 
gave  rise  however  to  the  question  whether  their  regiment 
was  to  be  regarded  as  a  part  of  the  expedition,  and  entitled 
to  a  proper  share  of  the  awards  and  further  service,  or 
v«^liether  it  should  be  sent  home  at  once.  Col.  Choate  and 
his  brother  officers  petitioned  on  July  8***  that  the  expedition 
should  not  be  deemed  at  an  end  and  that  their  regiment 
should  be  esteemed  part  of  the  army,  and  it  was  so  decided 
by  a  Council  of  War.  As  Col.  Choate  was  also  Cap- 
tain of  the  1"*  Company,  another  group  of  Ipswich  men  was 
undoubtedly  included  in  it. 

Col.  Eveleth  evidently  had  filled  a  prominent  place  in 
tiie  conduct  of  the  siege.  Immediately  upon  his  arrival, 
Col.  Choate  was  also  recognized  as  an  officer  of  ability.  He 
was  appointed  Judge  Advocate  of  a  Court  of  Admiralty,  June 
20*^  and  Judge  Advocate  General  for  Courts  Martial  on 
July  23*.  Dr.  John  Manning  of  Ipswich  was  commissioned 
Surgeon  on  June  7"*. 

Colonel  Edward  Eveleth,  in  his  petition  for  reimburse- 
ment,^ stated  that  after  the  reduction  he  was  ordered  to 
Canso,  where  he  was  obliged  to  subsist  several  men  from 
May  first  to  August  fifth,  including  Mr.  Benjamin  Crocker, 
a  chaplain  in  the  expedition.  Mr.  Crocker  was  a  prominent 
Ipswich  citizen,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  the  class  of  1713, 
a  Representative,  a  teacher  for  several  years  of  the  Gram- 
mar School,  and  a  frequent  preacher  in  the  Ipswich  pulpits. 
His  wife,  Mary  Whipple,  daughter  of  Major  John  Whipple, 
inherited  the  Whipple  House,  and  there  they  made  their 
home.*  Richard  Lakeman,  Clerk  of  the  company,  confirmed 
Col.  Eveleth's  statements.*     William  Holland,  wounded  at 

*lAia88.  Archives  73:  518,  74:  64.    He  received  £52-7s-6d  for  his  wages  as 
Lieut. -Col.,  39  weeks  and  2  days. 
*  Ipswich  Hist  Society  Pubs.  XX:  33. 


168       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACIirSETTS    liAY    COLONY. 

Cape  Breton,  was  brought  home  and  died  June  4,  1745.^ 
Mary  Lakeman,  administrator  of  Silvanus  Lakeman,  an  en- 
listed soldier  under  Lieut.  Col.  Eveleth,  who  was  sent  home 
sick  and  was  robbed  of  his  gun,  a  good  Queen's  arm,  peti- 
tioned for  £12  damage  in  March,  1753.® 

A  partial  list  of  Col.  Choate's  company  on  Nov.  13,  1745, 
contains  the  names  of  Stephen  Whipple,  Clerk,  Daniel 
Kimball,  Moses  Jewett  and  John  Jewett.  l^o  residences 
however,  are  given  and  the  Ipswich  men  can  not  be  accu- 
rately determined.  One  vessel  was  dispatched  to  Boston  on 
June  22"'',  with  a  single  company  of  Col.  Choate's  regiment. 
The  rest  remained  during  the  winter.  Col.  Choate  had 
l)art  in  a  reconnoissance  to  the  Island  of  St.  Johns  on  May 
14*^  1746.  Two  days  later,  a  Council  of  War  decided  that 
it  was  advisable  that  the  Ifew  England  troops,  who  had  not 
enlisted  in  His  Majesty's  service,  should  be  discharged  and 
sent  home  as  soon  as  vessels  could  be  provided  for  their 
transportation. 

An  account  book*^  of  Capt,  Jonathan  Bumam  of  the 
Chebacco  parish  notes  the  impressment  of  men  in  that  par- 
ish, and  reveals  the  makeshifts  to  which  the  Town  officials 
were  obliged  to  resort  to  provide  their  equipment. 

An  a  Counpt  of  such  men  as  are  jmprest  or  Detacht  into 
his  maiestyes  saruice  in  the  year  1744  whose  names  are 
under  written  that  are  under  my  Command  Belonging  to 
Chebaco  Compeny. 

Ebenezer  Cogswel  Joseph  emerson 

Daniel  Androus  Benjamen  Androus 

humphery  williams  Isaac  pockter 

mosis  foster  iunr  Nathan  Story 

«Mass.  Archives  73:  522. 

•"•  Town  Record. 

"Mass.  Archives  74:  92. 

'  Essex  Institute  Hist.  Coll..  XUX.,  Jan.,   1913. 


THE   FRENCH    AND   INDIAN    WAK.  169 

these  whos  names  are  a  boue  written  ware  Imprest  into 
liis  majestyes  sarvis  June  y*  5,  1Y44 

Imprest  Into  his  maiesties  sarvis  thomas  poland  June  y* 
18,  1745 

thomas  Bumum  y'  S^  was  Imprst  into  his  Majestyes 
Sarvis  July  y*  27,  1745 

Ben j  amen  procter  &  John  uamy  was  Imprest  into  his 
Majesties  Sarvis  Apriel  y*^  28,  1746 

Samuel  Gidding  and  Samuil  Story  was  Imprest  Into  his 
ZMajesties  Sarvis  July  y*^  16,  1746. 

Nathan  Burnum  was  Imprest  Into  his  Majesties  Sarvis 
July  y*  16,  1746  and  nathan  Burnum  And  Caleb  Bumum 
hiered  Caleb  Androus  to  goe  into  the  Sarvice  &  gave  him 
thirty  eight  pounds  old  tener  paid  equally  between  them 

David  Low  juner  was  Imprest  into  his  Majesties  Service 
In  march,  1748. 

Daniel  Low  was  Imprest  into  his  Majesties  Service  May 
y'  11,  1748 

June  y®  2,  1746  then  Receued  of  Jeremiah  Lufkin  two 
guns  which  I  imprest  and  Delivered  to  two  of  his  Sons  that 
went  to  the  Cape  brittcn  expedition 

Receued  of  Jeremiah  Lufkin  a  Catreg  Box 

Reciued  of  william  Allin  a  Catreg  Box 

Receued  of  Cap"  Jeremiah  Foster  a  gun  which  I  Imprest 
And  Deliuered  to  Thomas  Grotten  which  went  In  the  Cape 
Britton  Expedition 

Receved  of  m^  Solomon  Giddings  Thomas  Grottons  Cat- 
treg  Box 

An  a  Counpt  of  men  Imprest  into  his  Majesties  Service 
by   Capt.   Jonathan   Burnum   Imprest   in   May,    1748   who 
paid  forty  pounds  a  peace  in  Bils  of  Credit  old  tenor. 
Receued  of  Joseph  Andreus  for  his  son  Joseph  forty 

pounds  40-  0-  0 

Receiued  of  Thomas  lufkin  for  his  son  Thomas 

forty  pounds  40-  0-  0 


170       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COI.Omr. 

Eeceiued  of  Stephen  Bonnum  forty  pounds  40-  0-  O 

Receiued  of  Nathaniel  Cavis  forty  pounds  40-  0-  O 

John  lul  hiered  into  his  Maiesties  Service  May  the 
24,  1748  and  I  paid  him  sixty  pounds  old  ten- 
ner 60-  0-  O 
WiDiam  Kimbol  hired  into  his  Maiesties  Service 
may  the  24,  1748  and  I  paid  him  sixty  pounds 
oldtener                                                                  60-  0-  0 
Jonathan,  son  of  Captain  Burnam,  was  at  Louisbourg. 
The  men  impressed  in  1744  went  in  the  Expedition  no  doubt, 
some  of  the  others  may  have  been  included  in  Col.  Choate's 
regiment     John  Kinge,  known  as  the  "Ipswich  lad,"  was 
in  one  of  these  regiments.     Henry  Russell®  was  in  Louisboui^ 
over  the  winter.     An  affectionate   letter  from  his  mother 
has  been  preserved. 

Ippsich,  Jenuary  ye  13th,  1745. 
these  with  my  love  to  you  hoping  they  will  find  you  in  per- 
fect health  as  they  leave  us  and  Blessed  be  the  name  of  the 
Lord  for  it  (that  is)  all  your  friends  are  well  and  send 
their  respects  to  you.  your  aunt  Gammage®  in  particular 
sends  her  love.  I  have  Reed  the  Letter  vou  wrote  the 
Eighth  of  Last  month  and  am  very  sorry  that  you  are  like 
to  stay  all  winter.  I  want  to  see  you  my  son  very  much  I 
hope  you  will  come  home  as  soon  as  possible,  all  your  re- 
lations pity  you  very  much.  I  have  sent  you  some  things  By 
a  vessell  from  Beverly,  I  cannot  remember  the  Capt.  name 
but  you  might  find  him  out.  Viz,  some  Cheeses  five  pound 
of  Butter  some  Links  some  herbs  Some  apples  some  otmeal 
Some  Sewet  Some  Indian  meal  Some  thread  Some  yearn 
I  could  not  get  the  caps  Done  and  therefore  could  (not) 
send  them  The  Barrell  is  mark  H  R  upon  the  head  of  it 
I  should  be  glad  if  you  would  send  to  me  by  the  first  op- 
pertunity  Send  when  you  think  you  shall  come  home. 

So  no  more  at  present  But  Remain  your  loving  and  dear 
mother. 

Sarah  Russell. 

"  Son  of  Henry  and  Sarah  Russell,  bp.  Dec.  2,  1722. 
*  Henry  Russell  and  Sarah  Adams,  inten.  11:  8:  1713.    Her  sister,  Han- 
nah married  John  Gamage,  May  23,  1728. 


THE  FBENOII  AND  INDIAN   WAR.  171 

P.  S.  I  would  have  you  keep  from  bad  Company.  Old 
Mr  Rogers^®  Died  the  28th  of  December  and  was  Buried 
the  3rd  of  Jenuary,  Mr  Fowler  Died  the  same  Day  Buried 
the  last  of  December. 

^had  H  R  twise  upon  one  head,  and  mark  on  the 

other  H  Russel  with  Blacking. 

To 

Mr  Henery  Russell 

Lewisbourg  on 

Cape  Britan 
these  with  care, 
(captain  name  is  blotted  out) 

Col.  S.  Waldo  certified^^*  that  Zachary  Dwinnell  of  Ips- 
wich was  enlisted  in  his  company  and  was  borne  on  the  rolls 
from  5  Aug.,  1746,  to  the  time  the  troops  were  disbanded. 
William  TTrann  memorialized^^**  the  General  Court,  April 
5,  1749,  that  the  name  of  Ebenezer  Maxey,  then  dead,  had 
been  omitted  in  Col.  Choate's  muster  roll,  and  prayed  that 
his  wages  might  be  paid  to  his  widow,  who  had  six  small 
children  dependent  upon  her. 

The  news  of  peace  had  hardly  reached  the  colonies  before 
the  French  Grovemor  of  Canada  sent  a  force  to  proclaim 
French  supremacy  in  the  Ohio  valley,  in  June,  1749.  Three 
years  later,  forts  were  built  and  garrisoned  by  the  French 
and  in  1764,  they  built  Fort  Duquesne,  on  the  site  of  the 
present  city  of  Pittsburg.  In  May,  a  detachment  of  Vir- 
ginia militia,  commanded  by  Col.  Gteorge  Washington,  met 
and  defeated  a  body  of  French  troops  at  Great  Meadows  on 
the  western  slope  of  the  AUeghanies. 

The  Seven  Tears  War  or  the  French  and  Indian  War, 
as  it  is  commonly  called,  now  began.  Expeditions  were 
planned  against  Fort  Duquesne,  against  Crown  Point,  a 
French  stronghold  on  Lake  Gteorge,  the  source  of  many  In- 
dian attacks,  and  Fort  !N'iagara;  and  a  third,  against  the 

^  Rev.  John  Rogers,  Pastor  of  First  Church,  Joseph  Fowler. 
>*«Mass.  Archives,  73:  111. 
**^Mas8.  Archives  73:  367. 


172       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSAC  HTSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Acadian  settlers  in  JTova  Scotia.  New  England  men  had  no 
part  in  the  first  of  these  which  was  led  by  Gen.  Braddock, 
and  suffered  disastrous  defeat  in  the  summer  of  1755,  but 
they  had  a  conspicuous  part  in  aJl  the  other  operations  of 
the  war. 

The  conquest  of  Fort  Beausejour  in  June,  1755,  and  the 
removal  of  the  Acadian  peasantry  from  Nova  Scotia,  was 
accomplished  by  an  expedition  led  by  Lieut.  Col.  Monckton. 
Col.  John  Winslow  commanded  2000  Massachusetts  troops 
with  Dr.  John  Calef  of  Ipswich  as  the  surgeon  of  his  regi- 
ment.    The  roll  of  the  regiment  has  not  been  preserved. 

The  experience  of  Captain  Thomas  Staniford  of  Ipswich 
in  his  good  schooner,  "Jolly  Robin,"  ^^  is  typical  of  the 
danger  of  the  peaceful  merchant  service  in  this  period.  In 
February,  1756,  while  at  Halifax,  he  was  informed  by  Gen. 
Winslow  that  Gov.  Shirley  ordered  him  to  sail  for  Boston 
at  once.  He  was  not  bound  for  that  port  but  made  sail  as 
directed.  When  he  arrived  at  Nantasket,  a  boat  from  "H. 
M.  Sloop  Hornet"  came  along  side  and  an  officer  impressed 
four  of  his  crew.  Captain  Staniford  appealed  to  Gen. 
Winslow,  who  promised  to  secure  their  release.^* 

Dr.  John  Calef  of  Ipswich  had  warrant  from  Qov.  Shirley 
on  Jan.  22,  1755  to  proceed  to  Fort  Halifax  on  the  Ken- 
nebec river,  to  take  care  of  the  sick  soldiers  in  the  garrison. 
He  started  at  once  and  arrived  at  Falmouth,  now  Portland, 
in  three  days  where  he  was  obliged  to  leave  his  horse  and 

travel  on  foot  the  rest  of  the  wav.     He  arrived  at  the  Fort 

t.' 

"the  beginning  of  February"  and  found  the  garrison  very 
sickly,  and  it  continued  so  until  the  first  of  April.  The 
sickness  was  then  much  abated,  and  as  his  medicines  were 
almost  spent,  he  advised  with  the  commanding  officer  and 
returned  home.  As  he  had  received  no  pay,  he  petitioned 
that  "his  Extraordinary  Fatigue  &  Service  in  the  Midst  of 

"  Called  sometimes  the  "Jolly  Rover." 
"Mass.  Archives  65:  193. 


THE    FRENCH   AND   INDIAN   WAR.  173 

Winter"    should   be    recognized.     His   expenses   were,    for 
horse  hire  26/8,  10  days  expense  himself  and  horse  at  3/ 
a  day,  horse  keeping  at  Falmouth  16/  and  £3-12"-8*,  ex- 
clusive of  wages.     The  Greneral  Court  voted  him  £15-18/. 
In  the  spring  of  1756,  an  army  was  recruited  largely  from 
the  militia  of  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts  to  attack  the 
Trench  and  their  Indian,  allies  at  Crown  Point.     To  en- 
courage the  companies  to  penetrate  the  Indian  country,  Gov. 
Shirley  issued  a  proclamation**  on  June  18,  1755,  granting 
to  every  such  company  consisting  of  not  less  than  30  men, 
30  days  provisions  and  for  every  Indian  captive  £220,  for 
every  scalp  £200,  provided  the  company  should  have  per- 
formed a  march  of  at  least  30  days.     A  grant  was  made  to 
every  inliabitant  of  the  Province,  for  every  captive  £110, 
for  every  scalp  £100. 

Captain  John  Whipple  of  the  Hamlet  commanded  a  com- 
pany in  Col.  Bagley's  regiment,  in  service  from  April,  1755 
to  December  and  January  following,  which  was  composed 
largely  of  the  young  men  of  the  Hamlet  and  Chebacco. 

The  roll,  as  returned  by  Capt.  Whipple  in  Feb.,  1756,  in- 
cluded :** 

John  Whipple,  Captain  Jacob  Smith,  Corporal 

Stephen  Whipple,  Lieut  Nathan  Thompson,  Corporal 

Philip  Lord,  Ensign  Kobert  Potter,  drummer 
Aaron  Day,  Sergeant  Privates 

Antipas  Dodge,  Sergeant  Nathaniel  Adams,  Corporal 
Ebenezer  Knowlton,  Sergeant       after  Dodge's  death. 

John  Appleton,  Clerk  Samuel  Brown 

Greorge  Adams,  Corporal  Stephen  Brown 

promoted  Sergeant  after  John  Daniels 

Dodge's  death.  Ebenezer  Davise 

Isaac  Hovey,  Corporal  John  Dennis 

»  Mass.  Archives  74:  462. 
MMass.  Archives  94:  83. 


174       IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLON'Y. 

Mark  Fisk  James  Reynolds 

Nathaniel  Heard  David  Riggs 

Moses  Hodgkins  Abraham  Safford 

Thomas  Howlet  Edward  Seakes  ? 

John  Jones  Jeremiah  Seachell 
Thomas  Kimball  (Shatswell) 

William  Kimball  William  Semons 

John  Lakeman  John  Small 

Thomas  Loney  W^illiam  Smith 

Stephen  Lowater  James  Stephens 

Joseph  Machem  Robert  Stocker 

William  Mansfield  Samuel  Tuttle 

Elijah  Maxwell  Scipio  Wood 

Andrew  Morse  Andrew  Woodbury 

Nathan  Patch  Isaac  Woodbury 
Francis  Poland 

The  old  day  book  of  Mark  Howe  of  Linebrook  contains 
the  item 

An  account  of  soldiers  under  Lt.  Mark  How  Command 
that  have  enlisted  into  his  Majesties  Service  under  Capt. 
Herrick's  Command  in  the  Defence  of  North  Amarica. 

Michael  Holegate,  Mark  How  Jr.  the  fifteenth  day  of 
March,  1755. 

15  Sept.  1755.  Allen  Perley  hired  Nehemiah  Abbott  in 
his  Room  to  go  to  CrovTn  Point  under  Capt.  Isaac  Smith, 
which  shall  go  for  Perley's  turn. 

The  soldiers  listened  to  a  sermon  by  Rev.  Mr.  Wiggles- 
worth,  Pastor  of  the  Hamlet  church,  and  then  began  the 
long  march  from  Ipswich  to  Albany,  A  letter^ '^  written 
from  Albany  to  a  friend  in  Boston  gives  a  high  character 
to  these  New  England  soldiers. 

The  Behavior  of  the  New  England  Provincials  at  Albany 

^Boston  Gazette,  August  11,  1765. 


THE  FRENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAB.  175 

is  equally  admirable  and  satisfactory  ....  Instead  of  the 
Devastations  committed  by  the  Troops  in  1746,  not  a  Farm- 
er has  lost  a  Chicken  or  even  a  Mess  of  Herbs — they  have 
five  Chaplains  and  maintain  the  best  Order  in  the  Camp— ^ 
Publick  Prayer,  Psalm  singing  and  martial  Exercises  in- 
grossed  their  whole  Time  at  Albany.  Twice  a  week  they 
have  Sermons  and  are  in  the  very  best  Frame  of  Mind  for  an 
Army,  looking  for  success  in  a  Dependence  upon  Almighty 
God  and  a  Concurrence  of  Means.  Would  to  Qod  the  New 
England  Disposition  in  this  Respect  were  catching. 

From  Albany,  the  whole  army  marched  to  Lake  George, 
^where  Fort  Edward  was  built  by  the  New  England  men, 
skilled  in  the  use  of  the  axe  and  the  building  of  log  houses. 
Late  in  August,  Major  General  William  Johnson,  who  had 
been  appointed  to  the  chief  command,  led  his  little  army 
of  3400  men,  including  several  hundred  Indian  allies,  to 
the  southern  shore  of  the  lake  and  established  his  camp. 

On  the  morning  of  Sept.  8*^,  Dieskau,  the  French  com- 
mander, assailed  the  camp  with  a  large  force  of  French 
regulars,  Canadian  militia  and  Indians.  For  five  hours 
the  raw  New  England  militia  sustained  the  assault  of  the 
trained  soldiers  of  Europe  and  the  more  cunning  attack 
of  their  Indian  foe,  and  finally,  leaping  over  their  frail 
defences,  put  the  enemy  to  flight.  Two  hundred  and  six- 
teen of  the  Americans  fell  and  ninety-six  were  woxmded. 
Antipas  Dodge,  Sergeant  in  Capt.  Whipple's  Co.  and  John 
Jones  were  among  the  slain. ^®  Corporal  Nathan  Thomp- 
son was  wounded  three  times.  He  petitioned^*^  the  Gen- 
eral Court  for  relief,  Feb.  11,  1Y56. 

being  so  hotly  engaged  with  the  enemy  in  y®  woods  and 
obliged  to  retreat  ....  the  first  shot  I  received  was  just 

>•  Pelt,  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  149,  says  that  Joseph  Slmmonds  also  fell  on 
that  day  and  that  Elijah  Maxwell  or  Maxey  wcui  wounded  in  the  hand, 
which  was  made  useless.  They  were  all  Hamlet  men.  Mass.  Archives, 
94:  83.     Bancroft,  4:  211. 

>'Mas8.  Archives  76:  96. 


176       IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 


above  the  Elbow,  the  second  about  half  way  between  y*  Elbow 
and  Wrist,  the  third  in  my  left  side. 

Having  lost  the  use  of  his  arm  entirely,  he  asked  aid 
as  a  wife  and  five  children  were  dependent  upon  him. 
£5  was  voted  for  his  present  relief. 

A  second  company,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Isaac 
Smith  of  Ipswich,  was  ready  to  march  to  reinforce  the 
army  at  this  time.  The  roll,  reported  by  the  Captain  in 
the  February  following  included  :^^ 


Isaac  Smith,  Captain 
John  Jones,  Lieut. 
Gideon  Parker,  Ensign 
John  Adams,  Sergeant 
Benjamin  Brown,  Sergeant 
David  Smith,  Sergeant 
Daniel  Porter,  Clerk 
Nehemiah  Abbott,  Corporal 
Greoffrey  Purcell,  Corporal 
Jacob  Town,  Corporal 
Aaron  White,  Corporal 
Stephen  Bennett,  Drummer 
(Waite  ?) 
Privates 
Francis  Appleton 
Daniel  Averell 
James  Burch 
Benjamin  Chapman 
Simon  Chapman,  died  at 

Brookfield. 
Joseph  Cheney 
Richard  Hubbard  Dodge 
Joseph  Emmons 


Daniel  Giddings 
Daniel  Gilbert 
Solomon  Goodwin 
Nathaniel  Grant 
Benjamin  Heath 
Jonathan  Harris 
John  Herrick 
Jedidiah  Hodgkins 
Stephen  Hodgkins 
Ezekiel  Hunt,  marched  to 

Deerfield  &  deserted. 
David  Ireland 
Edmond  Kimball 
Philip  Kneeland 
Edward  Lamson 
Joseph  Lord 
James  McNiell 
John  Moulton 
Thomas  Morphew 
Samuel  Patch 
Bemsley  Perkins 
Jacob  Perkins 
Nathaniel  Perkins 


"Mass.  Archives  94:  1:  92. 


THE  PRENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAS.  177 

Samuel  Pickard  James  Smith 

William  Kand  Thomas  Tenney 

Thomas  Riggs  Ezra  Towne 

Samuel  Rogers  John  Tuttle 

« 

To  this  long  roll  of  Ipswich  soldiers  in  the  first  campaign 
may  be  added  the  names  of 

Joseph  Fisk  John  Rogers 

Abijah  Howe  Daniel  Shergeat 

Robert  Lee  Israel  Town 

William  Morrison  Jacob  Town 

Andrew  Patch  Aaron  Waite 
Daniel  Poland 

These  appear  on  the  enrollment  list,  returned  by  Col. 
Berry,  noted  as  "Crown  Point  men,"  in  the  Index,^®  though 
their  names  are  not  found  on  the  roll  of  either  of  the  Ips- 
Avich  companies. 

An  enrollment  of  Col.  John  Greenleaf  s  Regiment^^  con- 
tains the  names  of: 

John  Adams  Isaac  Martin 

David  Bennett  William  Newman 

Jonathan  Fellows  Daniel  Parsons 

Samuel  Fellows  John  Quarles 

Joseph  Killam  Robert  Quarles 

Ebenezer  Mansfield  Lemuel  Tucker 

With  these  exceptions,  the  Col.  Greenleaf  enrollment  is 
almost  identical  with  that  of  Captain  Isaac  Smith's  Com- 
pany in  Col.  Plaisted's  Regiment,  already  given. 

Gen.  Johnson,  though  urged  by  Gov.  Shirley  and  the  N"ew 
England  provinces,  to  press  the  campaign  against  the  French, 
took  no  advantage  of  the  decisive  victory.     He  employed  his 

>*Ma8S.  Archives,  93:  227. 
**liafl8.  Archives  93:  225. 


178       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLONY. 

force  in  building  Fort  William  Henry,  a  wooden  structure, 
near  Lake  George  and  on  the  approach  of  winter,  retaining 
a  sufficient  garrison,  he  dismissed  the  militia.  The  troops 
were  at  home  by  mid-winter.  Captain  Whipple's  roll,^^  re- 
turned in  Feb.,  1756,  bears  the  record. 

"Travel  from  Albany  to  Ipswich,  225  miles,  15  miles  p' 
day,  is  15  days,  at  1"  6**  p'^  day  is  22/6  p'  man."  Their 
time  of  service  was  from  April  to  December,  1755  and 
January,  1756.  Captain  Smith  made  his  attested  return 
on  the  26***  of  February  and  certified  his  company's  service 
from  Sept.  9  to  Dec.  17.  They  made  the  return  march  in 
the  same  number  of  days  required  by  Capt.  Whipple's  com- 
pany. 

The  Commissioners  appointed  to  go  to  Albany  to  forward 
the  Crown  Point  expedition,  James  Minot,  Col.  John 
Choate  and  Samuel  Livermore,  reported  on  Dec  12,  1755.^- 

They  arrived  at  Albany  on  Nov.  12*^,  and  while  20  miles 
away,  they  overtook  57  head  of  cattle,  which  were  being 
driven  to  the  camp  as  a  present  from  Long  Island.  The 
drovers  informed  them  that  about  200  sheep  had  already 

reached  Albanv  from  the  same  source. 

%> 

Next  day  we  set  out  and  in  three  days  we  arrived  at 
Fort  W"  Henry.  Met  about  a  thousand  troops  marching  off, 
said  to  be  chiefly  of  Connecticut  men  &  about  200  wagons 
returning  with  many  of  the  sick  of  this  Province.  Held 
council  at  the  Fort,  agreed  on  garrison.  430  at  upper,  320 
at  Lower  Fort.     Col  Bagley  to  be  Chief  .... 

At  Albany  we  ordered  all  the  sick  under  the  care  of 
Doctor  Calfe  (Dr.  John  Calef  of  Ipswich)  with  Doctor  Hall 
for  his  second  or  assistant,  the  said  Calfe  was  the  only  Phy- 
sician of  iTote  we  could  prevail  on  to  accept  this  charge 
and  as  the  sick  were  numerous  and  a  number  of  them  at 
the  Flatts,  six  miles  out  of  Town,  we  were  obliged  to  prom- 
ise him  some  further  allowance  than  the  stated  wages  of  a 

*^Ma,88.  Archives  94:  1:  92. 
>*Ma88.  Archives  75:  18-26. 


THE   FBBNOH   AND   INDIAN   WAR.  179 

siLrgeon.  Capt  Stone  was  driving  up  237  head  of  cattle 
for  this  Province.  The  forts  appear  to  Us  to  be  strong  and 
well-built  capable  of  a  good  defence  but  ill  situated  with  re- 
spect to  some  neighboring  hills  that  overlook  them  .... 

Dr.  Calef,  Surgeon  to  the  late  Col.  Samuel  Willard's  Regi- 
ment and  Dr.  Hall  addressed  a  memorial^*  to  the  Commis- 
sioners, asking  further  remuneration. 

We  performed  said  service  until  January  18  and  for  a 
considerable  part  of  the  time  visited  and  dressed  upwards 
of  an  hiuidred  sick  and  wounded  persons  &  did  perform  2 
amputations,  viz.  a  leg  and  an  arm.  8  persons  sick  ten 
miles  this  side  the  city  and  several  at  the  Flatts  above  the 
city. 

The  Council  voted.  To  John  Calef  40/.  To  Jer.  Hall 
£8.  In  Council,  Feb.  25,  1756,  John  Choate,  Esq.,  Josiah 
Dwight,  Esq.  and  John  Murray,  Esq.,  were  chosen  a  Com- 
mitt<3e  of  War^*  to  repair  to  Albany.  This  Committee  did 
not  accept  apparently,  and  Col.  Choate  was  again  appointed 
on  April  14***,  his  associates  being  Elisha  Sheldon  and  John 
AVhitcomb. 

The  Commissioners  were  at  Eort  Edward  on  June  22, 
1756  and  wrote^^  from  there  that  guards  and  scouts  were 
needed  to  protect  the  wagons  engaged  in  transporting  sup- 
plies to  Fort  William  Henry.  They  remained  there  during 
the  summer,  but  were  summoned  home  on  Aug.  27***.^® 

Early  in  the  summer  of  1756,  the  New  England  men  were 
summoned  once  more  to  join  the  British  regular  regiments 
in  a  new  campaign.  The  long  marches,  the  prevailing 
sickness  and  the  weak  leadership  of  the  former  year  proved 
very  discouraging.  The  difficulty  experienced  in  raising  the 
new  levy  is  well  shown  in  Col.  Berry's  letter. 


I.  Archives  75:  509. 
*•  Mass.  Archives  75:  155,  492. 
"Mass.  Archives  75:  668. 
"Mass.  Archives  76:  54. 


180      IPSWIOHy   IN  THE   MASSACHUSSTTS   BAY   COLOKT. 

Mr.  Secretary. 

Sir: 

In  Obedience  to  His  Excellency's  orders  to  me  of  April 
15,  I  Proportioned  the  One  hundred  and  seventeen  men  de- 
manded out  of  the  Regiment  under  my  Command  and  had 
them  all  Inlisted  or  Imprest  at  the  day.  But  so  it  was 
(as  before  Observed  to  you)  18  in  Capt.  Low's  Company, 
every  one  paid  the  fine.  10  from  Capt.  Davis  did  the  like 
8  in  Capt.  Allen's  Company  did  likewise.  Since  which  they 
have  done  all  as  I  apprehend  Officers  could  To  hire  and 
many  have  given  £13-6-8,  And  now  men  are  not  to  be  pro- 
cured at  any  Lay. 

The  Fishermen  when  they  come  in  keep  hid,  or  go  off 
to  sea  so  as  not  to  be  taken.  They  are  yet  m  Constant 
Pursuit  and  I  dont  leave  them  Six  days  without  fresh  Or- 
ders, and  were  it  to  save  the  Country,  I  can  do  no  more. 

I  herewith  send  a  list^**  of  the  men  that  have  been  In- 
listed  &  Impressed  and  Sent  forward  also  of  what  is  waiting 
&  where  .... 

And  hope  not  to  be  wanting  in  my  utmost  Endeavors  to 
forward  what  is  yet  behind.  I  have  been  in  hourly  expec- 
tation to  have  sent  a  Compleat  list  of  the  whole  that  have 
been  Demanded  which  Occasioned  my  delay.  But  have  been 
obstructed  as  above.  Which  I  hope  will  plead  an  Excuse 
for  him  who  with  difficulty  bears  to  be  Out  Strip't  in  point 
of  duty,  by  any  Officers  whatsoever. 

And  is 

Sir 

Your  Obedient — 

Humble  Servant, 

Tho"  Berry 
Ipswich,  June  4,  1756. 

To  the  Hon^**  Secretary^  Willard^** 

Capt.  Stephen  Whipple  of  the  Hamlet,  brother  of  Captain 
John,  with  whom  he  served  as  Lieut,  in  1765,  was  in  the 
field  with  41  able  bodied  soldiers  who  had  passed  muster 
at  Boston  on  May  7"*,  1756,  to  go  to  Crown  Point, 

His  rolP^  included  a  group  of  Ipswich  men, 

*••  The  list  has  not  been  preserved. 

*^  Mass.  Archives  94:  II:   233. 

»  Mass.  Archives  94:  1:  200.    Col.  Plaisted's  Regiment 


THE   FRENCH   AND   INDIAN   WAB. 


181 


age 

bom 

residence 

Stephen  Whipple,  Captain 

29 

Ipswich 

Ipswich 

Nathaniel  Adams 

19 

iC 

u 

Thomas  Adams 

33 

(6 

g    € 

John  Baker 

17 

U 

u 

John  Boyuton 

19 

Rowley 

(I 

Stephen  Brown 

20 

Ipswich 

u 

Benj.  Glazier 

21 

Cl 

cc 

Caleb  Lampson 

17 

(( 

Wenham 

Stephen  Lowater 

23 

n 

Ipswich 

John  Marshall 

42 

it 

a 

Elijah  "Maxey 

30 

u 

ii 

Benj.  Binder 

19 

u 

iC 

William  Poland 

20 

u 

C( 

Eben  Porter 

24 

Cl 

u 

Joseph  Whipple 

17 

it 

n 

The  rolPs  of  Capt.  Andrew  Fuller' 

s  Co.  in  the 

same  regi- 

ment.  Col.  Ichabod  Plaisted'i 

3,  included  the  names 

of 

age 

bom 

residence 

John  Daverson 

20 

Ipswich 

Wenham 

Caleb  Low 

16 

it 

Salem 

John  Mays 

19 

u 

Beverly 

John  Stacy 

20 

u 

Danvers 

Andrew  Woodbury 

19 

« 

Ipswich 

Capt.  Jonathan  Pearson's  company,  Col.  Plaisted's  regi- 
ment at  Fort  Edward,  July  26,  1756,  reported  on  its  roU.^® 

age     bom      residence 
Aaron  Caldwell  36  Ipswich  Ipswich  yeoman 


Nath^  Foster  24 

John  Knowlton,  Corporal   18 


u 


cc 


[N'ewbury   shipwright 


cc 


a 


John  Maybe 

22 

Ipswich 

laborer 

William  Perkins 

26 

cc 

Sadler 

James  Eobans 

17 

cc 

weaver 

John  Webber 

18 

cc 

yeoman 

Ensign  Joseph  Greenleaf 

20 

Newbury 

blacksmith 

"BCaas.  Archives  94: 

1:  201. 

*  Maaa,  Archives  94: 

n:  S41. 

182       IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COI.ONY- 

was  enrolled  in  Capt.  Edmund  Mooer's  company,  Col.  Plais- 
ted's  regiment.*^  Benjamin  Brown  was  enrolled  as  Ensign 
in  Capt.  Pearson's  Co.,  returned  Dec.  22,  1756.^^ 

The  rolP^  of  Capt.  Stephen  Whipple's  company.  Col.  Icha- 
bod  Plaisted's  regiment,  at  Fort  Edward,  July  27,  1756, 
bears  the  same  names  as  the  earlier  roll  with  few  changes. 
Thomas  Adams  was  then  sergeant;  Kathaniel  Adams,  Ste- 
phen Brown  and  Stephen  Lowater  were  corporals;  John 
Marshall  had  died  on  the  march  to  Albany.  The  names  of 
John  Boynton,  Benjamin  Glazier  and  Eben  Porter  do  not 
appear.  Moses  Dodge,  bom  in  Beverly,  18  yrs.  old,  resi- 
dent in  Ipswich,  a  joiner,  and  Benj.  Webber,  bom  in  Ips. 
age  18,  resident  in  Wenham,  a  laborer,  are  added.  Nathan- 
iel Adams  had  been  hired;  John  Baker,  Stephen  Brown, 
Moses  Dodge  and  Joseph  Whipple  had  been  impressed ;  the 
rest  had  enlisted.  Amos  Story  was  on  the  roll*'  of  the  com- 
pany reported  Feb.  1,  1757. 

The  roll'*  of  Capt.  Israel  Davis's  company,  Col.  Bag- 
ley's  regiment,  at  Fort  William  Henry,  Aug.  9,  1756,  in- 
cluded 

Anthony  Potter,  Sergeant        David  Ireland 
Ebenezer  Davis,  Corporal         Thomas  Kimball 
Joseph  Bumam  Thomas  Loney 

Daniel  Chapman  John  Bobbins 

Zachariah  Dwinell  Ebenezer  Smith 

Ezekiel  Hunt  Jacob  Smith 

Asa  Holegate  Robert  Stocker 

The  roll®*'  of  the  same  company,  from  Feb.  18,  1756  to 
Dec,  21'*  following,  mentions  Jeremiah  Shatswell,  drummer, 
Samuel  Potter,  and  that  Thomas  Kimball  was  the  son  of 
John  Kimball. 

*^Ma,88.  Archives  94:  II:  847. 
•^Mass.  Archives  96:  1:  136. 
»  Mass.  Archives  94:  II:  849. 
"Mass.  Archives  95:  1:  191. 
MMass.  Archives  94:  U:  886. 
"Mass.  Archives  96:  I:  116,  117. 


THE  FBENOH  AND  INDIAN  WAB.  183 

Gideon  Parker,  Ensign  in  Capt  Isaac  Smith's  company 
in  the  first  campaign,  was  Captain  of  a  company  in  CoL 
Plaisted's  regiment  in  1756.  The  roU*^  of  his  company 
from  Feb.  18,  1756  to  Dec  22,  1756,  included  as  Ipswich 
men: 

Gideon  Parker,  Captain  Nathaniel  Grant 

I^wrence  Clarke,  Sergeant      George  Harper 
Jacob  Cogswell,  Sergeant  Amos  Howard 

Benjamin  Grant,  Corporal      David  Kilbom,  dead 
Moses  Hodgkins,  Corporal       Joseph  Lord,  dead 
William  Kimball,  Corporal      John  Moulton 
William  Mansfield,  Corporal    Richard  Pulsepher 

Privates  John  Robins,  Jr. 

William  Connolly  John  Rust 

John  Davison  Joseph  Smith 

Joseph  Emmons  Richard  Smith 

Captain  Parker  received  orders  from  Gov,  Shirley  to  raise 
a  company  in  February.  He  had  nearly  completed  it,  when 
he  was  seized  with  rheumatic  fever  on  April  20"*  and  con- 
fined to  his  room  until  the  last  of  May.  He  petitioned  for 
medical  expense. '"^  As  soon  as  he  was  able,  he  made  the 
long  journey  to  Crown  Point  and  took  command.  Nathan 
Baker*®  informed  the  General  Court  that  he  was  a  member 
of  Capt.  Parker's  Co.  though  his  name  did  not  appear  on  the 
roll,  and  Nathaniel  Smith,  Moses  Ames  and  Moses  Lyford*® 
made  a  similar  complaint,  adding  that  they  had  found  their 
own  guns. 

The  summer  of  1756  witnessed  no  active  campaigning, 
but  the  men  suffered  greatly  from  the  diseases  fostered  by 
prolonged  continuance  in  unsanitary  camps.  In  the  winter, 
they  were  again  dismissed  to  their  homes  but  many  broke 
down  on  the  way. 

*Ma8S.  Archives  96:  I:  128. 
*>  Mass.  Archives  77 :  49. 
""Mass.  Archives  77:  86. 
**Mas8.  Archives  77:  87. 


184       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLONTT. 

In  April,  1757,  the  army  was  again  on  the  march.  Col. 
Daniel  Appleton*^  writing  from  Ipswich,  April  13*^  to  Col. 
Brattle,  reports  that  76  men  have  been  enlisted  in  his  regi- 
ment for  the  Canada  expedition,  two  impressed  and  one  f  ?] 
and  3  officers,  whom  he  had  delivered  to  Capt.  Whipple 
agreebly  to  Col.  Bagley's  direction,  and  had  enlisted  19  un- 
der Capt.  Herrick  for  Penobscot. 

Montcalm,   the  brilliant  French   commander,   reinforcerl 
Ticonderoga  and  threatened   Fort  William  Henry  with    a 
strong  force  of  French  and  Indians.     The  alarm  was  sounded 
and  reinforcements  were  hurried  forward.     A  foot  company 
of  90  men  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Thomas  Dennis,*^ 
hastily  gathered  from  the  militia  regiment  of  Col.  Daniel 
Appleton,  marched  from  Ipswich  on  August  16,  and  on  the 
following  day  a  troop  of  horse  under  Capt.  Richard  Man- 
ning*^ hurried  away.     The  foot  company  reached  Sudbury, 
the  horse  troop,  Springfield,  before  the  news  of  the  disaster 
was  received  and  they  then  returned. 

On  August  2°**,  a  full  fortnight  before  the  relief  had 
started,  Montcalm  made  his  attack.  No  help  came  to  the 
garrison  and  on  August  9***,  having  received  from  Montcalm, 
honorable  terms  of  surrender,  the  commander  of  the  Fort 
opened  the  gates.  The  Indians  could  not  be  held  in  check, 
and  despite  the  eiforts  of  the  French  officers,  they  fell  upon 
the  garrison  as  it  took  up  its  march  to  Fort  Edward,  plunder- 
ing and  killing  to  their  heart's  content.  Capt.  Enoch 
Bailey's  company  with  a  full  quota  of  Ipswich  soldiers,  was 
"in  the  capitulation,"  and  "at  the  late  seige  from  Feb.  12, 
1757  to  Oct.  22"^^  following,"  and  the  roll*»  of  the  company 
preserves  the  names  of  the  Ipswich  men  who  knew  the 
horrors  of  that  day. 


**Mas8.  Archives  78:  438. 
^  Mass.  Archives  95:  2:  512. 
**Mass.  Archives  95:  2:  551. 
^Mass.  Archives  96:  1:  19. 


THE  FBENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAR. 


185 


Caleb  Adams,  Corporal 
Stephen  Adams 
Benjamin  Bumham 
Robert  Dorothy 
[tfathaniel  Grant 


Jonathan  Galloway 

John  Glazier,  son  of  Benjamin 

Joshua  Marshall 

Daniel  Smith 

James  Smith 


£lisha  Gould,  killed  Aug.  5***.  Joseph  Smith 

The  roll*'*  of  the  same  company  from  February  to  Novem- 
ber 1757,  contains  many  familiar  names. 


William  Connery,  discharged 

Aug.  16. 
John  Foster 
Jonathan  Fearns 
Richard  Harris 
Moses  Ilodgkins 
George  Harper 
David  Ireland 
Amaziah  Knowlton,  son  of 

Samuel 
John  Lakeman 


William  Mansfield 

George  Newman 

Daniel  Reddington 

John  Rust,  dead  Sept.  2. 

Richard  Smith 

Henry  Spiller 

Thomas  Wells 

Benjamin  White,  dead  Sept. 

Jeremiah  White 


Capt.  Israel  Davis's  company  was  at  the  siege  as  well, 
and  his  roll^*^  included  Benjamin  Kimball,  sergeant,  Wil- 
liam Harris  and  elonathan  Lovell,  privates.  A  number  of 
Ipswich  soldiers  were  taken  prisoners  and  carried  away. 
John  Robins,  about  fifty  years  old,  was  with  a  tribe  called 
"Canaday  Indians,"  "Daniel  Smith,  Jr.,  Thomas  Jones  and 
Robert  Quarles,^^  all  young  men  and  Carried  of  by  the  In- 
dians, but  wether  with  them  or  the  french  I^ow  we  cant  tell." 

Again  the  IS'ew  England  soldiers  spent  the  winter  in  their 

^Mass.  Archives  96:  1:  65. 

^Mass.  Archives  96:  1:  21. 

**  Mass.  Archives  77 :  687.  Report  of  Col.  John  Choate.  Col.  Choate 
says,  (Archives  77:  651)  that  Robert  Queries  was  of  Gloucester.  Col.  Choate 
reported  also  for  the  Committee  of  present  defence  of  the  Western  and 
Eastern  Frontiers  and  for  building  a  fort  at  Penobscot,  Jan.  18:  1758. 
Archives  77 :  454. 


186         IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOITr. 

homes,  but  the  spring  of  1758  saw  them  engaged  in  the 
stirring  activities  of  that  year.  Louisboui^  had  been  given 
up  to  the  French  by  the  treaty  of  Aix  la  Chapelle.  They 
strengthened  its  fortifications  until  it  was  deemed  impreg- 
nable. Eariy  in  June,  however,  it  was  infested  by  a  great 
fleet  and  an  army  of  10,000  men,  led  by  Jeffrey  Amherst, 
with  James  Wolfe  serving  as  a  Brigadier.  After  a  vigorous 
siege,  the  fortress  surrendered  on  July  27*^. 

Capt.  Stephen  Whipple  marched  again  and  Capt.  Gideon 
Parker  seems  to  have  been  in  the  field  as  well.  A  great 
army  gathered  at  Lake  George  for  the  conquest  of  Fort 
Ticonderoga  and  the  effectual  checking  of  the  French  ad- 
vance into  New  England.  It  was  commanded  by  Gren. 
Abercrombie  but  Lord  Howe  was  the  "soul  of  the  enter- 
prize."  The  experienced  Montcalm  led  the  French.  On 
the  6***  of  July,  Lord  Howe's  command  met  a  force  of  the 
enemy  and  vanquished  it,  but  the  leader  was  the  first  to  f alL 

The  two  armies  met  on  the  8***  of  July  and  the  British 
force  was  routed  with  great  loss.  Rev.  John  Cleaveland, 
Pastor  of  one  of  the  churches  in  Chebacco,  was  commissioned 
as  Chaplain  in  Col.  Jonathan  Bagley's  r^ment  on  March 
13*^,  1758.  His  Journal*'^  of  the  summer  campaign,  nar- 
rates many  details  of  the  march,  camp  life  and  the  disas- 
trous battles.  Religious  services  were  a  conspicuous  feature 
in  the  daily  routine. 

June  15,  (1758)  About  four  o'clock  to-day  Col.  Bagley's 
Regiment  began  to  come  into  Flatbush.  All  Captain  Whip- 
ple's Company  arrived  safe  except  one,  Jacob  Lufkin,  who 
they  left  at  Northampton  or  hadley  much  indisposed  by  an 
unlucky  Blow  upon  his  blind  eve  prayed  with  Three  or  four 
companies  of  our  Regiment  this  evening. 

June  16.  Friday.  This  morning  attended  prayers  with 
several  companies  of  my  Regiment.  Several  persons.  Cap- 
tain Morrow's  Co.  were  put  under  guard  for  killing  some  of 
our  Landlord's  cattle,  fresh  meat  being  found  upon  them. 

«'  Essex  Institute  Hist.  CoU.  12:  85. 


THE   FRENCH   AND  INDIAN  WAB.  187 

June  17.  This  dav  came  on  Court  Martial  of  these  ahove 
mentioned  and  they  foiind  three  guilty,  who  were  condemned 
to  be  whipt  two  fifty  lashes  and  one  25.  But  one  was  dis- 
charged by  the  Colonel  and  the  other  two  received  but  10 
lashes  apiece,  viz.  Ketire  Bacon  and  Joseph  Brown. 

Sabbath  18.  This  day  preached  to  a  large  and  attentive 
auditory. 

19.  Monday.  Prayers  early  because  of  our  marching 
toward  Scheneacdy,  marched  19  or  20  miles,  my  regiment 
^would  rather  have  gone  to  Crown  Point  and  Quebec 

Tuesday.  20.  iElegiment  called  together  for  prayers  in 
evening.  7  P.  M. 

23.  Friday.  This  evening  Col.  Bagley  received  orders 
to  march  toward  Fort  Edward  on  arrival  of  Col.  Williams's 
Reg.  at  Schenectady. 

25.  Sabbath.  Set  out  for  half-moon  and  arrived  at  about 
sunset  ....  I  cautioned  the  Regiment  to  remember  the 
Sabbath  day,  to  keep  it  holy,  and  they  did  behave  quite  civilly 
in  general. 

The  regiment,  Mr.  Cleaveland  notes,  arrived  at  Fort  Ed- 
ward on  June  29**".  On  Wednesday,  July  5***,  tents  were 
struck  at  5  A.  M.,  the  men  were  embarked  on  batteaux,  and 
after  a  brief  camp  during  the  day,  they  rowed  all  night, 
landing  at  day  light  at  the  Narrows.  As  all  bridges  had 
been  burned,  a  long  detour  through  thick  woods  was  neces- 
sary. After  marching  about  two  miles,  they  were  attacked 
in  front  by  3000  French  and  Indians.  Col.  Bagley's  regi- 
ment was  ordered  to  charge  the  enemy  on  the  right.  "My 
Lord  Howe  was  killed  and  about  24  of  our  men  were  miss- 

iBg." 

Saturday,  July  8**^.  Our  troops  attempted  to  force  the 
French  intrenchment  before  the  Fort  with  small  arms  and 
met  with  very  great  loss.  Our  men  acted  with  the  greatest 
intrepidily  ....  Many  were  slain  and  many  came  in 
wounded,  the  number  not  yet  known  though  it  is  conjec- 
tured that  a  thousand  are  among  the  killed  and  wounded. 
Capt.  Whipple  received  a  ball  in  his  thigh  which  lodged 


188       IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLOT^Y. 

there.  Lieut  Burnham  rec^  a  mortal  wound  in  his  bowels 
and  Lieut.  Low  was  slain  as  we  suppose. 

Julv    9.     Sabbath,     reembarked   and    returned    to    Fort 

•/     ^^  

William  Henry  ....  This  evening  Lieut.  Burnham  was 
buried  having  died  upon  the  water  of  his  wound.  I  under- 
stand he  inquired  much  for  me  and  desired  to.s^e  me  before 
he  died.  But  I  was  in  another  battoe  and  could  not  be 
found,  the  Lake  being  full' of  them. 

Mr.  Cleaveland  says  that  10  privates  in  Capt  Whipple's 
company  were  wounded.  Amos  Howard  of  Ipswich  certi- 
fied*® that  five  balls  were  shot  through  his  clothing  and  a 
bullet  passed  through  his  right  arm  below  the  elbow,  mak- 
ing his  arm  useless.  Ebenezer  Potter*®  of  Ipswich  was  shot 
through  the  right  hand  and  disabled  for  his  trade  of  weaving. 

The  rolls*^^  of  Capt.  Whipple's  company  bear  melancholy 
evidence  of  the  brave  part  taken  by  the  Ipswich  soldiers  in 
this  disastrous  battle. 
Nathan  Burnham,  Lieut.,  dead  July  9. 
Stephen  Low,  Lieut.,  dead  July  8. 
Samuel  Knowlton,  Ensign  and  Lieut. 
James  Andrews,  Sergeant. 
John  Tuttle,  Corporal  and  Sergeant. 
Archilaufl  Dwinell,  Corporal,  dead  Sept.  20. 

Caleb  Adams  Jeremy  Burnam 

Isaac  Allen,  son  of  W™.  John  Burnam 

Jonathan  Andrews  Benjamin  Craft 

Joshua  Andrews  Francis  Craft 

Robert  Annable,  Jr.,  son  of  Jacob  Cogswell 

Robert  Moses  Davis 

Jonathan  Bowles  Andrew  Dodge 

Benj.  Burnam  Nathaniel  Dodge,  son  of 
Isaac  Burnam,  son  of  David.       Richard. 

^Mass.  Archivea  78:  341. 

«Mads.  Archives  78:  80. 

■•Mass.  Archives  96:  2:  608.     March  13  to  Dec.  9,  1768. 


THE  FRENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAB. 


189 


Henry  Emerson,  son  of  Jos., 
dead  Sept  23. 

Joseph  Emerson 

John  Foster 

Joshua  Foster,  son  of  Jere- 
miah. 

Joshua  Guppea 

John  Holland 

Amos  Howard 

William  Jones 

Stephen  Kent 

Aaron  Ejiowlton,  son  of 
Samuel. 

Ezra  Knowlton,  son  of  Ben- 
jamin. 

Jacob  Lufkin,  son  of  Jona- 
than. 

Moses  Lufkin,  son  of  Jere- 
miah. 


Ebenezer  Mansfield 
Jonathan  Marshall 
Elijah  Maxey 
George  Pierce 
Gteorge  Pierce,  Jr.,  son  of 

George. 
Abner  Poland 
Ebenezer  Porter 
Abner  Ross,  son  of  Jabez, 

dead  April  3^ 
William  Simmons 
Jesse  Story 
David  Thompson 
Jonathan  Wells 
Joseph  Whipple 
Thomas  Whipple,  son  of 

William. 
Jeremy  White 
William  Wise 


Retire  Bacon*^^  of  Ipswich,  of  Col.  Ruggles's  regiment, 
was  in  the  battle  and  lost  his  pack  containing  his  blanket 
and  clothing,  while  caring  for  Lieut  Nathan  Bumum, 
stricken  with  a  mortal  wound,  which  caused  his  death  the 
next  day. 

The  company  roU'^  of  Capt.  Andrew  Giddings  of  Glou- 
cester, in  Col.  Bagley's  regiment,  in  the  Crown  Point  ex- 
pedition, from  March  13  to  Dec.  9,  1758,  included  some 
Ipswich  men. 

Isaac  Martin,  Lieut.  Jos.  Hobby  ? 

Benjamin  Chapman,  Sergeant  Jedediah  Hodgkins 
William  Smith,  Corporal         Jonathan  Lowell 
Thomas  Bumam  Samuel  Robins 

John  Clough  Thomas  Wade 


**  Mass.  Archives  79:  67. 
■^Mass.  Archives  96:  2:  611. 


190       IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COLONY. 

In  the  company  of  Capt.  Joseph  Newhall  were  Philemon 
Dane,  Samuel  Rogers,  son  of  Samuel,  and  Jeremiah  Shats- 
well. 

Captain  Thomas  Poor  of  Andover  returned  his  roll,^^ 
from  March  13  to  ITov-  27,  1758,  "on  the  Canada  expedi- 
tion," which  included. 


Moses  Bradstreet,  Lieut. 
Daniel  Giddings,  Ensign 
Thomas  Gains,  Sergeant 
Thomas  Loney,  Sergeant 
Benj.  Binder,  Corporal 
Thos.  Kimball,  Corporal 
Daniel  Brown,  son  of  Daniel 
Richard  Brown 
Benjamin  Bumham 
Jonathan  Bumham 
John  Caldwell,  son  of  Daniel 
Francis  Cogswell 
John  Dennis,  son  of  Thomas 
Ebenezer  Fuller 
Gleorge  Harper 
John  Harish  (Harris) 
Moses  Haskel 
Nathaniel  Heard 
Benjamin  Hodgkins 


Michael  HoUen 
Caleb  Kimball 
William  Kimball 
Thomas  Knowlton 
James  Lord,  son  of  James 
Francis  Merrifield 
Samuel  Newman,  son  of 

Jonathan 
John  Newmarsh,  son  of  John 
John  Perkins 
Joseph  Pulseffer,  dead  ?  Sept. 

23. 
Daniel  Saiford 
Robert  Stocker 
Ebenezer  Smith 
William  Stone 
Jonathan  Treadwell 
Stephen  Wate  (Wait) 


Nathaniel  Moulton*^*  of  Ipswich,  a  private  in  Capt  Sam- 
uel Dahin's  company,  Col.  Nichols's  regiment,  petitioned  for 
relief  in  January,  1760,  certifying  that  he  was  taken  pris- 
oner on  July  20,  1758,  at  Half-Way  Brook,  carried  to  Ticon- 
deroga.  Crown  Point,  Montreal  and  Quebec,  suffering  great 
hardship  from  imprisonment  and  cruel  treatment,  being  al- 
most starved.     He  was  sent  to  England  on  Sept.  25,  1758, 


"Mass.  Archives  97:  1:  70. 
M  Mass.  Archives  78:  778a. 


THE   FRENCH   AND  INDIAN   WAB.  191 

then  to  New  York,  where  he  arrived  May  4,  1759.  Caleb 
KimbalP'^  of  Ipswich  made  the  same  petition.  Each  re- 
ceived £8. 

In  a  list  of  vessels  burnt,  driven  ashore  or  carried  away 
at  Monte  Christo,  by  a  French  frigate,  in  December,  1768, 
occurs  the  name  of  The  Charming  Molly  Davis  of  Ipswich, 
with  90  hogsheads  of  molasses  and  6  of  sugar,  burnt  by  the 
enemy.  *^® 

In  the  Spring  of  1759,  preparations  were  made  for  the 
conquest  of  Ticonderoga  and  the  reduction  ,of  Quebec. 
Gen.  Amherst  commanded  the  former  expedition  in  person; 
the  attack  on  Quebec  was  assigned  to  Gen.  James  Wolfe, 
who  had  distinguished  himself  at  the  siege  of  Louisbourg. 
Col.  Daniel  Appleton  reported  the  list*^*^  of  soldiers,  enlisted 
or  impressed  from  the  militia  regiment  commanded  by  him, 
"to  be  put  under  the  immediate  command  of  His  Excel- 
lency, Jeffrey  Amherst,  Esq.,  General  and  Commander-in- 
chief  of  his  Majesty's  forces  in  North  America,  for  the  In- 
vasion of  Canada,"  dated  Ipswich,  April  10,  1759. 

Col.  Appleton's  list  bears  the  names  of  64  men,  and  it 
possesses  peculiar  interest  in  that  it  reports  as  well,  the  age 
and  the  former  militarv  service  and  whether  the  enlistment 
was  voluntary.  Young  lads  of  seventeen  marched  by  the 
side  of  seasoned  veterans,  thrice  their  age.  Few  of  the 
older  men  had  not  participated  in  at  least  one  previous  sum- 
mer campaign  and  some  had  served  four  years  successively. 
Only  a  few  were  impressed.  . 

previous  service    campaign    age 

Caleb  Adams,  Jr.  1757-58  Lake  George  27 

Matthew  Annable  26 
John  Baker,  Lieut 

John  Baker,  3*"  1756           "           21 

"Blass.  Archives  78:  779a. 

**  Historical  Publications,  Essex  Institute,  XLV,  840. 

"Mass.  Archives  97:  1:  110. 


192 


IPSWICH,   IN   THE  MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONT. 


previous  service    campaign 

age 

Ben j amin  Bnmam    1757-1758  Lake  George 

21 

Isaac  Burnarn 

1758 

« 

18 

8.  David 

Jonathan  Bumam,  4*** 

1758 

(( 

20 

William  Campemell  1756-1758 

t( 

46 

Daniel  Choate,  Jr.  ? 

30 

Daniel  Choate 

19 

Francis  Cogswell,  3*,  sailor  1758 

tc 

22 

Jacob  Cogswell 

1758 

u 

20 

Francis  Crafts            1756-1758 

« 

51 

Tho'  Dennis,  Jr.,  sailor 

25 

Benj.  Dike 

1757  (?) 

it 

31 

Nathaniel  Dodge 

1758 

u 

18 

8.  Eichard 

Thomas  Emerson,  Ensign 

24 

Moses  Fisher,  sailor 

Joseph  Fisk 

18 

Joshua  Foster 

1758 

u 

19 

8.  Jeremiah 

Thomas  Gaines           1755-6-7-8 

u 

51 

Thomas  Giddinge 

17 

8.  Thos. 

Benj.  Gilbert 

18 

John  Harris 

1758 

u 

24 

William  Harris,  3^,  sailor 

1757 

u 

30 

Nathaniel  Hart 

1758 

It 

45 

Nathaniel  Heard  for 

Mark  Piatt 

1755 

tt 

25 

servt  to  Nath.  AppJeton 

Elihu  Hewes 

1758 

tt 

Philemon  How 

17 

8.  Mark 

Nathaniel  Jones 

19 

8.  Jn" 

Stephen  Kent 

1758 

tt 

32 

Knowlton,  Lieut. 

, 

Abraham  Knowlton,  Jr., 

sailor 

1758 

tt 

33 

Thomas  Knowlton,  sailor 

■ 

27 

THE  PSENOH  AKD  Iia>IAir   WAB. 


193 


previous  service    campaign 

John  Liakeman  for 

David  Hobson  1758 

Hichard  Lakeman,  sailor     1758 
£benezer  Lord 

Stephen  Lowater        1755-6-7-8 
Moses  Lufkin  1758 

Ebenezer  Mansfield    1755-1758 
Jonathan  Marshall  1758 

Martin,  Lieut. 
Elijah  Maxey  1755-6-8 

George  Newman,  Jr., 

sailor  1757 

John  Newman 

Daniel  Newmarch,  sailor 

James  Perkins,  hired  . 

Nathaniel  Perkins   ^      1755-58 


George  Pierce,  sailor 

58 

John  Pinder,  Jr.,  sailor 

58 

Jonathan  Pulcifer,  Jr., 

sailor 

JeflFrey  Purcill 

58 

James  Eobbins 

58 

John  Bobbins,  sailor 

56 

Richard  Smith 

58 

Solomon  Smith,  Jr. 

Jesse  Story 

58 

Samuel  Tuttle 

William  Vannen           1756-7-8 

Samuel  Waite 

Jonathan  Wells,  Jr.,  sailor 

58 

Amos  Whipple 

Joseph  Whipple 

Stephen  Whipple,  Capt. 

u 


t( 


<e 


« 


<( 


« 


« 


M. 


« 


« 


« 


« 


(( 


« 


<( 


« 


t( 


« 


age 

46 

52 

21 

25 

18    s.  Jeremiah 

25 

40 

33 

25 

18  son  C^. 

22 
23 
24 
49 
29 

46 
18 
20 
22 
33 

19  s.  Solomon 
28 

29 

34 

28 

17 

IV   s-WilUam 

21 


194      IPSWICH,  IN  THE   MASSAOHUSBTTS   BAY  COLONT. 

Gen.  Amherst  assembled  his  anny  at  Lake  Geoi^,  and 
his  force  was  so  far  superior  to  the  French,  that  Ticonderoga 
was  abandoned  without  a  battle  on  July  26***,  and  Crown 
Point  five  days  later.  The  summer  was  loitered  away 
though  it  had  been  planned  that  Amherst  should  advance 
by  land  to  co-operate  with  Wolfe  against  Quebec  The 
fleet  and  army  composing  the  expedition  against  Quebec  as- 
sembled at  Louisbourg  and  proceeded  at  once  up  the  Saint 
Lawrence.  The  fourteen  sailors  in  Col.  Appleton's  list  were 
all  assigned  to  H.  M.  Ship  Alice  in  the  fleet  commanded  by 
Vice  Admiral  Saunders  and  served  from  April  2*  to  Nov. 
10"*,  1759.*^®  The  seventeen  year  old  lad,  Philemon  How, 
son  of  Mark  and  Hephzibah  How  of  Linebrook,  died  at 
Louisbourg  of  fever  on  June  16***.*^® 

In  addition  to  the  64  enrolled  by  Col.  Appleton,  many 
others  served  in  the  several  companies,  which  were  recruited 
in  this  vicinity.  Capt.  Israel  Davis  attached  to  Col.  Jona- 
than Bagley's  regiment,  returned  his  roll®®  from  Louisbourg, 
covering  March  19  to  Nov.  1,  1759.     It  bears  the  names  of 

Benjamin  Kimball,  Lieut.  Ammi  Knowlton 

William  Simmons,  Sergeant  Thomas  Knowlton 

Benj.  Binder,  Corporal  Thomas  Loney 

Joseph  Bumam  James  Lord 

John  Glazier  Robert  Stocker 
Jacob  How 

The  rolP^  of  Capt.  Gideon  Parker's  company  in  the  ex- 
pedition to  Quebec,  April  21,  1759  to  Nov.  14,  includes 

Nehemiah  Abbott,  Sergeant  Mark  Platts 

Joseph  Emmons  Samuel  Ross,  Jr.,  son  of 

Ebenezer  Fuller  Samuel 

Jonathan  Lowell 

**Mas8.  Archives  98:  1:  203. 
**  Account  book  of  Mark  How. 
••Mass.  Archives  98:  1:  204. 
MMass.  Archives  97:  2:  308. 


THE   FKENCH   AND   INDIAN   WAIU 


195 


Scipio,  negro  servant  to  Jo.      Eliphalet  Smith 
Kust  Aaron  Waite,  Sergeant 

Serg.  Waite  arrived  home,  sick  with  "pestilential  fever" 
and    died  eight  days  afterward.®^ 

In  the  company**^  of  Capt.  Ephraim  Holmes,  March  31  to 
Nov.  — ,  at  Lunenburg,  Nova  Scotia,  11  March,  1760,  were 
Joshua  Guppy  and  Jonathan  Treadwell  of  Ipswich. 

Capt.  Joseph  Smith  of  Rowley  was  "up  the  river"  with 
his  company  from  April  21  to  Nov.  29,  1759.  His  roll®* 
included : 

Benjamin  Brown,  Lieut.  David  Goodhue 

Philip  Lord,  Lieut.  David  Goodhue,  Jr.,  son  of 

Samuel  Lord,  Ensign  Mr. 

Samuel  Stickney,  Sergeant  John  Graves,  son  of  John 

William  Stickney,  Sergeant  Samuel  Hidden 

Richard  Sutton,  Sergeant  John  Johnson 

Aaron  Caldwell,  Corporal  John  Laiten,  son  of  Mr. 

Thomas  Kimball,  Corporal  Thos.  Lakeman,  son  of  Mr. 

Richard  Lakeman,  Corporal  John  Lord 

James  Smith,  Corporal  Nathan  Low 

Stephen  Hodgkins,  Drummer  John  Maybe 

Benjamin  Bumham  Willibe  Nason 

John  Carty,  Jr.,  son  of  Mr.  Samuel  Newman 

Ezekiel  Cheever  Cesar  Northend,  Deceased, 

Nath.  Conner,  son  of  Mr.  servant  of  Mr 

Francis  Coffey,  Deceased,  ser-  Thomas  Potter,  Deceased, 

vant  to  Mr.  Parsons.  Son  of  Mr 

Peter  Copper,  Deceased,  John  Rice,  Deceased,  son  of 

served  to  Oct.  1.  of  Mr 

Abel  Cresey,  son  of  Mr.  Ebenezer  Smith 

William  Dennis  Stephen  Smith 

Mark  Dresser  Abraham  Tilton 

Aaron  Goodhue  Samuel  Tilton 

•  Mass.  Archives  78:  798. 
■*Ma88.  Archives  97:  2:  286. 
>«Mas8.  Archives  97:  2:  822. 


196       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAT  COI^OIS^Y. 


The  story  of  Quebec  needs  not  to  be  told  again.  On  the 
morning  of  Sept.  13***  Wolfe's  army  stood  on  the  Heights 
of  Abraham,  having  scaled  the  precipitous  slope  under  cover 
of  night.  In  a  few  hours,  the  French  army  was  van- 
quished and  the  French  power  in  America  was  broken,  but 
bc>th  generals,  Wolfe  and  Montcalm  were  numbered  with 
the  slain.  Felt,  the  early  historian  of  Ipswich,  records  that 
Abraham  Hobbs  of  the  Hamlet  heard  Greneral  Wolfe  say 
to  his  men  when  the  French  approached,  "Now,  my  boys, 
do  your  best."®*^  Many  other  Ipswich  soldiers  must  have 
shared  the  fortunes  of  that  great  day. 

The  English  plan  of  campaign  for  the  year  1760  in- 
cluded the  advance  of  the  main  force  under  Amherst  by 
way  of  Lake  Ontario  and  the  St  Lawrence  Kiver  against 
Montreal,  of  a  second  force  by  the  way  of  the  Richelieu 
river,  and,  of  the  garrison  at  Louisbourg  and  all  the  troops 
that  could  be  spared  from  Quebec.*®  These  forces  all  com- 
bined before  Montreal  and  it  capitulated  on  Sept  8,  1760. 

Men  were  enlisted  in  Ipswich  in  February  and  March, 
"for  the  total  reduction  of  Canada.  "*'' 


Benjamin  Burnham 
Keuben  Burnham 
Nathan  Chapman 
Keuben  Chapman 
son  of  Nathan. 
Philemon  Dean*® 
Daniel  Dresser,  Jr. 
Joseph  Emmons 
William  Foster,  Jr. 
Benjamin  Glazier,  Jr. 
John  Glazier 
Nathaniel  Grant 


•  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  149. 
••  Channlngr.  History  of  the  U.  S.  11: 
•'Mass.  Archives  97:  2:  417,  423,  98: 
"Mass.  Archives  98:  2:  408. 


age 

age 

21 

Benjamin  Hodgkins 

42 

27 

born  in  Ipswich, 

residence 

42 

in  Falmouth. 

17 

John  TiOatherland 
son  of  Sarah. 

17 

Ebenezer  Martin 

18 

22 

John  Maybe 

29 

23 

Willibe  Nason 

22 

23 

Benjamin  Pulcifer 

51 

25 

Eliphalet  Smith 

19 

22 

son  of  Eichard. 

36 

Jonathan  Wells 
son  of  Sarah. 

18 

s.  n 

:  694. 

»,  98: 

1:  2»  82,  106,  110. 

THE  FBENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAB. 


197 


Lieut.  Benjamin  Brown,  iNTatlian  Chapman  and  his  son, 
Reuben,  John  Maybe  and  Philemon  Wood?  were  attached 
to  Capt.  Anthony  Stickney's  company,  list  from  Feb.  27, 
1760  to  Jan.  5***,  1761.^®  In  the  company  of  Capt  Joseph 
Smith  of  Eowley,  who  died  during  the  campaign,  (roll  from 
Feb.  14**  to  Dec.  9,  1760.^<>)  were 

Benjamin  Bnmam,  Corporal     Eliphalet  Smith,  son  of  Rich- 
Joseph  Emmons  ard. 
Willoughby  Nason                       Joseph  Smith,  dead 

Jonathan  Wells,  son  of  Sarah. 

Robert  Peasely  brought  the  Captain's  papers  from  Albany. 
The  rolF^  of  the  company  of  Capt.  Israel  Herrick  of 
Boxford  from  Feb.  U^  to  Dec.  18,  1760  included 


John  Farley,  Sergeant 

Stephen  Andrews 

Reuben  Bumham 

Joseph  Dennis,  son  of  Tho- 
mas 

Israel  Fellows,  son  of  Benja- 
min 

Joseph  Fellows,  son  of  Jona- 
than 

William  Grolton 

John  Holland 

Benjamin  Hodgkins 

David  Island  (Ireland) 


John  Manning,  son  of  John. 

Moses  May 

Samuel  Quarls,  son  of  Sam- 
uel 

John  Safford 

Joseph  Smith,  died. 

Stephen  Smith,  son  of  Ste- 
phen 

David  Thompson 

Samuel  Waite,  son  of  Sam- 
uel 

Matthew  Whipple,  son  of 
William. 


Kathaniei  Emerson  was  enrolled  in  the  company*^*  of 
Capt  Richard  Sykes  of  Amesbury. 
The  company  rolF^  of  Capt,  Nathaniel  Bailey  of  Glou- 


•Mass.  Archives  97:  2:  384. 
''Mass.  Archives  98:  1:   256:   267. 
"  Mass.  Archives  98:  2:  275.  276,  277. 
"  Mass.  Archives  98:  2:  280. 
»Mass.  Archives  98:  2:  343,  872,  378. 


198       IPSWICH,    IN  THE  MASSAOHUSETTS    BAY   COLONY. 

cester  from  Feb.  14,  1760  to  Feb.  7,  1761  included  many 
Ipswich  men: 

Samuel  Knowlton,  Lieut.  John  Halbut 

Thomas  Gains,  Sergeant,  Nathaniel  Heard 

died  Stephen  Kent 

Matthew  Annable  Ebenezer  Knowlton,  son  of 

Francis  Brown,  deserted  Samuel 

Benjamin  Bumam,  dead  Moses  Lufkin 

Francis  Bumam  Moses  Lufkin,  Jr. 

Jeremiah  Bumam,  dead  Lewis  Martin 

John  Bumam  Elijah  Maxey 
Joseph  Bumam,  son  of  Jona-     Ebenezer  Smith 

than  Richard  Smith,  left  as  a 
John  Cogswell  nurse 

Andrew  Dodge,  deserted.  William  Vennen 

Benjamin  Gilbert  Jeremiah  White 

Joshua  Gruphe  Eobert  Whipple 

Capt  Stephen  Whipple's  company  and  that  of  Capt.  Israel 
Davis  of  Danvers  seem  to  have  remained  at  Louisbourg 
during  the  year  1760.  Some  of  the  men  in  their  companies 
suffered  much  hardship  on  their  return.  Jonathan  Bur- 
num,  a  member  of  Capt.  WTiipple's  company,  in  a  memorial 
to  the  Council,  stated  that  his  company  remained  until  De- 
cember, 1760,  when  the  troops  were  put  on  board  transports 
for  iN'ew  England.  Many  were  sick,  all  were  greatly 
crowded.  His  Captain  told  him  that  if  he  would  go  on 
board  Capt.  John  Potter's  vessel,  bound  for  Ipswich,  and 
work  his  passage,  he  should  have  the  same  pay  as  the  other 
men.  The  vessel  was  cast  on  shore  on  the  Isle  of  Sables  and 
lost  and  all  on  board  suffered  much  hardship. 

The  ship  on  which  his  company  sailed  was  obliged  to  winter 
"at  the  Mount,'^  and  the  men  did  not  get  home  until  Spring, 
their  pay  continuing.  A  vessel  was  fitted  out  at  Marble- 
head  and  sent  to  the  Isle  of  Sables  for  the  shipwrecked  men, 
who  were  obliged  to  pay  $10  apiece  for  their  passage. 


THE   FBENOH   AND  INDIAN   WAB. 


199 


Cenjamin  Pinder  of  Ipswich,  in  Capt.  Davis's  company, 
was  with  Bumam  and  petitioned'^*  with  him  for  reimburse- 
ment. Lieut.  Benjamin  Kimball  of  Capt.  Davis's  company 
w^s  ordered  to  Boston  with  a  company  of  sick  soldiers  and 
had  received  no  wages. '^'^ 

The  roir*  of  the  company  of  Capt.  Francis  Peabody  of 
Boxford  from  April  28,  1760  to  April  18,  1776,  bears  the 
name  of  Israel  Clark,  Corporal  and  Sergeant  and  the  entry. 

Paid  for  cleaning  the  hospital  in  Virginia  after  the  men 
recovered  .... 

and  extra  expenses  for  sick  in  Virginia, 

Although  the  war  in  America  was  virtually  finished  with 
the  reduction  of  Montreal,  the  New  England  men  were  re- 
tained in  garrison  service  at  various  points. 

Capt.  Gideon  Parker's  rolH''  from  April  18,  1761  to  Dec. 
13,  1761,  included: 


Samuel  Lord,  Lieut 
Nathaniel  Chapman,  Sergeant 
Thomas  Kimball,  Sergeant 
Jacob  Martin,  Sergeant 
Moses  Hodgkins,  Corporal 
Samuel  Newman,  Corporal 
Benjamin  Winter,  Corporal 
Benjamin  Caldwell,  Drum- 
mer. 
Benjamin  Ayres 
Samuel  Ayres 
Daniel  Cheat 
Jacob  Cogswell 
Kobert  Dodge 
Joseph  Emmons 
Josiah  Hardy 
Cteorge  Harper 

n  Mass.  Archives  80:  100.  ISO. 
^  Siass.  Archives  80:  665. 
^Mass.  Archives  98:  2:  896-9. 
^Mass.  Archives  99:  1:  111. 


Joseph  Hunt 

Robert  Huse 

David  Ireland 

John  Leatherland 

Daniel  Lord 

Nathan  Low 

Ebenezer  Mansfield 

William  Mansfield 

David  Martin 

Simon  Martin 

Elisha  Newman 

Mark  Patch 

Joseph  Pulcifer 

Jeffrey  Pursley  (Purcell) 

Anuni  Euhami  Rogers 

John  Rogers 

Richard  Smith 


200      EPSWIOH,   IK  THB  MASSAOHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

« 

Samuel  Wait  John  Woolett 

Samuel  Wait,  Jr.  Timothy  Winter 

Joseph  Wise 

Willoughby  Nason  was  enrolled  in  Capt.  Edward  Blake'a 
company/®  Col.  Saltonstall's  raiment,  from  Nov.  2,  1760 
to  Sept  2y  1761.  Benjamin  Bumam  was  in  the  companj 
of  Capt  Henry  Young  Brown''®  of  Haverhill  at  Halifax, 
from  April  18,  1761  to  Feb.  7,  1762. 

The  valuable  West  India  islands  were  occupied  by  several 
expeditions  in  1759  and  later.  Col.  Bagley's  regiment  was 
stationed  there,  Dr.  John  Calef ,  serving  as  Surgeon,  Dr. 
Wallis  Rust  as  Surgeon's  mate.  Capt.  Whipple's  company 
was  thus  engaged,  as  appears  from  the  roU,®^  which  covered 
the  period  from  Ifov.  20,  1759  to  Nov.  15,  1761.  It  bears 
the  entry.  "To  sundry  supplied  the  sick  at  Monte-Cristo 
and  New  York  etc." 

Samuel  Knowlton,  Lieut  Jonathan  Bumam 

Elihu  Hewes,  Ensign  William  Campemell 

Caleb  Adams,  corporal  and  Francis  Croft 

sergeant  Joseph  Fisk 

Solomon  Smith,  corporal  and  Joshua  Foster 

sergeant,  son  of  Solomon.  Eben  Lord 

Jonathan  Jaunt,  corporal.  Stephen  Lowater 

John  Baker  Eben  Mansfield 

John  Berry,  servant  to  Dr.  James  Perkins 

Calef  Samuel  Tuttle 

Isaac  Bumam,  son  of  David  Joseph  Whipple 

A  singular  exchange  of  men  is  shown  in  Col.  Bagley's 
receipt 

«*Mu8.  Archives  99:  1:  187. 
**MaB8.  Archives  99:  1:  149. 
**Ha8s.  Archives  98:  2:  880. 


THE  FBE2?CH   AI^D  ISTDIAN  WAB.  201 

Boston,  May  12,  1759. 
Ueceived  of  CoL  Sylvester  Eichmond,  Two  men,  Wallis 
Rust  &  John  Berry,  both  of  Ipswich  in  the  room  of  2  Quakers 
of  sd.  Richmond's  Regiment,  for  which  servis  I  have  agreed 
'with  them  by  the  consent  of  their  master  Dr.  John  Calf  of 
Ipswich  for  £12  each  to  be  paid  to  sd  Calf. 

Jonathan  Bagley^^ 

liVallis  Rust  was  a  physician  in  Ipswich,  later  in  life, 
and  was  probably  bound  as  an  apprentice  to  Dr.  Calef .  He 
was  his  assistant,  ^^surgeon-mate,"  as  already  noted.  John 
Berry  was  enrolled  in  Capt  Whipple's  Co.  as  "servant  of 
Dr.  Calef." 

Capt.  Israel  Davis  of  Danvers  reported  his  roll®^  from 
If  ov.  2,  1759  to  April  14,  1761.     It  bears  the  entry. 

To  expenses  at  Antigua  in  journeying  to  the  Governor, 
who  was  out  of  Town. 

Paid  Dr.  Roche  for  attendance  on  sick  of  my  company. 

To  7  coffins  for  men  who  died  there,  fresh  meat,  wine,  etc. 
for  the  sick. 

In  this  company  were 

John  Finder,  Sergeant  Thomas  Knowlton,  private 

William  Simmons,  Sergeant  James  Lord 

Joseph  Bumam,  Corporal  Robert  Stocker 
and  Sergeant 

The  roll®*  of  Capt.  Nathan  Brigham's  company  from  4** 
of  March,  1762  to  Jan.  1,  1763  has  many  Ipswich  names. 

Samuel  Lord,  Lieut  Nathaniel  Brown 

Jacob  Martin,  Sergeant  Daniel  Choate 

John  Brown,  Sergeant  Joseph  Fisk 

Jonathan  Bowls  John  Fisk 

«  Hasfl.  Archives  78:  010. 

•  Mam.  Archives  98:  2:  887,  888,  892,  479. 

•Mass.  Archives  99:  1:  205,  234. 


202       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY  COLONY. 

Thomas  Herriman  Jeffrey  Purcell 

Joseph  Holland  John  Sayward 

Jonathan  Kindrick  Richard  Smith 

John  Lakeman  Joseph  Wise 

John  Leatherland  James  Woodbury 

David  Martin  William  Woodbury 
John  Martin 

1763.    To  ferriaje  of  90  men  over  Hudson  Eiver  at  2d,  15s. 

To  transporting  the  baggage  of  each  man  and  those  who 

helped  them  along  to  Crown  Point,  £3-  0-  0 

Elijah  Maxey  was  in  Capt.  Moses  Hart's  company,  March 
4  to  Dec.  20,  1762.®*  George  Patterson  was  in  the  company 
of  Capt.  Abel  Keen,  Nov.  2,  1762  to  Aug.  17,  1763.8'^  John 
Brown  entered  the  service  July  21,  1763  and  was  attached 
to  Lieut.  Joseph  Chadwick's  company,  at  Crown  Point®* 
until  Nov.  18,  1763. 

These  seven  years  of  warfare  on  land  and  sea  were  of  in- 
calculable value  to  the  Colonies.  As  we  have  noted,  the 
great  bulk  of  these  soldiers  and  sailors  were  young  men,  and 
with  few  exceptions,  they  suffered  no  material  impairment 
of  health  and  strength.  They  entered  the  war,  as  mechanics, 
farmers,  tradesmen,  and  fishermen,  they  emerged  from  it 
trained  and  efficient  soldiers  and  men-of-wars  men,  inured 
to  danger  and  hardship,  self-reliant  in  sudden  crises. 

Twelve  years  of  growing  discontent  elapsed.  War  with 
the  mother  country  came  at  last.  But  "the  embattled  farm- 
ers," who  made  their  stand  at  Lexington,  Concord  and  Bun- 
ker Hill,  were  not  the  raw  and  undisciplined  militia  we  often 
imagine.  Among  them,  and  in  the  armies  that  were  after- 
wards assembled,  there  were  many  veterans  of  this  earlier 
war,  and  their  presence  was  of  great  advantage  to  their  in- 

**MasB.  Archives  99:  1:  216. 
*>Ma88.  Archives  99:  1:  279. 
**MasB.  Archives  99:  1:  286. 


THE  ACADIANS  IN  IPSWICH.  203 

experienced  associates.  Many  of  the  officers  of  the  French 
and  Indian  war  raised  companies  at  once  and  took  the  field. 
Some  attained  the  highest  rank.  Town  officials  as  well  had 
^ined  experience  in  raising  and  supporting  their  allotments. 
Had  it  not  been  for  these  long  years  of  the  struggle  with 
France,  the  war  with  Great  Britain  would  almost  inevitably 
have  been  a  hopeless  contest. 

THE  ACADIANS*^  IN  IPSWICH 

One  of  the  most  distressing  episodes  of  the  French  War 

was  the  deportation  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  villages  about 

the  Basin  of  Minas,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Beausejour, 

which  was  captured  by  Lieut.  Col.  Monckton  in  July,  1755. 

As  they  refused  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  British 

Crown,   it  was  regarded  a  military  necessity,  incident  to 

the  occupation  of  TTova  Scotia,  to  remove  the  inhabitants 

and  destroy  their  farms.     They  were  a  prosperous  and  happy 

people.     The   official   list   of   the    "French    inhabitants   of 

Grand  Pre,  Mines  Kiver,  Cannard  Habitant  &  Places  ad- 

jatient,  confined  by  Lieut  Colo.  Winslow  within  his  Camp 

in  this  Place    (Grand  Pre)    after  their  coming  in  on  his 

Citation,  on  the  5***  of  September  past,"  contains  the  names 

of  the  heads  of  families,  which  included  1923  individuals, 

with  "820  old  &  Infirm  not  Mentioned,"  a  total  of  2743. 

They  owned  1269  bullocks,  1557  cows,  2181  young  cattle, 

8690  sheep,  4197  hogs,  and  493  horses.     Their  comfortable 

homes    were    scattered    up    and    down,    beside    the    fertile 

meadows  which   they  had    reclaimed   with   wondrous   skill 

from  the  wash  of  the  tides,  with  an  elaborate  system  of  dikes. 

Their  houses  and  bams  were  burned.  Col.  Winslow  re- 
ported the  destruction  of  255  houses,  276  bams  and  11  mills 
at  Qaspereau,  Cannard  and  other  villages.  Their  cattle 
were   confiscated   by   the   soldiery.     They   themselves   were 

"  The  material  for  this  sketch  is  derived  from  the  Neutral  French  Papers 
In  the  Massachusetts  Archives. 


204      IPSWICH,   IN   THE  MASSAOHUSETTS   BAT  COLOITT. 

crowded  into  small  vesflels  and  shipped  to  New  England, 
Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  the  Carolinas. 
Col.  Winslow  entered  in  his  Journal,*® 

October  6***.  With  the  advice  of  My  Captains,  Made  a 
Divission  of  the  Villages  and  Concluded,  that  as  many  of  the 
Inhabitants  of  Each  as  Could  be  Commoded  Should  Proceed 
in  the  Same  Vessel  &  That  whole  Familys  Go  together,  and 
Sent  Orders  to  the  Several  Familys  to  hold  them  Selves  in 
readiness  to  Embarke  with  all  their  Household  Goods,  etc 
but  even  now,  Could  not  perswade  the  People  I  was  in 
Earnest. 

It  was  a  task  very  repugnant  to  the  kind  hearted  ^e^w 
England  men,  upon  whom  fell  the  burden  of  the  deporta- 
tion, and  Col.  Winslow's  entry  under  October  8***,  reveab 
his  sympathy  for  the  unfortunates. 

began  to  Embarke  the  Inhabitants  who  went  of  Very 
Solentarily  and  unwillingly,  the  women  in  Great  Distress, 
Carrying  off  Their  Children  In  their  arms.  Others  Carry- 
ing their  Decript  Parents  in  their  Carts  and  all  their  Goods, 
Moving  in  Great  Confussion  &  appeard  a  Sceen  of  woe  & 
Distress.  Fild  up  Church  and  Milburry  with  about  Eighty 
Families. 

Transport  acconmiodations  were  wretchedly  inadequate. 
The  "Leopard,'*  commanded  by  Captain  Church,  took  178 
with  their  goods,  and  Captain  Milburry  had  186.  The  neces- 
sary discomfort,  arising  from  their  cramped  quarters  on 
these  small  vessels  was  enhanced  by  scant  liberty  of  the  deck. 
The  able  bodied  Acadian  men  probably  outnumbered  the 
crew,  and  the  possibility  of  their  rising  and  taking  posses- 
sion of  the  transport  was  guarded  against  by  strict  regula- 
tions. Happily  the  voyage  was  short.  The  transports  bear- 
ing the  New  England  contingent  were  at  anchor  in  Boston 
harbor  early  in  November,  1755.  Two  months  and  more 
elapsed  before  definite  action  was  taken  by  the  authorities. 

•»  Collections  of  Nova  Scotia  Historical  Society,  HI:  164. 


THE  ACABIANS  IN  IPSWICH.  205 

A   Committee  was  appointed  by  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives on  Dee.  27,  1755  to  distribute  them  among  the  towns. 
Selectmen  and  Overseers  of  the  Poor  were  authorized  to  re- 
ceive them  and  employ  and  support  them,  it  being  under- 
stood that  this  act,  "shall  not  be  construed  or  understood  to 
be   an  Admission  of  them  as  Town  Inhabitants."       Town 
authorities  were  instructed  to  keep  an  exact  account  of  all 
charges  incurred  for  their  support  and  to  transmit  it  to  the 
Secretary's  office  "for  the  reimbursement  of  this  Province  by 
the  Government  of  ]^ova  Scotia." 

Notwithstanding  Col.  Winslow's  repeated  allusions  to  the 
household  goods,  which  the  Acadians  took  with  them,  most 
of  them  arrived  in  a  verv  destitute  condition,  and  the  towns- 
folk  of  the  various  communities  received  them  with  ill-con- 
cealed resentment.  In  February,  1756,  the  Council  sent  an 
Address  to  Governor  Shirley. 

We  must  acquaint  your  Excellency,  that  the  live-stock, 
the  husbandry  tools,  &  most  of  the  household  furniture  of 
these  people  were  left  in  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  and 
that  very  few  have  brought  with  them  any  goods  or  estate  of 
anv  kind  soever.  In  the  Southern  Colonies,  where  the  win- 
ters  are  more  mild,  employment  may  be  found  so  as  to  pre- 
vent any  great  expense  to  the  Government,  but  here  they 
are  a  dead  weight,  for  many  of  our  Inhabitants  are  scarcely 
able  to  find  employment  sufficient  to  support  themselves  dur- 
ing the  winter  season. 

An  Act  was  passed  authorizing  Commissioners  for  each 
County  to  "provide  necessary  tools  &  implements  for  hus- 
bandly work,  weaving  spinning  &  other  handicrafts  work  for 
each  family." 

The  coming  of  these  people  of  strange  language,  devotees 
of  the  Catholic  religion,  was  anticipated  and  discussed  by 
the  Ipswich  people  for  several  months.  At  last  on  Feb- 
ruary 9*"*,  1756,  three  families  arrived.  They  had  come  to 
Marblehead  apparently  by  water,  had  been  transported  from 


206      IPSWICH,   IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

there  to  the  Hamlet  and  John  Patch  had  furnished  two 
teams  to  carry  them  and  their  baggage  to  Town*  Mistress 
Susanna  How  of  the  Tavern,  afterwards  known  as  Swasey's* 
i-eceived  them,  and  at  her  hostelry,  Margaret  Landry,  wife 
of  John,  gave  birth  to  a  son,  named  in  honor  of  his  place 
of  nativity,  John  Ipswich  Landry.  Dr.  Samuel  Rogers, 
whose  house  was  on  the  spot  now  occupied  by  the  Meeting- 
house of  the  South  Church,  provided  shelter  and  fuel  for 
ten  days,  and  on  Feb.  19***,  they  found  a  permanent  home 
in  William  Dodge's  house.  At  that  time  he  owned  the 
dwelling  on  Turkey  Shore,  now  in  possession  of  Mr.  A.  Story 
Brown,  and  various  allusions  to  this  neighborhood  in  Town 
accounts,  confirm  the  belief  that  here  they  made  their  home. 
Out  of  door  work  was  not  to  be  found,  but  the  Town  pro- 
^dded  them  with  a  loom  and  tackling  and  two  spinning  wheels 
and  later  in  the  season,  scythes,  hoes  and  spades  for  their 
gardens.  Supplies  of  food  were  provided,  beans,  fish,  pota- 
toes, fiour  and  molasses,  with  frequent  addition  of  cider, 
rum  and  sugar.  Fuel,  milk  and  clothing  were  given  them, 
and  the  house  rent  was  paid  by  the  Town.  In  the  course  of 
the  year  the  Town  made  return  of  its  outlay  and  the  names 
of  the  strange  guests  thus  thrust  upon  them.  They  were 
John  Landry  and  Margaret,  his  wife,  and  children;  Mary 
12  years,  Margaret,  10  years,  Naune,  eight,  Ozet,  six,  Mad- 
lin,  four,  Frances,  two,  and  the  baby,  John  Ipswich,  nine 
months.  Francis  Landry  and  Mary,  his  wife,  and  their 
children,  Charles,  aged  thirty-five,  Jermain,  thirty,  and  Ozet, 
twenty-six.  The  third  family  consisted  of  Paul  Breau  and 
Mary  Joseph,  his  wife,  and  children :  Joseph,  aged  fourteen, 
John,  twelve,  Naune,  eight,  Mary,  six,  John  Battis  (Bap- 
tist), two  and  a  half,  and  the  baby  Elizabeth,  two  months. 
An  Act  was  passed  in  August  which  ordered  that  all  the 
'^neutral  French,"  as  thev  were  styled,  should  confine  them- 
selves  within  the  bounds  of  the  town  where  they  were  located, 
unless  liberty  was  given  them  by  one  at  least  of  the  Select- 


THE  AOABIANS  IN  IPSWICH.  207 

laeiL  If  found  elsewhere,  they  were  to  be  set  in  the  stocks, 
not  exceeding  three  hours;  for  a  second  offence,  to  be  pub- 
licly whipped  on  the  naked  back,  not  exceeding  ten  stripes. 
'No  person  was  permitted  to  ship  any  on  board  a  fishing  or 
coasting  vessel. 

Another  glimpse  of  these  Acadians  is  afforded  in  the  list 
returned  by  the  Town  on  July  20,  1760 : 

Francis  Landry,  aged  sixty-seven,  and  Mary,  his  wife, 
aged  sixty-five,  were  both  infirm.  Charlet  Landry,  their 
son,  aged  thirty-six,  was  non-compos-mentis.  Ozeta  was  then 
twenty-four.  Jermain  was  no  longer  a  member  of  the 
family. 

The  younger  Landry  family  included  the  parents,  John, 
aged  thirty-nine,  and  his  wife,  Mary,  thirty-six. 

The  children  had  become  so  far  identified  with  the  chil- 
dren of  the  Town  that  they  were  now  called  by  the  familiar 
Provincial  names,  and  were  known  as  Molly,  Peggy,  Nancy, 
Susan,  Matty  and  Francis.  John  Ipswich  was  now  four 
years  old,  and  there  was  a  new  baby,  Betty,  a  year  old. 

Paul  Breau,  forty-three,  and  Mary,  forty-one,  had  their 
goodly  brood  still,  Joseph  and  John,  Nanny  and  Molly,  John 
Baptist  and  Elizabeth,  and  a  new  born,  year  old  Peter. 

The  account  of  William  Dodge  in  1760  mentions  "Father 
Landry,"  "living  in  my  house."  Mr.  Felt®®  says  that  there 
was  a  priest  among  them,  who  went  about  peddling  wooden 
ladles.     Men  and  women  both  wore  wooden  shoes. 

In  the  course  of  a  few  years,  as  the  French  people  seem 
to  have  approved  themselves  industrious  and  inoffensive,  an 
Act  of  the  Legislature,  passed  in  August,  1760,  permitted 
them  to  be  regarded  as  legal  inhabitants  of  the  various  towns, 
and  there  was  a  disposition  to  grant  them  lands  that  they 
might  attain  self-support. 

But  the  Acadians,  clinging  to  their  Catholic  faith,  and 
deprived  by  their  exile  of  the  enjoyment  of  it,  had  no  desire 

••  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  66. 


208       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

to  make  their  homes  here.  And  when  letters  from  London 
had  informed  them  that  the  French  Ambassador  had  declared 
that  the  King  of  France,  regarding  them  as  some  of  his 
faithful  subjects,  would  order  transports  for  conveying  them 
to  France,  upon  being  informed  how  many  wished  convey- 
ance, more  than  three  hundred  heads  of  families,  including 
both  the  Landry  families,  sent  their  names. 

Another  invitation  was  given  them  to  settle  on  a  grant 
of  land  in  the  Miramichi  River  and  the  Gulf  of  St.  Law- 
rence. A  letter  to  the  Agent,  regarding  this  proposition, 
states  that  "they  seem  generally  inclined  to  remove  out  of 
the  Province."  "If  this  should  be  the  case,  and  we  lose 
the  benefit  of  their  service,  now  they  might  be  made  useful 
subjects,  after  they  have  been  supported  while  we  looked 
upon  them  as  our  enemies,  the  Province  should  be  reim- 
bursed." 

Count  de  Estaing,  Governor  of  St.  Domingo,  assured  all 
the  Acadians  who  wished  to  go  thither,  that  they  would  be 
provided  with  transportation  and  temporary  support  John 
and  Francis  Landry  and  Paul  Bronx  requested  passports  in 
Dec,  1764.  This  scheme  however  came  to  nothing,  and  in 
February,  1766,  Otov.  Bernard  addressed  the  House  in  their 
behalf. 

Ever  since  I  have  been  Governor  of  this  Province,  I  have 
had  great  compassion  for  this  people  as  every  one  must  who 
has  considered  that  it  was  by  the  exigencies  of  war  rather 
than  any  fault  of  their  own  that  they  were  removed  from  a 
state  of  ease  and  affluence  and  brought  into  poverty  and  de- 
pendence. 

The  plan  of  removing  them  to  Canada  was  now  being  dis- 
cussed and  the  Governor  urged  that  this  be  accomplished. 
Correspondence  with  the  Governor  of  Canada  was  begun  at 
once,  and  in  the  course  of  the  Summer,  arrangements  were 
made  for  the  removal.     On  Aug.  18,  1766,  the  Town  refused 


THE   AOAMANS    IN    IPSWIOH.  209 

to  grant  money  to  pay  for  the  passage  of  the  French  neutrals 
to  Canada.  But  a  way  of  deliverance  was  provided,  as  from 
this  time,  no  allusion  to  them  appears  in  any  records  of  the 
Town.  A  final  tax  rate  of  £20  for  their  support  was  voted 
in  Xovember,  1766.  The  large  expense  incurred  by  the 
Town  was  repaid  by  the  Province. 


CHAPTER  IX 

Slaves^  Servants  and  Apprentices 

Two  citizens  of  Ipswich  took  so  resolute  a  stand  against 
human  slavery,  that  the  Colony  of  Massachusetts  Bay  would 
never  have  borne  the  reproach  of  permitting  it,  if  their  coun- 
sels had  been  heeded.  Nathaniel  Ward,  the  author  of  the 
Body  of  Liberties  adopted  in  1641,  thus  dealt  with  it: 

There  shall  never  be  any  bond-slavery,  villanage  or  cap- 
tivity among  us,  unless  it  be  lawful  captives  taken  in  just 
wars,  and  such  strangers  as  willingly  sell  themselves  or  are 
sold  to  us.  And  these  shall  have  all  the  liberties  and  Chris- 
tian usages  which  the  law  of  God  established  in  Israel  con- 
cerning such  persons  doth  morally  require.  (article  91) 

Richard  Saltonstall  denounced  in  General  Court  the  act 
of  Capt.  James,  master  of  the  ship  "Rainbow,"  who  kid- 
napped two  negroes  on  the  Guinea  Coast  and  brought  them 
into  Boston  in  1645,  and  demanded  that  they  be  returned 
at  the  public  expense. 

But  Indian  slavery  b^an  at  an  early  date.  William 
Paine  had  an  Indian  servant,  Mary,  in  1656.  The  hor- 
rors of  King  Philip's  War  kindled  intense  hatred  against 
the  Indians  and  at  its  close  many  were  bought  as  slaves, 
and  many  were  sent  into  bondage  in  the  West  Indies. 
Capt.  John  Whipple  brought  home  an  Indian  boy,  Law- 
rence. Major  Samuel  Apple  ton  bought  three  captives, 
and  Samuel  Symonds,  Esq.,  the  Deputy  Gt)vemor,  paid 
£5  for  an  Indian  boy  and  girl.^  Rev.  John  Rogers  had  an 
Indian  servant,  James  Huntaway,  in  1692. 

>  Ipswich  In  Mass.  Bay.  Vol.  I:  pp.  216,  217. 
(210) 


SLAVES,  SERVANTS  AND  APPRENTICES.         211 

Xegro  slavery  was  well  established  in  the  last  quarter  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  Gov.  Simon  Bradstreet,  replying 
to  Randolph's  charges,  affirmed  in  1680,  that  no  company 
of  blacks  or  slaves  had  been  brought  in  to  the  country  for 
the  space  of  fifty  years. 

Only  one  small  vessel  about  two  years  since  after  twenty 
months  voyage  to  Madagascar  ....  brought  hither  forty 
or  fifty  negroes,  most  women  and  children,  which  were  sold 
here  for  10,  15,  and  20  pounds  apiece  ....  Now  and  then 
two  or  three  negroes  are  brought  from  Barbadoes  and  sold 
for  about  20£  apiece  ....  So  there  may  be  in  our  govern- 
ment about  100  or  120,  [with  an  equal  number  of  Scotch- 
men, sold  as  servants  in  Cromwell's  time]  most  now  married 
and   living  here  ....  about  half  as  many  Irish  brought 
hither  at  several  times  as  servants. 

The  Deputy  Governor,  Samuel  Symonds,  had  a  "servant," 
who  bad  been  brought  from  St.  Christopher,  but  as  Mr.  Sy- 
monds complained  of  him  in  1668  as  "lazy,  nasty,  saucy," 
and  otherwise  at  fault,  he  was  a  heavy  burden  to  his  master. 
In  the  eighteenth  century,  the  number  of  slaves  increased 
rapidly  and  nearly  every  Ipswich  family  of  means  included 
one  or  more.  On  the  "South  Side,"  Phillis,  negro  child  of 
Mr.  Joseph  Abbe,  the  blacksmith  on  the  river  bank,  died 
July  28,  1736.^  Francis  Crompton,  the  inn-keeper,  owned 
three  at  least,  Hannibal,  who  died  at  Chebacco  in  1724, 
Jane,  who  married  Bristol,  servant  of  Rev.  Edward  Payson 
of  Rowley  in  1730,  and  Rose.  Col.  John  Choate  acquired 
the  Crompton  dwelling.  His  will,  made  in  1766,  reveals 
his  regard  for  his  slaves  and  his  thoughtful  provision  for  their 
welfare. 

To  my  servant  Jane  the  Bed  and  furniture  she  has  usually 
laid  on  and  one  small  Bible. 

To  my  servant  Binah,  a  suitable  bed  and  furniture. 

To  said  two  servants  their  freedom,  the  first  to  begin  at 

s  Ipswich  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I:  p.  459. 


212       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY, 

my  wife's  decease,  and  Binah,  when  she  is  22  years  old  .... 
sd  Binah's  time  from  her  mistress  decease  until  she  is  22, 
to  be  at  the  disposal  of  Elizabeth  Potter,  but  my  desire 
is  she  shall  be  put  out  to  some  farm  here  and  not  brought  up 
in  Town,  and  she  shall  be  comfortably  clothed  by  said  Sarah 
when  her  time  is  out.* 

Both  married  in  due  time.  Jane  became  the  wife  of  Scipio, 
servant  of  Samuel  Potter,  in  1771,  and  Binah,  the  wife  of 
Peter,  servant  of  Samuel  Adams,  in  1776. 

Capt.  Ammi  R.  Wise^  who  lived  where  the  meeting  house 
of  the  South  Church  now  stands,  owned  Bristol,  who  married 
Jane,  the  servant  of  Capt.  John  Harris  in  1731,  and  had 
a  mulatto,  an  indentured  servant,  on  his  schooner,  "The 
Lark." 

Esther  was  the  slave  of  Increase  How,  the  inn-keeper,  on 
the  opposite  corner  from  Capt.  Wise's,  and  Capt.  Richard 
Homan,  who  was  the  proprietor  in  Revolutionary  days,  had 
two  black  servitors,  Dimon  and  Newberry. 

Capt.  Thomas  Wade  built  the  stately  old  Wade  mansion 
in  1727.  He  bequeathed  to  his  wife,  his  negro  woman, 
to  his  daughter,  Elizabeth  Cogswell,  his  negro  girl,  in  1737. 
His  brother,  Jonathan,  bequeathed  to  his  wife  the  use  of 
his  negro  man  Dick,  in  1749.  Dick,  who  seems  to  have 
been  known  as  Peter,  as  well,  married  Sarah,  servant  of 
Mr.  Thomas  Burnam,  in  1729,  and  their  son  rejoiced  in  the 
name  of  Titus  Dick.  Timothy  Wade,  son  of  Capt.  Thomas, 
gave  his  wife,  Ruth,  at  his  decease,  "my  negro  man,  Pomp, 
except  she  finds  it  best  to  sell  him,''  in  1763.* 

Dea.  Thomas  Norton,  the  tanner,  who  lived  in  the  old 
mansion  which  stood  beneath  the  great  elm,  near  Mr.  Henry 
Brown's,  bequeathed  his  negro  woman,  Phillis,  to  his  son 
Thomas  in  1750.°  In  this  group  of  dwellings,  some  ten 
or  twelve  slaves  were  probably  living  at  the  same  period. 

*  Probate  Records  343 :  1. 

*  Ipswich  In  Mass.  Bay,  Vol.  I:  pp.  471,  473. 
■  Ipswich  in  Mass.  Bay,  Vol.  I:  p.  468. 


SLAVES,  SEKVANTS  AND  APPEENTIOES.         213 

In  the  Candlewood  district,  James  Bumham,  as  his  in- 
ventory revealed  in  1737,  owned  a  negro  man  and  an  old 
negro  woman.  The  man  was  appraised  at  £100  but  the  poor 
old  woman  was  valued  only  at  £5,  while  the  cows  were  ap- 
praised at  £8,  a  yoke  of  oxen  at  £17  and  a  horse  at  £22.^ 
James  Brown,  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  A.  Story  Brown, 
had  Kant,  appraised  in  1741  at  £70  and  Bett  appraised  at 
f 80J  William  Brown  had  Flora,  in  1743.  John  Brown 
devised  by  his  will  in  1759,  his  negro  child,  Louie  and  negro 
woman,  Phillis.®  His  son,  John,  had  a  servant,  Scipio,  who 
died  in  1787. 

At  the  Appleton  Farm,  George  and  Dinah,  slaves  of  Major 
Isaac,  were  married  in  1741,  and  three  children  were  bom 
to  them,  Jacob,  Bilhah  and  David.  Tidey,  another  slave  of 
Major  Isaac,  married  Jupiter,  servant  of  Samuel  Adams  in 
1751.  Benjamin  Crocker,  owner  and  occupant  of  the  house 
now  owned  by  the  Historical  Society  had  two  slaves.  Flora 
and  Tim,  who  were  married  in  1726.  Jacob,  the  slave  of 
Col.  John  Appleton  died  in  1733,  and  Dinah  in  1750.  Col. 
Thos.  Berry  owned  Scipio  and  Thyris.  Scipio  and  Flora 
had  two  babies,  Tamasin,  baptized  in  1746,  and  Andrew, 
baptized  in  1750.  Quash,  servant  of  John  Wainwright,  Esq., 
died  in  1721.  Thomas  I^ord's  slaves,  Cuffee  and  Nanny 
married  in  1732,  and  Peter  took  to  wife,  Jane,  servant  of 
Thomas  Stamford.  Violet,  servant  of  widow  Rebecca  Dodge, 
married  Jupiter,  former  slave  of  Mr.  Jewett  in  1779. 

The  original  deed  of  sale  of  a  slave  by  Nathaniel  Kins- 
man, son  of  Joseph  Kinsman  of  the  Candlewood  district, 
then  a  resident  of  Gloucester  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Ips- 
wich Historical  Society. 

Know  all  Men  by  these  Presents  that  I,  Nathaniel  Kins- 
man of  Gloucester  ....  Joyner,  for  and  in  consideration 
of  the  sum  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  Pounds  in  Bills  of 

•  Candlewood,  Pub.  of  the  Ipswich  HlBtor.  Soc,  No.  XVI— XVH:  p.  7. 
V  Candlewood.  p.  27. 
■Candlewood,  p.  38. 


214      IPSWIOH,    IN    THE    MASSAOHTTSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

public  Credit  of  the  old  Tenor  so  called  to  me  in  Hand  paid 
by  Jonathan  Burley  of  Norwich,  in  the  County  of  New 
London  in  the  Colony  of  Connecticut  in  New  England  Grent. 
tJie  Receipt  whereof  I  acknowledge  and  do  hereby  acquit 
and  discharge  the  said  Jonathan  Burley,  his  Heirs   etc., 
from  and  of  the  Same  and  every  Part  thereof  have  given 
granted  sold  assigned  set  over  conveyed  and  delivered  and 
do  by  these  report  give  grant  Sett  over  convey  and  deliver 
unto  the  said  Jona  Burley  his  Heirs  ....  One  Molatto 
Servant   named   Silas    of   the   Age    of   Sixteen   years    To 
Have  and  to  Hold  the  said  Molatto  Servant  to  him   the 
said  Jonathan  Burley  ....  to  his  and  their  Proper  Service 
Use  and  Benefit  and  Behoof  for  and  during  the  naturall 
Life  of  the  said  Mollatto  Servant.     And  I  the  said  Nathan- 
iel Kinsman  ....  do  hereby  covenant  and  agree  with  the 
said  Jonathan  Burley  ....  that  I  am  before  the  Enseal- 
ing hereof  the  lawful  master  of  the  said  Molatto  Servant 
....  will  defend  and  warrant  etc. 

In  Witness  Whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  Hand  and 
Seal  this  twenty-third  Day  of  August  in  the  twenty-ihird 
Year  of  his  Majesty  King  Gteorge  the  Second  Beign  Annoq. 
Domini  One  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fourty-nine. 

Nathanael  Kinsman     (seal) 

Signed,  Sealed  and 
delivered  in  Presence  of  Us. 
John  Dane 
Joseph  Sanders 

The  Boston  newspapers  abounded  in  advertisements  of 
the  sale  of  slaves.  The  Boston  Gazette  rarely  appeared  with- 
out them  in  the  year  1761.     On  July  13,  it  announced 

Just  imported  from  Africa. 

A  number  of  prime  young  slaves  from  the  Midward  Coast 
and  to  be  sold  on  board  and  also,  a  likely,  hearty,  male  Negro 
child  about  a  month  old  to  be  given  away, 

Elisha  Brown  of  Providence  gave  notice  on  August  3*, 

A  Parcel  of  likely  Negroes,  imported  from  Africa,  cheap 
for  Cash  or  Credit,  with  Interest,  also  if  any  Persons  have 


SLAVES,   SERV.VNTS   AND   APPKENTIOES.  215 

any  Xegroe  Men,  strong  and  hearty,  tho'  not  of  the  best 
moral  Character,  which  are  proper  subjects  for  Transpor- 
tation, may  have  an  exchange  for  small  Negroes. 

The  issue  of  August  31"*  advertised  a  likely,  spry,  active 
Xegro  boy;  on  Sept.  21"*,  the  arrival  of  Captain  Day  in 
forty  days  from  Goree  on  the  coast  of  Africa  with  sixty 
line  slaves.  Isaac  Royal  Esq.  of  the  Koyal  House,  Medford, 
inserted  the  brutal  advertisement  in  the  issue  of  April  5***, 
1762. 

A  likely  Negro  Wench  to  be  disposed  of,  who  understands 
household  business,  and  something  of  Cookery. 

Also  four  of  said  Wench's  children,  viz.  three  Girls  and 
one  Boy. 

On  May  24*^,  1762,  notice  appeared 

To  be  sold,  a  Parcel  of  likely  Negroes,  both  Male  and  Fe- 
male, from  ten  years  of  Age  to  Twenty,  imported  the  last 
week  from  Africa,  enquire  of  Capt.  Wickham  on  board  the 
sloop  Diamond,  now  lying  at  the  wharf. 

Husbands  were  sold  without  their  wives,  wives  without 
husbands  and  little  children  were  torn  from  their  mother's 
arms  to  be  sold  or  given  away.  Many  were  advertised  who 
had  grown  up  in  the  families  and  learned  useful  trades  and 
occupations.  The  advertisements  in  the  Salem  Gazette  show 
that  many  slave  owners  in  this  vicinity  had  no  more  com- 
punction in  selling  children  of  tender  age  away  from  their 
parents,  and  the  only  sign  of  shame  was  the  withholding  of 
the  owner^s  name  and  directing  that  inquiry  be  made  of  the 
printer. 

In  January,  1769,  a  very  strong  healthy  Negro  Boy  about 
ten  years  old  was  offered  for  sale,  "for  want  of  Employ," 
and  a  healthy  Negro  Girl  about  18  years  old,  in  June;  and 
notice  was  given  of  a  negro  about  67  and  a  woman  about 
57,  who  were  "to  be  boarded  out."     In  October,  "a  likely 


216      IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Negro  Lad,  abt  18  or  19  works  well  at  Cooper's  trade  & 
understands  work  in  the  Field  or  Garden,"  was  in  the  mar- 
ket In  December,  a  boy  of  nine  years  and  a  little  miss 
about  six,  were  advertised.  A  "negro  woman  about  20,  with 
her  child,  a  hearty  strong  boy  about  3^2  years  old,"  awaited 
a  purchaser  in  November,  1770.  Ezekiel  Dodge  of  Ipswich 
advertised  a  great  variety  of  English  and  West  India  goods, 
glass,  stone  and  iron  wares,  at  his  shop  and  appended. 

Said  Dodge  has  to  sell  a  very  likely  Negro  Girl  of  about 
16  years  of  age. 
May  12-19,  1772. 

Xotice  of  "A  IN'egro  child  of  a  good  breed,  to  be  given 
away,"  appeared  in  December,  1774,  and  in  February,  1775. 
Capt.  Benjamin  Lovett  of  Beverly  advertised  a  likely  N^o 
Boy  about  six  or  seven  years.  Mark  Haskell  of  the  Com- 
fort Hill  farm  on  the  Rowley  road,  had  a  vigorous  young 
slave  who  made  a  bold  burst  for  liberty  in  June,  1772,  and 
his  master  proclaimed  his  loss. 

Ran  away  from  Mark  Haskell  of  Ipswich  last  Saturday 
Sennight,  a  N^ro  Man  named  Cato  22  years  old,  middling 
stature  etc. 

June,  1772. 

Dea.  Matthew  Whipple  of  the  Hamlet  made  most  gen- 
erous provision  for  his  slave,  Plato. 

This  may  satisfy  whom  it  may  concern  that  I,  the  Sub- 
scriber in  Consideration  that  my  Servant  Plato  has  been  a 
faithful  Servant  that  after  my  Death  and  my  Wife's  Death 
he  shall  be  free  if  he  desires  it  and  if  he  don't  he  shall  have 
Liberty  to  live  with  any  of  my  friends  whom  he  pleases, 
and  I  give  him  Liberty  to  live  in  my  east  Kitchen  &  have 
his  feather  Bed  and  Bedding  thereto  belonging  &  a  Pot  & 
Skillet  &  a  Pewter  Platter  &  Bason  &  Spoon  &  Tramel, 
two  Chairs,  one  Ax  and  one  Hoe  and  a  Cow  &  he  shall 


SLAVES,   SEEVAJSTTS  AND  APPEENTIOES.  217 

have  a  good  Pasture  for  her  and  Liberty  to  cut  hay  suffi- 
cient for  her,  &  have  one  Acre  of  land,  where  it  may  be 
most  convenient  for  him,  and  a  Barrel  of  Cyder  &  three 
Bushels  of  Apples  a  Year  as  long  as  he  lives  yearly  &  every 
Ycjar  &  have  liberty  to  cut  Wood  he  necessarily  shall  want, 
&  Barn  "Room  for  his  Cow  &  hay  &  all  other  Priviledges 
necessary  for  him.  In  Case  he  should  by  any  Providence 
be  disenabled  to  support  himself  or  through  old  Age  not  able 
to  support  himself  comfortably,  my  Heirs  shall  do  it  what- 
ever he  shall  stand  in  need  of,  which  is  my  Will. 

Matthew  Whipple. 
Ipswich,  Dec.  3,  1760. 

Plato  married  Phebe,  another  slave  in  the  same  household, 
in  1762,  and  for  a  second  wife,  Phillis,  formerly  servant  of 
Col.  Jonathan  Cogswell,  in  1785,  the  widow  of  Caesar 
Choate. 

As  early  as  1765,  public  opinion  began  to  be  strongly 
against  slavery,  and  Deacon  Whipple's  and  Col.  Choate's 
freeing  of  their  slaves  by  will  illustrates  a  frequent  method 
of  terminating  their  bondage.  The  slaves  themselves  were 
already  demanding  their  freedom  before  the  Courts.  In  the 
Inferior  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  in  March,  1765,  Jenny 
Slew  of  Ipswich  brought  suit  against  John  Whipple  Jr.  gen- 
tleman, on  a  plea  of  trespass, 

that  sd  John  on  Jan.  29***,  1762  at  Ipswich,  aforesaid, 
with  force  and  arms,  took  her,  held  and  kept  her  in  servitude 
as  a  slave,  in  his  service  and  thus  restrained  her  of  her  law- 
ful liberty,  from  that  time  to  March  5*^  last,  and  did  other 
injuries  to  the  amount  of  £25. 

She  lost  her  suit  but  appealed  to  the  Superior  Court  of 
Judicature,  and  at  the  November  term  in  1766,  the  jury 
found  for  the  appellant  and  awarded  her  £4,  "money  dam- 
age," and  £9.  9s.  6d.  costs,  and  execution  was  issued  accord- 
ingly.* 

*  Essex  Institute  Hlstor.  ColL  XXIV:  96. 


218       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOirr. 

Another  evidence  of  the  lightening  of  the  bonds  of  tiie 
slave  is  afforded  by  the  advertisement  inserted  by  Thomas 
Boardman  of  Ipswich  in  the  Boston  Evening  Gazette,  April 
14, 1760. 

Came  to  the  House  of  the  Subscriber  on  the  4***  inst,  a 
Negro  Man,  aged  about  50,  a  thick  sett  Fellow  of  about  5 
Feet  Stature.  Had  on  an  old  Felt  Hat,  a  white  mill'd  Cap, 
a  red  Shag  Great  Coat,  a  green  Jacket,  an  old  checkt  Shirt 
and  a  Pair  of  Black  Cloth  Breeches.  Said  Fellow  says  he 
belongs  to  Mr.  John  Green  of  Concord,  who  has  given  him 
a  Pass  to  obtain  Business.  His  Master  may  have  him  again 
paying  the  charges. 

Ipswich,  April  10,  1760. 
Thomas  Boardman. 

Josiah  Woodbury  of  Beverly  was  in  very  jubilant  mood 
when  his  slave  decamped  in  1771. 

Ran  away  from  Josiah  Woodbury,  cooper,  his  house 
Plague  for  7  long  Years,  Masury  Old  Moll  alias  Trial  of 
Vengeance. 

He  that  lost  will  never  seek  her,  he  that  shall  keep  her 
I  will  give  two  Bushel  of  Beans.  I  forewarn  all  Persons  in 
Town  or  Country  from  trusting  said  Trial  of  Vengeance. 
I  have  hove  all  the  old  Shoes  I  can  find  for  Joy  and  all  my 
Neighbors  rejoice  with  me.     A  good  Riddance  of  Bad  Ware. 

Amen. 

The  tide  of  public  sentiment  was  now  rising  rapidly. 
Nathaniel  Appleton  and  James  Swan,  merchants  of  Boston, 
distinguished  themselves  as  writers  on  the  side  of  Liberty. 
In  1773,  the  abolition  of  slavery  was  a  subject  of  forensic 
discussion  at  the  Harvard  Commencement.  Juries  inva- 
riably gave  verdicts  in  favor  of  slaves  who  sued  for  freedom 
and  in  1780,  the  present  Constitution  of  Massachusetts  was 
adopted,  its  first  article  asserting  that  all  men  are  bom  free 
and  equal.     The  General  Court  passed  an  Act  in  March, 


SLAVES,  SERVANTS  AND  APPRENTICES.         219 

1788,  "to  prevent  the  slave  trade  and  for  granting  relief 
to  the  families  of  such  unhappy  persons  as  may  be  kid- 
napped or  decoyed  away  from  this  Commonwealth." 

So   far  as  the  records  of  the  time  indicate,  the  Ipswich 
elavea  suffered  no  especial  hardship,  beyond  their  legal  bond- 
age.     They  married  and  their  children  seem  to  have  grown 
up  in  the  families  of  which  they  were  members.     They  were 
assigned  seats  in  the  meeting  house,  were  allowed  to  become 
communicants  and  enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  church  mem- 
bers.    Their  children  were  baptized.     They  were  cared  for 
in  old  age  and  were  given  Christian  burial  by  those  whom 
they   had  served.     But  they  were  only  chattels.       If  the 
whim  of  the  owner  decreed,  they  were  sold,  and  families 
were  scattered. 

Eventually,  they  died  or  drifted  away  from  the  town,  after 
they  had  received  their  freedom.     Only  a  few  are  remem- 
bered.    Old  Quomino  lingered  well  into  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury.    Prince,  a  slave  in  the  family  of  the  Saffords,  reputed 
to  have  been  of  royal  blood  in  the  African  tribe  from  which 
he  was  stolen  by  the  slave  traders,  became  a  freeman  and 
his  marriage  with  Kate,  servant  of  Joseph  Cogswell,  on  Aug. 
28,  1780,  was  recorded  as  the  marriage  of  Prince  Freeman. 
But  he  held  to  the  family  name,  and  their  large  family  of 
children  were  all  recorded  as  sons  and  daughters  of  Prince 
and  Kate  Safford.     Their  son  James  married  Peeley  Cheev- 
er,  and  they  and  their  family  were  honored  members  of  the 
South  Church.     Jane  and  Jacob,  children  of  James,   are 
well  remembered  and  the  widow  and  children  of  Jacob  are 
still  among  us,  highly  respected  by  all. 

The  "servant'^  of  the  early  years  of  the  Colony  was  a 
man,  woman,  or  child,  who  was  bound  by  a  formal  instru- 
ment to  render  service  to  the  "master"  for  a  term  of  years 
at  a  specified  wage,  who  became  a  member  of  the  family 
and  was  bound  to  render  obedience  to  all  the  master's  com- 
mands.    Frequently  the  term  of  service  began  in  England. 


220       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COIX)I!rr. 

George  Giddings  came  over  in  the  ship  Planter  and    his 
certificate^®  of  emigration  is  of  interest. 

2  April,  1635. 
Theis  underwritten  are  to  be  transported  to  !N^ew  England, 

imbarqued  in  the  Planter  Nicholas  Frarice  M*^  bound  thither 

the  parties  have  brought  certificates  from  the  Minister  of 

St.  Albans  in  Hertfordshire  and  attestacon  from  the  Justices 

of  peace  according  1o  the  Lord's  order. 

George  Giddins,  husbandman,  25  years 
Jane  Giddins  20  years 

Thomas  Carter  25         1 

Michael  Willinson  30     ^Servants  of  George  Giddins. 

Elizabeth  Morrison  12  J 

Mr.  John  Whittingham,  one  of  the  most  prominent 
men  of  Ipswich,  brought  a  whole  retinue  of  servants.  Rich- 
ard Coy  disputed  his  obligation  after  eight  years  though  he 
was  bound  for  ten,  and  carried  the  matter  into  the  Courts. 
The  depositions  made  by  various  witnesses  reveal  in  inter- 
esting detail  the  particulars  of  the  Indentures. 

Mr.  Whittingham  brought  over  y®  plaintiff  &  his  brother, 
Matthew  Coye,  in  y'  1G38  with  divers  other  servants  who 
first  came  from  Boston  in  Lincolnshire  to  London  where 
Mr.  Wittingham  kept  them  upon  his  own  charges  from  y* 
first  of  May  till  y®  24***  of  June,  so  that  his  bringing  up 
to  London  and  charges  of  his  staying  there  could  not  be  less 
than  40'  his  passage  to  N.  E.  6  pounds,  which  amounts  to 
seven  pounds,  besides  other  charges  and  provision  besides  what 
was  allowed  ordinarily  to  passengers,  all  which  came  to  no 
less  than  8  pound,  ....  cannot  here  be  less  than  15  pound, 
and  16"  for  a  boy  of  13  years  of  age  to  be  layd  out  here 
for  10  years  service,  cannot  any  way  seem  injurious  to  y* 
servant  and  much  advantageous  to  ye  Master  .... 

Matthew  Coy,  aged  about  33  years,  testified. 

^From   "Our  Early  Emigrrant  Ancestors,*'  edited  by  John  C.  Holten, 
quoted  In  "The  Giddings  Family.*' 


SLAVES,  SERVANTS  AND  APPBENTICES.         221 

his  mother  sent  Richard  Coy  with  his  sister  Mary  to  M' 
Whittingham  then  at  Boston  in  England  &  told  them  she 
was  willing  that  her  son  Richard  Coy  should  searve  but 
seven  years  with  Mr.  Wittingham  and  if  that  would  not 
satisfie  the  said  Richard  Coy  should  return  home  again.^^ 

Haniel  Bosworth,  later  the  cowherd  of  the  town,  Robert 
Smith,  Samuel  Kent  and  John  Annable,  all  fellow  servants 
of  Mr.  Whittingham,  bore  their  witness.  Only  the  pressure 
of  extreme  poverty  can  explain  the  willingness  of  the  mother 
to  send  three  of  her  children,  and  one  of  them  a  lad  of  13 
years,  across  the  ocean,  to  a  new  country,  with  no  prospect 
of  ever  seeing  them  again.  As  Richard  Coy  acted  as  attor- 
ney for  Samuel  Heifer  in  1660,  it  is  evident  he  was  a 
lad  of  parts  and  that  he  made  his  way  successfully  in  the 
new  world. 

Deputy  Grovemor  Symonds  of  the  Argilla  farm  had  some 
Irish  servants,  William  Downing  and  Philip  Welch,  whom 
he  prosecuted  before  the  Court  in  1661,  for  refusing  further 
service.  The  simple  story  of  their  sorrowful  experiences  re- 
veals the  tragedies  that  resulted  in  the  coming  of  the  Irish 
to  New  England.  Cromwell  treated  the  Irish  with  great 
cruelty,  and  many  young  Irishmen  were  taken  by  violence 
and  sent  over  seas.  John  Ring,  who  came  to  own  Ring's 
Island,  as  it  is  still  known,  near  the  Argilla  Road,  made 
deposition  in  Court  as  follows : 

This  deponent  saith  that  he  with  divers  others  were  stolen 
in  Ireland  by  some  of  y*  English  soldiers  in  y®  night  out  of 
theyre  bedd  &  brought  to  Mr.  Dill's  ship,  where  the  boate 
lay  ready  to  receive  them  &  in  the  way  as  they  went  some 
others  they  tooke  with  them  against  their  consents  &  brought 
them  aboard  y®  said  ship  where  there  were  divers  others  of 
their  countrymen  weeping  &  crying  because  they  were  stoUen 
from  theyr  friends  they  all  declaring  the  same  &  amongst 
the  rest  were  these  two  men  William  Downeing  and  Philip 

"  Court  Files.  Vol.  HI:  2. 


222       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Welsh  and  there  they  were  kept  until  upon  a  Lord's  day 
morning  y®  master  set  saile  and  left  some  of  his  water  and 
vessels  behind  for  hast  as  I  understood. 
(In  Court  26-4-61) 

John  Downing  deposed  that  Downing  and  Welch  "with 
several  of  our  country  men,"  were  stolen  by  the  ship  master. 
George  Dell,  master  of  the  ship  "Grood  fellow,"  certified 
that  he  "sould  to  Mr.  Sam.  Symonds  two  of  the  Irish  youths 
I  brought  over  by  order  of  the  State  of  England,  the  name 
of  one  of  them  is  Philip  Dalton,  the  other  Edward  Welch 
for  nine  years  for  six  and  twenty  pounds."  He  declared 
that  the  younger  youth  "owned  his  name  to  be  Philip." 

These  two  young  men,  torn  from  their  beds,  hurried  off 
to  the  ship  with  others  of  their  countrymen,  weeping  and 
lamenting  their  hard  fate,  "sold,"  as  the  phrase  was,  to  Mr. 
Symonds  for  a  long  term  of  service  on  their  arrival,  declared 
that 

what  agreement  was  made  between  Mr.  Symonds  and  y*^ 
said  Master  was  never  acted  by  our  consent  or  knowledge 
yet  notwithstanding  we  have  indeavored  to  do  him  y**  best 
service  we  could  these  seven  compleat  years  which  is 
3  years  more  than  y®  .  .  .  .  use  to  sell  y™  for  at  Barba- 
does,  w°  they  are  stollen  in  England,  and  for  our  service 
we  have  no  calling  nor  wages  but  meat  &  clothes.  Now  7 
years  service  being  so  much  as  is  practised  in  old  England 
&  thought  meet  in  this  place  we  being  both  above  21  years 
of  age,  We  hope  this  honored  Court  &  Jury  will  seriously 
consider  our  Conditions. 

Xaomy  Hull,  another  servant  of  the  Dep.  Governor,  tes- 
tified to  the  dramatic  way  in  which  Philip  announced  "they 
being  come  into  the  parlor  to  prayer"  in  the  evening,  "We 
will  work  with  you  or  for  you  no  longer."^^ 

Philip  W^elch  joined  with  Edmund  Dear  and  William 

«  Court  Piles,  Vol.  VI:  115. 


SLAVE8,  SERVANTS  AND  APPKENTICES.         223 

Danford  in  a  petition  to  the  Salem  Court  in  1678,  r^ard- 
ing  a  verbal  will  of  Robert  Dorton,  an  Irishman,  who  had 
left  £25  in  the  hands  of  John  Ring  when  he  left  the  country, 

and  ordered  it  so  that  if  he  came  not  here  within  the 
space  of  three  years,  then  he  willed  the  said  summe  with 
the  use  thereof  to  four  of  his  coimtrymen  namely  Edward 
Dear  William  Danford  Philip  Wealch  and  John  Ring,  and 
that  party  of  the  four  that  was  in  most  need  at  the  three 
years  end,  he  was  to  have  y*^  bigest  share. 

Edward  Zealand,  aged  38  years,  and  Elizabeth  Dear,  aged, 
upward  of  15  years,  testified  to  the  same  effect.  Daniel 
Grazier  and  John  MorilJ,  Irishmen,  came  to  Ipswich  about 
1661  and  the  Selectmen  complained  against  them,  that  they 
persisted  in  remaining  though  "they  were  not  willing  to 
have  them  as  inhabitants." 

A  few  years  later,  a  young  Indian  lad  was  bound  out  to 
Mr.  Henry  Bennett,  the  owner  of  the  farm  east  of  Argilla. 
With  a  little  company  of  Indians,  a  squaw,  whose  husband 
had  been  slain  by  hostile  Indians  near  Lake  Winnepesaukee, 
drifted  down  to  Castle  Hill,  with  her  two  little  children 
and  her  old  mother-in-law.  She  died  not  long  after,  leaving 
her  children  to  the  care  of  Captain  Daniel  Epes  and  his 
excellent  wife.  The  younger  boy,  named  Lionel  after  Cap- 
tain Epes's  younger  son,  grew  up  in  the  family,  but  when 
he  was  a  well  grown  boy,  his  uncle  Robin,  a  shiftless  Indian, 
who  was  in  debt  to  Mr.  Bennett,  stole  him  away  from  Cap- 
tain Epes  and  indentured  him  to  Mr.  Bennett.  The  orig- 
inal instrument  has  been  preserved  in  the  Files  of  the 
Ipswich  Court.  Its  quaint  language,  the  long  and  exacting 
service  to  which  it  bound  the  lad,  and  the  very  meagre  com- 
pensation, render  it  a  document  of  enduring  value. ^* 

This  Indenture  made  the  fifteenth  day  of  May  in  the  yea  re 
of  our  Lord  one  thousand  six  hundred  seventy  nyne  Be- 

«  Court  Flies,  XLI:  129. 


224      IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLON^Y. 

tweene  Laionall  Indian  of  the  one  partie  and  Heanery  Ben-  \ 

net  of  Ipswich  in  the  Countye  of  Essex  husbandman  of  the  j 

other  partie.     Whare  as  I  the  aforsaid  Layonall  Indian  for  \ 

and  in  consideration  me  heare  imto  movinge  and  with  the  ' 

consent  and  good  Likinge  of  my  Gran  mother  and  my  uncle 
Roben  Indian  have  put  and  doe  by  these  presents   Binde 
myselfe  as  an  aprintes  unto  Henery  Bennett  his  heares  or 
asigns  for  the  full  and  hole  terme  of  eleven  years  from  the 
daye  of  the  date  heareof  with  him  or  them  my  M*^  or  M" 
I  doe  by  this  presents  ingage  faithfully  to  serve  duringe  the 
saide  terme  of  eleven  ^'^eares  thare  servets  to  keepe  thare 
Comands  LafuU  and  honest  I  doe  heareby  promise  to  obaye 
and  ale  houses  not  to  frequent  my  M"  goods  I  ingage  not 
to  waste  nor  absente  myselfe  from  my  master's  service  by 
night  nor  by  day  but  in  all  things  shall  behave  myselfe  as 
an  aprentice  oife  or  should  do  dureinge  the  saide  terme  for 
and  in  Consideration  thare  of  I  the  sayd  Henerye  Bennet 
do  promise  and  ingage  to  tfinde  this  my  aprentise  with  suf- 
ficient met  drinke  and  Lodginge  and  aparell  duringe  the 
saide  terme  and  at  the  eande  thereof  to  give  him  two  sutes 
of  apparell  the  one  fit  for  saboth  dayes  and  the  other  for 
workeinge  dayes  in  witnes  whareof  the  same  we  have  hear- 
unto  set  our  hands  the  day  and  year  above  saide  .... 

the  mark     X 

of  prang  qua 
the     +     mark 

of  Lionell  the  Indian 
the  R  mark 

of  Robin  Indian 
Signed  and  delivered 
in  presence  of 

Jacob  Perkins 

John  Bridge 
the  mark    A    of  borne  dasinemo. 

Under  this  system  of  indentures,  which  gave  almost  un- 
limited authority  to  masters  and  bound  the  servant  or  ap- 
prentice, as  he  was  often  called,  though  he  was  taught  no 
trade,  to  unquestioning  obedience  and  a  wretchedly  underpaid 
service,  it  is  not  strange  that  masters  were  often  abusive,  that 


SLAVES,   SERVANTS   AND  APPRENTICES.  225 

servants  took  every  advantage  and  that  frequent  recourse  to 
the  Law  was  necessary  to  adjust  the  various  difficulties. 

As  boys  of  a  dozen  years  were  bound  out,  innkeepers  were 
forbidden  to  entertain  them,  and  the  law  of  1668  required 
that  all  apprentices  should  be  educated  and  trained  in  the 
catechism.  One  lad  at  least  profited  by  the  instruction  he 
received,  the  servant  of  Mrs.  Jonathan  Wade.  In  a  friendly 
chat  with  Mr.  Bartholomew,  Mrs.  Wade  told  him 

what  a  great  mercy  she  had  in  having  such  a  servant  ia 
her  house  in  her  husband's  absence,  how  ready  and  forward 
he  was  in  all  that  was  good,  in  asking  her  children  questions 
out  of  y®  Scripture  &  her  selfe  also  which  she  thought  was 
to  see  if  he  could  pose  her.^* 

In  marked  contrast  with  the  amiable  relations  between 
servant  and  mistress  in  the  Wade  household,  was  the  mis- 
conduct of  Andrew  Tarras,  servant  of  Lieut.  Appleton, 
which  resulted  in  the  sentence  of  the  Court  that  he  should 
be  well  whipped  with  twenty  lashes  and  serve  his  master 
thirteen  weeks  more  than  the  term,  that  he  should  serve  by 
Indenture,  for  "his  miscarriages  in  his  master's  house. ^^ 

William  Warner  complained  of  his  master,  Cornelius 
Waldo,  for  detaining  him  three  months  after  his  service 
was  out.  Testimony  was  given  that  when  Warner's  term 
of  apprenticeship  was  nearly  out,  Mr.  Waldo  asked  him 
whether  he  would  give  him  three  months  for  the  time  he 
Lad  misspent.  The  apprentice  ran  away  but  was  caught  and 
severely  punished.     Richard  Brabrook  testified  that 

Mr.  Waldo  sold  William  Warner  to  me  living  or  dying 
staying  or  running  and  all  the  clothes  he  had  when  he  came 
to  me  were  hardly  worth  the  taking  off  the  dung  hill  except 
a  payre  of  shews.  ^* 

"  Court  Flies,  HI:  2,  1658. 
»  Salem  Court  Records.  1654. 
'•Court  Files  VTII:  113.  (1662) 


226       IPSWICH,    IN    TUE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Tamar  Quilter  brought  suit  against  Eichard  Buckley,  to 
whom  her  only  son,  Joseph  was  apprenticed.  She  testified 
that  she  found  him  ill-treated,  sick  in  a  cold  room,  and  took 
him  home  to  nurse  him  back  to  health.  ^'^  John  Bridge,  ser- 
vant to  j^athaniel  Wells,  told  a  pitiful  tale  of  cruel  treat- 
ment before  the  Court.  He  had  served  him  faithfully  two 
and  three  quarters  years,  but 

he,  having  shamefully  abused  and  beaten  me  soe  that  it  is 
questionable  whether  ever  I  should  be  sound  again  or  not, 
on  Sabbath  day  after  meeting  when  sick  &  unable  to  work, 
turned  me  away  without  any  clothes  except  a  few  ragged 
ones  that  would  scarce  hang  on  my  back  so  that  I  was  forced 
to  beg  clothes,  shoes  so  bad  had  to  tie  them  about  my  feete.^® 

Richard  Parker  was  so  cruelly  treated  by  his  master, 
Philip  Fowler,  that  he  brought  suit  against  him.  The  Court 
decided  in  his  favor  but  upheld  the  right  of  the  master  to 
punish. 

though  they  do  justifie  any  person  in  giving  meet  correc- 
tion to  his  servant  which  we  see  not  but  the  boy  did  deserve, 
yet  do  testifie  against  the  maner  of  punishment  given  in 
hanging  him  up  by  the  heeles  as  butchers  do  beasts  for  the 
slaughter  and  caution  him  against  such  kind  of  punishment 
and  order  him  to  pay  costs  and  fine.^® 

Poor  Toby  Tailer,  a  boy  bound  to  Samuel  Bishop,  came 
to  Jacob  Perkins  Sen.  and  "showed  his  wrist  swollen  where 
tied  up  and  flogged,  his  back  with  long  red  wales." 

Evidently  the  sympathies  of  the  Magistrates  were  with 
the  master,  and  when  the  fault  of  the  servant  was  extreme, 
the  penalty  imposed  was  very  severe.  Nicholas  Van  Den, 
servant  of  Robert  Cross,  was  convicted  of  theft  in  March, 
1668,  and  the  Court  gave  his  master 

1'  Court  Files,  VI:  81.  (1661) 
"  Court  Files  XXVI:  30.     1676. 
>»  Court  Records.  1682. 


SLAVES,   SEKVANTS  AND  APPRENTICES.  227 

liberty  to  put  off  his  servant,  Nicholas  Van  Den,  for  ten 
years  to  any  of  English  nation  besides  the  time  he  is  ser- 
vant before  for  satisfaction  for  his  theft  ....  and  to  put 
iron  upon  his  neck  in  the  meantime. ^^ 

He  ran  away  from  his  master  in  the  following  year,  but 
a  "hue  and  cry"  was  issued  by  Mr.  Symonds  and  he  was 
arrested.  "For  running  away  from  his  master  Robert  Cross 
dyvers  times  &  stealing  from  his  master,  &  loss  of  time  & 
charges,"  Nicholas  was  sentenced  to  "pay  his  master  40£ 
to  be  branded  in  the  forehead  with  the  letter  R  and  be 
severely  whipped."  Henry  Spencer  suffered  a  similar  pun- 
ishment in  1665. 

Peter  Lecross,  servant  of  the  Rev.  William  Hubbard,  with 
some  boon  companions,  robbed  his  master  of  his  wine  and 
fat  sheep  and  stole  from  other  parties.  The  Court  fined 
Lecross  8£,  which  Mr.  Hubbard  paid ;  and  to  repay  the  debt, 
the  Court  sentenced  the  thieving  servant  to  serve  his  master 
two  years  after  his  time  had  expired. 

In  one  case  at  least,  the  Indenture  was  terminated  by  a 
decision  of  the  Court  in  1697.  William  Baker  complained 
that  Charles  Atwood,  his  apprentice,  absented  himself  from 
his  service  notwithstanding  he  had  by  indenture  several  years 
to  serve,  but  the  Judge  ruled  in  favor  of  the  apprentice,  that 
he  was  under  no  further  obligation.  Lawrence  Clenton 
"bought  his  freedom"  of  Robert  Cross  by  the  payment  of  a 
sum  of  money  in  1666. 

A  servant  or  apprentice  of  Rev.  John  Wise  of  Chebacoo 
left  his  master  covertly,  and  the  minister,  advertised  the 
event  forthwith  in  the  Boston  News  Letter  of  January,  1712. 

Ran  away  from  his  Master,  the  Reverend  Mr.  John  Wise, 
Minister  of  Jebacco.  A  servant  Man,  Named  James  Holms, 
Aged  about  19  years  of  a  short  thick  Truss  body.  Sanguine 
Complexion,  a  grayish  eye,  light  colored  straight  hair,  not 
cut  on  the  crown  nor  very  long;  had  on  an  old  felt  Hat,  new 

••  Court  Files  XXXVH:  113,    1682. 


228       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Home-spun  gray  cloath  coat  an  old  Druger  Wastcoat,  a  pair 
of  Homespun  Breeches,  dark  sheep  gray  colored  stockings, 
a  new  pair  of  wooden  heel  shoes. 

Whoever  shall  apprehend  the  same  Run-away  servant  and 
him  safely  (return)  to  his  said  Master  at  Jabacco  or  to  Mr 
Joseph  Wise,  Shopkeeper  in  Anne  Street,  Boston  or  give 
any  true  Intelligence  to  either  of  them  So  as  his  Master 
may  have  him  again  shall  have  Fourty  Shillings  reward  be- 
sides all  necessary  Charges. 

About  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  advertisements 
of  run  away  servants  frequently  included  a  Post  Script. 

"All  Masters  of  Vessels  are  cautioned  not  to  carry  off  said 
Apprentice  as  they  would  avoid  the  Penalty  of  the  Law.'' 

Elisha  Perkins  Gould  an  Ipswich  lad  about  17  years  old. 
who  had  been  apprenticed  to  Mr.  John  Giddings  of  Glou- 
cester, ran  away  in  November,  1774,  and  was  duly  adver- 
tised ;  and  Joseph  Ross,  an  Ipswich  apprentice  left  his  master 
and  went  to  Wilmington,  where  he  was  suspected  of  enticing 
another  apprentice,  Robert  Kilby,  to  join  lots  with  him.^* 

The  apprentice  system  continued  in  vogue  well  into  the 
nineteenth  centurv.  All  trades  were  learned  in  this  wav. 
An  Ipswich  Indenture  of  1803  is  an  interesting  illustration 
of  the  complete  control  of  the  apprentice  by  his  master  dur- 
ing the  term  of  service,  and  of  the  surprisingly  small  return 
the  apprentice  received  for  his  long  years  of  faithful  service, 
over  and  above  the  trade  he  had  mastered. 

This  indenture  Witnesseth  That  Benjamin  Kimball  Jun' 
of  Ipswich  in  the  County  of  Essex  &  Commonwealth  of  Mas- 
sachusetts shipwright  hath  put  and  placed  and  by  these 
presents  doth  put  and  bind  out  his  son,  Benjamin  Kim- 
ball y®  3'^  and  the  said  Benjamin  Kimball  y®  3**  doth  hereby 
put,  place  and  bind  out  himself  as  an  Apprentice  to  Samuel 
Wade  of  said  Ipswich  to  learn  the  Art  trade  or  Mystery  of 
a  House  wright.  The  said  Benjamin  Kimball  y®  3**  after 
the  manner  of  an  iVpprontice  to  dwell  with  and  serve  the 
said  Samuel  Wade,  House  wright,  from  the  day  of  the  date 

>>  Essex  Gazette,  July  11.  1769. 


SLAVES,  SEKVAXTS  AXl)  APPRENTICES.         229 

hereof  until  the  thirtieth  day  of  November,  which  will  be  in 
the  Tear  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seven, 
at  \vhich  time  the  sd.  Apprentice,  if  he  should  be  living,  will 
be  twenty-one  years  of  age :     During  all  which  time  or  term, 
the  sd  Apprentice  his  said  Master  Well  and  faithfully  shall 
serve;   his  secrets   keep;   and  his   lawful  commands  every 
where  at  all  times  readily  obey;  he  shall  do  no  damage  to 
his  said  Master  nor  wilfully  suffer  any  to  be  done  by  others ; 
and  if  to  his  knowledge  be  intended,  he  shall  give  his  Master 
seasonable  Xotice  thereof:     He  shall  not  waste  the  Goods 
of  his  said  Master,  nor  lend  them  unlawfully  to  any;  at 
Cards,  Dice  or  any  unlawful  Game  he  shall  not  play ;  for- 
nication he  shall  not  commit,  nor  Matrimony  contract  dure- 
ing  the  said  Term ;  Taverns,  Ale-houses,  or  places  of  Gaming, 
he  shall  not  haunt  or  frequent;  from  the  service  of  his  said 
^Master,  he  shall  not  absent  himself;  but  in  all  things  and 
at  all  times  he  shall  carry  and  behave  himself,  to  his  said 
Master  and  all  others   as  a  good  and  faithful  Apprentice 
ought,  during  the  whole  time  or  term  aforesaid. 

And  the  said  Samuel  Wade  on  his  part,  doth  hereby  prom- 
ise, covenant  and  agree  to  teach  and  instruct  the  said  Ap- 
prentice, or  cause  him  to  be  taught  or  instructed  in  the  Art, 
Trade  or  calling  of  a  TTouse  wright  by  the  best  way  or  means 
he  can,  if  the  said  Apprentice  be  capable  to  learn  and  shall 
well  and  faithfully  find  and  provide  for  the  said  Apprentice 
good  and  sufficient  meat,  drink,  washing  and  lodging,  and 
other  necessaries  fit  and  convenient  for  such  an  Apprentice, 
during  the  term  aforesaid,  and  at  the  expiration  thereof 
shall  give  unto  the  said  Apprentice  two  suits  of  Wearing 
Apparel,  one  suitable  for  the  Lords  Day,  and  the  other  for 
a  working  day. 

In  Testimony  whereof,  the  said  parties  have  hereunto  set 
their  hand  and  seals,  this  seventh  day  of  Jan'y,  in  the  year 
of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  three. 

Sam^  Wade  seal 

Benjamin  Kimball 
Benf  Kimball  Jr. 
Signed,  sealed  and 
delivered  in  presence  of 
us. 

Nath'  Wade 
Nath'  Wade  jr. 


CHAPTER  X 

Fishing  and  Commebob  in  the  18th  Centuby. 

The  fisheries  were  the  most  important  industry  of  old 
Ipswich.  Encouraged  by  the  Statute  of  1639,  which  enacted 
that  all  vessels  and  other  property  employed  in  "taking, 
making  and  transporting  of  fish  be  exempt  from  duties  and 
public  taxes  for  seven  years,  and  that  all  fishermen  during 
the  season  of  business  be  exempt  from  military  duty/'  the 
men  of  the  Town  turned  vigorously  to  this  promising  em- 
ployment. 

The  year  1641  found  a  fishing  settlement  already  estab- 
lished at  Little  Neck  and  fishing  stages  set  up  for  the  drying 
of  fish.  The  Town  voted  in  that  year  that  the  whole  of 
this  Neck  should  be  set  apart  for  the  advancement  of  fish- 
ing. Every  boat's  crew  that  came  to  fish  there  was  allowed 
room  for  their  stages  and  an  acre  of  ground  for  a  garden, 
with  the  privilege  of  building  houses  for  their  convenience 
while  engaged  in  fishing.  A  Committee  was  appointed  by 
the  Town  in  the  same  year  to  set  buoys  and  beacons  for  the 
safe  navigation  of  the  river  and  bay,  to  provide  salt  and 
further  trade  in  every  way.  William  Paine  also  received 
liberty  to  build  a  wharf  and  ware  house. 

Francis  Wainwright  and  his  associates  were  engaged  in 
fishing  in  1648.     A  Deposition^  was  made  in  that  year  that 

Francis  Wainwright  &  his  company  did  lose  out  of  the 
boats  one  quarter  of  one  hundred  of  bread  and  a  dozen  of 
cod  hooks  newly  ganged  and  a  puter  bottell  of  strong  water 

^Ips.  Ct  Record. 
(280) 


FISHING  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE  18tH  CENTUEY.        231 

almost  full  and  a  roole  of  tobacco  of  4  or  5  lbs  wayte  •  .  .  . 
besides  all  this  we  miss  600  qtls.  dry  fish  which  we  delivered 
to   Peter  Pilford,  who  made  our  fish  in  the  winter  season. 

The  boats  were  at  Marblehead,  when  the  theft  occurred. 
Robert  Dutdi  and  Robert  Filbrick  of  Ipswich  offered  like 
testimony. 

For  a  century  and  more,  this  industry  flourished  at  Little 
Neck,  where  the  sheltered  cove  and  the  pebbly  beach  fur- 
nished a  convenient  base  for  the  shore  fisheries.  As  the 
business  developed,  Francis  Wainwright^  Thomas  Bishop, 
Thomas  Wade  and  others  established  themselves  on  the  Isles 
of  Shoals,  and  a  large  business  centered  there.  A  meeting 
of  the  merchants,  Mr.  Jolliffe,  M^  Lidgett,  M^  Whitcomb 
and  others,  together  with  several  fishermen  considered  the 
price  of  fish  and  "the  said  marchants  did  then  &  there  de- 
clare they  would  not  give  above  26  Ryalls  p^  quintall  by 
reason  there  was  little  exportation  for  the  fish  and  the  price 
bad  broke  so  at  Marblehead."^  No  doubt  our  Ipswich  mer- 
chants had  their  voice  in  these  deliberations.  Thomas  Seby 
Lad  given  his  bond  to  Francis  Wainwright  Dec.  12,  1665, 
to  deliver  to  him  at  the  Isles  of  Shoals  "in  well-cured,  well 
conditioned  marchantable  dry  cod  fish  by  the  20***  day  of 
June  to  the  value  of  £272-10'.*  On  Nov.  19,  1684,  Eichard 
Donne,  Gabriel  Grubb,  William  Pumery  and  William  Urin, 
bound  themselves  in  bond  of  £200,  to  deliver  to  Francis 
Wainwright  "all  the  cod,  poUuck  &  haddock  fish  w*^  all 
the  traine  oyle  that  we  shall  ketch  or  take  betwixt  this 
present  day  &  the  last  day  of  May  next  ensueing,"  and  to 
sell  to  no  one  else.* 

John  Newmarsh  brought  suit  against  John  Tod  of  Row- 
ley for  withholding  20  quintals  of  merchantable  cod  fish 
from  him  in  March,  1669.     Robert  Pierce,  an  Ipswich  fish- 

»  Court  FUea,  XVIH:  55. 
•Court  Files.  XHI:  25. 
«  Court  Files,  XXIII:  133. 


232       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

erman,  testified  that  he  was  at  Smutty  Nose  Island  in  July, 
1668  and  heard  Newmarsh  make  demand  on  Tod. 

William  Roe  came  from  the  Isles  of  Shoals  and  bought 
a  house  and  lot  by  the  river  bank  in  1671,  which  he  sold 
two  years  later  to  two  other  fishermen  from  the  same  islands, 
Andrew  Diamond  and  Henry  Maine.  Capt.  Diamond  be- 
came an  important  citizen  and  his  name  is  still  attached 
to  the  outlying  island,  part  of  the  ancient  Robert  Paine 
farm,  where  he  established  his  fishing  stage. '^  Henry  Maine, 
reputable  citizen  so  far  as  we  know,  has  attained  mythical 
renown  as  an  evil  doer,  and  suffers  endless  punishment, 
shovelling  the  shifting  sands  on  Ipswich  bar.* 

Hugh  AUard  sold  to  Francis  Wainwright  in  1671  all 
his  land,  houses,  staging  &tc  on  Smutty  Xose  Island.  The 
northern  half  of  the  Islands  was  deserted  gradually,  and  on 
Star  Island,  the  business  was  monopolized  by  three  chief 
proprietors,  Francis  Wainwright  and  Andrew  Diamond  of 
Ipswich  and  Nathaniel  Baker  of  Boston." 

Thomas  Bishop   and  Thomas  Wade  executed  a  bond  in 

March,  1670-1  binding  themselves  to  pay  to  Thomas  Deane 

good  merchantable  fish  at  the  Isles  of  Shoals  to  the  value  of 

£35.     The  inventory  of  Mr.  Bishop,  filed  in  March,  1671, 
shows  that  he  owned  a  quarter  of  the  ketch,  "Margaret," 

of  34   tons,   half  of  the  ketches,   "Gk)od   Hope,"   36   tons, 

"Susannah,"  28  tons,  "Hopewell,"  26  tons  and  another  of 

30  tons,  and  half  "one  single  boat."     His  interest  in  vessels 

and  cargoes  was  £686,  10'. 

Some  ancient  building  contracts  reveal  the  size  of  these 

diminutive  vessels.     Robert  Dutch,   an   Ipswich  merchant, 
contracted  with  George  Carr  Jun.   of  Salisbury   in   1677 

to  build  of  two  inch  white  oak  plank,  a  ketch  of  25  tons, 

34  feet  long,  12  feet  broad,  6  feet  deep  in  the  hold.     John 

■  Jeffre3r*8  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto.  Ipswich  Hlat  Soc.  Publications, 
XVni:  26.  i 

•Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  1:  p.  405. 

V  The  Isles  of  Shoals,  John  Scrlbner  Jenness,  1875,  contains  a  full  and 
valuable  account  of  the  fishing:  Industry  at  the  Shoals.  I 


FISHING  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE  18tH  CENTURY.        233 

Hendricks  of  Newbury,  ship-wright,  agreed  to  build  for 
Francis  Wainwright  in  1687,  "a  substantial  vessel  or  lighter, 
30  feet  long  on  the  keel,  11  ft.  8  in.  broad,  3Vi>  ft.  deep 
in  the  hold,  with  a  good  cuddy,  Mr.  Wainwright  to  deliver 
the  oak  plank."  Hachaliah  Bridges  owned  a  sloop,  which 
w^as  sunk  in  Ipswich  river  in  1669  and  Peter  Perry's  ketch 
"was  attached  for  debt  by  John  Newmarsh  Sen.  in  1689. 
Capt.  If  athaniel  Piper,  master  of  Mr.  Robert  Paine's  "bark," 
ordered  an  anchor  of  "8  score  weight,"  from  the  Rowley 
Iron  Works,  in  1673.^ 

Even  the  ships  of  that  day  were  of  very  modest  dimen- 
sion. Thomas  Mudgett  of  ISTew  Salisbury  contracted  to 
build  "a  good  substantial  ship"  for  ^Jficholas  Paige  of  Boston, 

76  foot  by  the  keele  in  length  upon  a  straight  line  and 
20  foot  rake  before  and  proportionate  rake  abaft,  fit  for  such 
a  ship,  26  feet  wide  by  the  heme,  11  feet  deep  in  the  hold, 
5  feet  between  decks  at  the  main  mast,  ship  to  have  2  decks, 
and  a  half  deck,  with  two  foot  of  the  maine  mast  with  2 
boats,  for  £605. 

She  was  launched  at  Amesbury,  named  the  "Ann  Bonaven- 
ture,"  and  was  impressed  by  the  Council  for  the  expedition 
against  Quebec  in  1691. 

But  these  little  vessels  were  manned  by  brave  and  skilful 
sailors,  and  they  served  not  merely  for  the  shore  fishing, 
but  for  foreign  voyages,  laden  with  their  cargoes  of  fish 
and  oil.  The  original  charter,  drawn  up  on  Sept.  7,  1673, 
between  Abraham  Perkins  and  John  Bumam  of  Ipswich, 
owners  of  the  good  ketch,  "Dora,"  29  tons,  and  Richard 
Martyn  of  Porstmouth,  is  still  preserved  in  the  Court  Files.  ^ 
She  was  chartered  to  load  with  Piscataqua  mackerel  and 
oil  for  the  Isle  of  Barbadoes,  to  have  a  return  freight  of 
sugar,  and  "shall  have  600  lb.  good  Muscavado  sugar  for 

•  Court  Piles, 
•■Vol.  XXI:  104. 


234       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

every  ton  she  shall  carry."     William  Patterson  of  Ips\^ch 
was  at  Barbadoes,  seeking  sugar  in  1667-8. 

Henry  Russell  of  Ipswich  and  others  dispatched  the  ketch 
"May  flower"  to  Newfoundland  in  1664,  and  Philip  Beare 
and  Arthur  Abbott,  sailors,  went  into  the  interior  with  the 
Indians,  hunting  and  getting  beaver  skins.^     For  coastwise 
traffic  as  well  there  was  constant  demand  for  small  craft 
like  these.     Capt.  Steven  Cross  with  his  sloop,  "Adventure," 
brought  passengers  and  freight  from  Wethersfield  to  Boston 
in  1681 ;  the  year  before  he  had  made  a  trip  to  Exeter  for 
boards  for  Francis  Wainwright  and  he  had  been  along  the 
coast  to  Piscataqua  for  boards  in   1671.     William  Paine 
contracted   with   Boston   merchants    to    deliver   in   Boston 
10,000  of  good  and  merchantable  white  oak  pipe  staves  in 
1647. 

In  contrast  with  these  coast-wise  trips  and  the  cargoes 
of  fish  is  the  ambitious  scheme  of  the  owners  of  the  ketch, 
"Zebulon,"  belonging  in  Ipswich,  who  purposed  to  send  her 
"into  the  Indyes  for  a  further  discovery  of  trade,  that  may 
tend  to  the  advance  of  this  Commonwealth,"  and  therefore 
asked  the  loan  of  two  colonial  guns  in  Boston,  in  October, 
1646.  They  stated  that  before  the  next  Spring,  the  Iron 
Works  would  supply  "all  sorts  of  guns."^^  Another  early 
venture  is  that  of  Dr.  John  Ward,  chirurgeon,  in  the  Boston 
ship,  "John,  the  Adventurer,"  bound  for  London,  of  £70 
in  good  sound  merchantable  and  well  cured  tobacco  in 
November,  1651.^^  No  doubt  many  such  mercantile  ven- 
tures were  made,  and  long  and  anxious  months  elapsed  be- 
fore it  was  known  whether  they  netted  gain  or  loss.     The 

dangers  and  uncertainties  of  these  early  voyages  are  revealed 
in  the  suggestive  memorandum  that  Thomas  Harris  had 

given  £40  in  1689  to  redeem  his  eldest  son  out  of  Turkey.^* 

•  Court  Plies,  XI:  71. 

"  Felt,  History  of  Ipswich,  Appendix  P.  315. 

"  Court  Files,  XH:  63. 

"  Pelt:  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  315. 


PISHING  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE  18tH  CENTURY.       235 

In  1683,  Ipswich  was  annexed  with  other  towns  to  Salem, 
as  their  port  of  entry  and  clearance;  but  in  1685,  the  Ips- 
wich representatives,  Daniel  Epes  and  Simon  Stacy,  peti- 
tioned the  (Jeneral  Court,  that  "  there  being  some  merchants 
&  Traders  in  Ipswich  that  doe  imploy  some  vessels  to  Bar- 
badoes  and  other  places,"  a  local  Naval  officer  might  be 
appointed.  The  House  appointed  Mr.  Stacy,  but  the  Coun- 
cil non-concurred.  Such  an  official  was  appointed  however 
in  1692. 

As  the  century  drew  to  its  close,  the  fishing  industry  was 
so  prosperous  that  Little  Neck  did  not  suffice,  and  request 
was  made  by  the  fishermen  for  a  location  on  Jeffrey's  Neck. 
Mr.  John  Appleton,  Capt.  Andrew  Diamond  and  Mr.  Fran- 
cis Wainwright  were  appointed  by  the  Town  as  a  Com- 
mittee to  lay  out  the  lots  for  fishing  stages  and  for  flake 
room.  The  lines  of  stones  on  the  hill  side  still  mark  roughly 
the  several  lots  then  assigned. 

After  the  division  of  the  common  lands  in  1710,  Jeffrey's 
Neck  was  owned  by  the  Commoners  in  the  capacity  of  Pro- 
prietors. Their  Committee,  appointed  to  regulate  the 
bounds  of  the  fishing  station  reported  in  April,  1715,  that 
'Tlichard  Gross,  Phillips  and  Spiller,  Mr.  Wade,  Merrifield 
alias  Holland,  and  Richard  Lakeman"  were  using  two  boats 
each,  and  occupying  6  rods  on  the  hill  side,  and  that  Thomas 
Newmarch,  Silvanus  and  Tobias  Lakeman  were  operating 
3  boats  and  using  9  rods  of  flake  room.  James  Brown,  Wil- 
liam Harris,  Joseph  Holland,  William  Willcomb,  Francis 
Crompton  and  Richard  Rogers  were  interested  in  this  fishery 
in  the  following  years.  ^^* 

The  shore  whale  fishing  was  also  engaged  in  to  some  ex- 
tent John  Higginson  of  Salem  wrote  to  Symonds  Epes  of 
the  Castle  Hill  Farm,  on  Dec.  10*^,  1T06 : 

I  hear  a  rumour  of  several  whales  that  are  gotten,  I  desire 

»•  Jeffresr's  Neck  and  the  Way  Thereto,  Ipswich  Histor.  Soc.  Pub.  XVill: 
pp.  69,  68. 


236     iPSWTCir,  in  the  Massachusetts  bay  ooi>ony. 

you  to  send  me  word  how  much  we  are  concerned  in  them, 
find  what  prospect  of  a  voyage.  When  they  have  done,  I 
desire  you  would  take  care  to  secure  the  boats  and  utensils 
belonging  to  them. 

x\gain  on  Sept.  22,  1707,  he  wrote  regarding  the  whale 
boats  and  crews  at  Ipswich,  "We  should  be  in  readiness  for 
the  noble  sport." ^^  From  Castle  Hill,  Little  iJ^eck  or  Jef- 
frey's JTeck,  the  spout  of  a  whale  might  have  been  seen  by 
the  trained  eyes  of  the  fishermen,  and  watchers  may  have 
been  stationed  there.  Five  whale  boats  were  impressed  in 
Ipswich  for  the  expedition  to  Xova  Scotia  in  1707.^* 

Capt.  John  Holland  sailed  out  of  Ipswich  river  in  the 
spring  of  1700  one  Sabbath  day  with  his  crew,  Edward  Hol- 
land, John  Holland  Jr.  and  Robert  Knight,  with  two  pas- 
sengers, Stephen  Perkins  and  Kichard  Holland,  and  arrived 
at  Capenny  wagen,  the  next  day  at  noon.  For  his  Sabbath 
breaking,  he  was  summoned  into  Court  and  paid  his  fine. 

The  outbreak  of  Queen  Anne's  war  opened  a  new  field 
of  adventure  and  the  trained  sailors  and  fishermen  were 
quick  to  respond.  Capt.  Samuel  Chadwell,  master  of  the 
sloop,  '*The  Flying  Horse,"  with  eleven  Ipswich  men  among 
his  full  crew  of  forty,  lay  at  Newcastle  in  March  1702-3, 
ready  to  sail  for  the  Bay  of  Fundv  at  a  moment's  notice.*'^ 
The  sloop,  "Hopewell,"  of  55  tons,  Capt.  John  Chadwell, 
master  carried  Capt.  Matthew  Perkins's  company  of  60  men 
to  Nova  Scotia,  in  the  expedition  of  1710.^® 

Capt.  Beamsley  Perkins,  most  noteworthy  of  the  early 
Ipswich  sailors,  began  his  career  no  doubt  in  the  fishing 
ketches.  He  was  master  of  the  sloop,  "Marlborough,"  and 
the  frigate,  "Despatch,"  in  Queen  Anne's  war.  He  com- 
manded the  ship,  "Eagle  Galley,"  which  cleared  from  Bos- 
ton for  Montserrat  on  Jan.  14,  1705,  and  in  1706  and  1707, 

"  Felt,  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  109. 

"  Felt,  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  315,  Appendix. 

"  Pagre  32. 

"  Page  40. 


FISHING  JlNV  commerce  IN  THE  18tH  CENTUBY.        237 

the  ship,  "Blessing,"  plying  between  Boston  and  West  India 
l>orts.  In  May,  1714,  he  was  captain  of  the  brigantine, 
**  Ipswich,"  which  cleared  from  Boston  for  Quebec.  Capt. 
Pelatiah  Kinsman  was  outward  bound  for  the  West  Indies 
in  November,  1715.^''  Capt.  John  Harris  died  on  Jan.  11, 
1737,  at  the  age  of  forty-six,  having  commanded  various 
merchant  vessels  and  distinguished  himself  in  engagements 
on  the  Spanish  coast  of  the  West  Indies.^® 

The  shipping  registers,  issued  by  the  chief  magistrates, 
mention  some  Ipswich  craft  of  this  early  period. 


When 

built 

Vessels 

Names 

Tonnage             Masters 

1698 

Sloop 

Unity 

40 

John  Bradstreet 

1702 

Brig 

Swan 

50 

Humphrey  Woodbury 

1706 

Ship 

Hopewell 

90 

Peletiah  Kinsman 

Sloop 

Sea  Horse 

30 

Nathaniel  Downing 

1709 

Sloop 

Marv 

30 

Stephen  Perkins 

1712 

Sloop 

Sarah  &  Margaret     25 

Thomas  ITewman 

1714 

Sloop 

Sagamore 

30 

Samuel  Sargent 

Brig 

Ipswich 

100 

Beamsley  Perkins 

They  were  all  square-stemed  and  built  at  Ipswich  except 
two.  '  The  sloop  "Unity"  was  built  at  Newbury,  and  the 
"Sarah  &  Margaret"  at  Duxbury.  The  "Sagamore"  was 
partly  owned  in  Boston  and  so  was  the  brig  "Ipswich."^® 

The  Canso  fishing  banks  claimed  a  deadly  toll  of  the  Ips- 
wich fishermen.  Thomas  Lull  was  killed  while  on  a  voyage 
thither  in  1735.  Xathan  Ilodgkins  Jr.,  Francis  Hovey, 
David  Knowlton,  Samuel  Pulcifer  and  Robert  Stocker  all 
perished  on  the  Bank  on  April  7,  1737,  and  Tobias  Lake- 
man  in  Sept.,  1738. 

Capt.  Ammi  R.  Wise,  master  of  the  schooner  "Lark,"  "for 
the  security  and  safe  laying  of  his  vessell,  more  particularly 

"  Boston  News  Letter. 

^  Pelt,  History  of  Ipswich,  Appendix  p.  334. 

^  Felt.  History  of  Ipswich,  Appendix,  p.  314. 


238     ipswioir,  ix  the  Massachusetts  bay  colony. 

in  the  Winter  season,"  received  a  grant  of  some  of  the  flats 
"at  the  westernmost  part  of  the  Great  Cove,"  where  he  built 
a  wharf  and  store  house.  This  location  was  owned  after- 
ward by  Capt.  Gideon  Parker,^^  who  used  it  as  a  shipyard. 
It  served  this  use  for  many  years.  It  is  now  included  in 
Dr.  Tucker's  lot. 

William  Start  of  Ipswich,  Master  of  the  schooner  ''May 
Flower,"  loaded  with  dry  fish  and  ready  to  sail,  made  his 
declaration  that  on  Aug.  3,  1752, 

being  well  mor'd  with  two  Anchors  &  well  fastned  to  a 

stage  head  with  sundry  Fasts.     But  by  a  Strong  Gale   of 

Wind  in  the  Night  &  the  Tide  was  drove  so  nigh  the  stage 

head  that  when  the  Tide  went  out  she  broke  her  Fasts  & 

fell  over  into  the  Channel,  by  which  he  supposes  some  of 

the  Fish  to  be  damaged.  ^^ 

> 

Benj.  Ober,  skipper  of  schooner  "Ipswich"  damaged  by  a 
storm,  made  his  declaration  in  Jan.  26,  1754.^^  She  was 
insured  in  April,  1758,  owned  by  Samuel  Vans,  and  com- 
manded by  Capt.  Benjamin  Davis. ^*  Capt.  Dodge  in  the 
"Ipswich"  was  trading  to  the  West  Indies  in  1772. 

Francis  Cogswell,  a  tanner  and  owner  of  the  Denison 
farm,  now  owned  bv  Dr.  H.  F.  Vickerv  and  the  heirs  of 
Dr.  Francis  B.  Harrington,  was  engaged  in  the  fisheries  as 
well,  and  his  estate,  at  his  death  in  1755,  included 

the  schooner  Deborah  &  boat  &  all  appurtenances,      £80-  0-  0 
the  old  schooner  Dolphin  &  boat  &  all  appurtenances,  66-13-  4 

The  danger  from  French  privateers  during  the  French 
and  Indian  war  put  an  effectual  embargo  upon  this  thriving 
industry  and  Felt  says  that  the  fishing  fleet  was  reduced 

■•  Ipswich  in  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony.  Vol.  I,  Paeres  476,  489. 
•*  Essex  Co.  Notarial  Records.    Historical  Coll.,  Essex  Institute,  XLVI: 
117. 
"  Ditto,  p.  120. 
**  Histor.  Coll.,  Essex  Institute.  XXX:  88. 


FISHING  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE  18tH  CENTUBY.        239 

to  six  schooners.^*.  Fourteen  of  the  Ipswich  sailors  found 
place  in  the  crew  of  H.  M.  S.  "Alice"  in  the  expedition 
against  Quebec  in  1759.  The  business  revived  after  the 
war,  and  continued  at  Little  iTeck  through  the  century. 
Nathaniel  Smith,  Nathaniel  Farley,  Abraham  Choate  and 
John  Patch  were  owners  of  wharves,  storehouses  and  fishing 
stages.^^  The  sloop,  "Endeavorer,"  Capt.  Thomas  Treadwell, 
was  included  in  the  fleet  in  1716.  John  Newmarch  Jr. 
who  died  in  1812,  owned  a  third  of  the  wharf  and  a  third 
of  the  schooner,  "Hero."^® 

The  old  "Jolly  Eobin,"  which  had  been  impressed  at 
Halifax  during  the  French  War  for  a  trip  to  Boston,^'' 
and  subsequently  was  engaged  in  transport  service  on  the 
Hudson  River,  was  still  in  service  in  April  1772,  when  she 
sailed  for  Maryland  and  Virginia,  commanded  by  Capt 
Newmarch.  The  "Charming  Molly  Davis,"^®  with  90  hogs- 
heads of  molasses  and  6  of  sugar  was  captured  and  burned 
by  a  French  frigate  at  Monte  Cristo,  Dec.  2,  1768.  The 
Ipswich  schooners  "Lively"  Capt.  Jn**  MascoU  and  "Dolphin" 
Capt.  Jo*  Soward,  both  owned  by  Perkins  and  Paine,  were 
insured  in  Jan.  175  S. 

The  sloop  "Falmouth,"  Capt.  Daniel  Gk)odhue,  which 
sailed  from  Ipswich  for  Dominica  on  April  5***,  1764,  spnmg 
a  leak  on  April  10*^,  which  increased  steadily  and  on  the 
23*,  they  cut  away  the  mast.  She  sank  on  May  9***.  "The 
Captain  and  6  others  took  to  their  boat  with  such  Neces- 
saries as  they  could  get  at,  and  after  being  toss'd  upon  the 
Ocean  for  28  days  in  the  Utmost  Danger  of  perishing,  they 
arrived  at  Monto  Christi  in  perfect  Health,  tho  greatly 
fatigued."^®     The  log  book  of  Capt.  Philip  Hammond  con- 

•*Felt,  History  of  Ipswich,  T&ge  109. 
"  Pub.  Ipswich  Historical  Society  XVIU:  80-85. 
"Probate  Records  383:  24. 
"Mass.  Archives  65:  193.     See  also  Pago  172. 

>*  Bssex  Institute  Histor.  Collections  XLV:  346.    Boston  Gazette,  Jan.  15, 
1759. 
**  The  Boston  Gazette,  July  30,  1764. 


240       IPSWICH,    IN    THK    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

tains  the  entry.  "July  16,  1768.  Saturday.  This  day 
we  came  to  port  Roiel  &  Landed  our  oxen  and  Horses  & 
sheep  &  this  day  Capt.  Staniford  saild  for  Home  from  port 
Royel." 

In  December,  1770,  Capt.  Hammond,  in  the  schooner, 
"Speedwell,"  sailed  for  Virginia,  and  in  the  same  month, 
the  schooner  "Hopewell,"  Capiain  Staniford,  cleared  for  SL 
Lucia. 

The  ancient  account  book  of  Dummer  Jewett,  covering 
the  years  1759  to  1763,  mentions  the  brig  "DoUe,"  a  fish- 
ing schooner  owned  by  Capt.  John  Smith,  "Spiller  ye  skip- 
per," the  schooner,  "Dorothy,"  and  the  schooner,  "x\rgilla," 
Capt.  Moses  Wells.  Capt.  Wells  owned  a  farm  on  the 
Argilla  road  and  with  a  fine  sense  of  fitness,  chose  that 
musical  name  for  his  craft.  Michael  Holland,  Aaron  Kins- 
man, Nathaniel  Moulton,  Jonathan  ISTewmarch,  David  Pul- 
cifer  and  William  Stone  were  fishermen  of  that  period,  wlio 
had  accounts  at  the  Jewett  country  store.  Stephen  Safford 
was  a  sail-maker. 

Mr.  Jewett  was  one  of  the  owners  of  the  schooner, 
"Saunders,"  which  was  built  in  Rowley  and  launched  in 
December,  1759.  She  was  commanded  by  Capt.  Thomas 
Staniford  and  made  trading  voyages  to  Halifax,  with  live 
stock,  to  Virginia,  to  Philadelphia  to  purchase  wheat,  com 
and  flour,  and  in  May,  1768  to  the  West  Indies.  A  yoke 
of  oxen  were  included  in  his  freight,  one  of  which  died  on 
the  voyage. 

For  many  years,  the  trade  with  the  West  Indies  afforded 
a  market  for  the  fish  and  other  commodities,  and  the  return 
cargoes  of  sugar  and  molasses  and  tropical  fruits  found  ready 
sale.  The  wharves  and  storehouses  and  the  fishing  estab- 
lishments at  Diamond  Stage,  Jeffrey's  ITeck,  Little  ITeck,  and 
Green's  Point  were  busy  hives  of  industry.  Sloops  and 
schooners  came  and  went  and  many  Ipswich  lads  took  to  the 
sea  as  sailors  or  fisherman.     The  files  of  the  Essex  Gazette 


FISHING  AND  COMMEKCE  IN  THE   18tH  CENTUBY.       241 

and  the  shipping  records  of  the  District  of  Salem  and  Beverly, 
which  included  Ipswich  nntil  1799,  give  interesting  glimpses 
of  these  men  of  the  sea  and  their  vessels. 

Capt.  Abraham  Dodge  had  various  thrilling  experiences. 
Sailing  from  Ipswich  for  the  West  Indies  in  Feb.  1770,  his 
schooner  grounded  on  the  bar  and  vessel  and  cargo  were 
reported  a  total  loss.  One  of  the  crew  was  drowned,  and 
the  rest  were  near  perishing  before  they  were  discovered 
and  taken  off.  A  year  later,  he  had  the  schooner  "Eliza- 
beth,''  and  his  arrival  from  Cape  Nicholas  Mole  is  noted 
in  April.  Wlien  he  arrived  in  Ipsvnch  in  May,  1774,  he 
brought  in  the  Master,  chief-mate,  four  sailors  and  four  in- 
dented servants  of  the  brig  "Two  Brothers,"  picked  up  at 
sea  in  an  open  boat  These  men  abandoned  their  ship 
secretly,  leaving  sixteen  persons  on  board,  who  probably 
perished. 

Captain  Ephraim  Kendall  arrived  at  Ipswich  in  the 
schooner  "Falmouth,"  in  August,  1769,  in  26  days  from 
the  West  Indies.  He  sailed  regularly  to  St.  Lucia,  St. 
Eustatia  and  other  West  India  ports  and  occasionally  to 
Canso  and  Nova  Scotia.  Captain  Stanwood  in  the  schooner, 
"Fame,"  sailed  for  Virginia,  in  Nov.  1770.  Eobert  Stalker 
was  living  at  Tennent's  Harbor  in  Nova  Scotia  in  1772  en- 
gaged in  the  curing  of  fish.  In  1775,  Ipswich  was  credited 
with  1  brig,  11  schooners  and  43  boats,  employing  190  men. 

The  Revolutionary  War  checked  this  flourishing  trade. 
The  schooner,  "Hannah,"  Capt.  James  Clenton,  was  cap- 
tured by  the  letter^f -marque  schooner,  Liverpool,  in  1779. 

There  were  many  sad  tragedies  on  the  dreaded  Ipswich 
bar  and  the  beach  in  these  busy  years.  Lieut  John  Board- 
man,  a  prosperous  farmer  on  the  Rowley  road  and  John 
Rogers,  son  of  Capt  Richard,  both  young  men  returning 
from  Marblehead,  were  "cast  on  shore  on  Castle  Hill  Beach 
and  Perished  with  the  Cold  and  Snow,"  March  10,  1765. 
Two  boats  with  nine  men  coming  ashore  from  their  vessel, 


242      IPSWICH,    IK    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

which  lay  outside,  were  overturned  in  the  surf  and  eight 
perished,  on  October  1**,  1784.  In  September,  1785,  a  boat 
with  six  men  returning  from  the  clam  flats,  heavily  loaded, 
was  sunk  by  the  high  seas,  and  four  were  drowned,  one  of 
them  leaving  a  widow  and  six  children. 

With  the  close  of  the  Revolution  business  revived  ac- 
tively. The  principal  industries  apart  from  fishing  and 
trading  were  cabinet  and  hat  making,  farming  and  distilling- 
William  Story  built  the  distilling  plant  and  sold  a  half  inter- 
est to  John  Heard  in  1770,  who  eventually  acquired  the  whole 
business.  It  passed  to  his  son,  George  W.  Heard,  who  con- 
tinued it  until  he  sold  to  Gustavus  Farley  in  1836.  The 
West  Indies  were  the  nearest  market  for  the  fish  and  the 
return  cargoes  were  chiefly  molasses  for  the  distillery. 

The  Shatswell  papers*®  throw  a  flood  of  light  upon  the  in- 
dustrial affairs  of  the  Town  for  many  years.  On  March 
17,  1764,  Richard  Setchell,  who  then  signed  himself,  yeo- 
man, "Major  Gould  taler,"  and  Benjamin  Chapman,  mari- 
ner, of  Danvers,  bought  a  third  of  the  good  sloop  "Sally" 
about  74  tons  burthen,  of  Lawrence  Clark  of  Newbury, 
mariner,  and  Benjamin  Chapman  of  Danvers.  In  June 
of  the  same  year,  Lawrence  Clark  wrote  from  Savannah, 
reporting  decidedly  crooked  practices  on  the  part  of  Capt. 
Chapman  and  the  owners  sent  orders  forthwith  to  the  Cap- 
tain to  proceed  to  Barbadoes  or  any  other  English  island 
and  sell  vessel  and  cargo  if  possible.  Apparently  the  sloop 
was  not  sold,  as  W"  Story,  Jun.  the  Naval  oflScer  of  Ipswich, 
issued  a  certificate  to  Timothy  Kimball,  master  of  the 
"Sally,"  in  May,  1788,  to  employ  her  in  the  fishing  business. 
In  1774,  Mr.  Shatswell  was  the  owner  of  the  schooner 
"Swan,"  bound  on  a  fishing  trip,  with  Daniel  Goodhue, 
JVlaster,  Nathaniel  Perley,  mate,  Thomas  Emmerton  and 
James  Andrews  "salters."    In  1785,  the  square  stem  schooner 

»The  family  papers  of  Richard  Shatswell  and  his  son.  Nathaniel,  de- 
posited with  the  Society  by  Mr.  Roger  Sherman  Warner. 


FISHING  AND  COMMEBCE  IN  THE   18tH  OENTUBY.       243 

**Hannah"  45  tons,  second  of  the  name^  appears  in  these  old 
files,  and  for  a  number  of  years,  there  is  most  interesting  rec- 
ord of  the  varied  uses  to  which  this  craft  was  put  In  the  suin- 
xner,  she  was  fitted  for  a  fishing  trip,  and  her  five  men,  who 
csomposed  the  crew,  provided  their  own  bread  and  were  paid 
sometimes  in  cash,  apparently,  sometimes  in  a  share  of  the 
catch.  In  August,  1785,  Richard  Lakeman  was  Master, 
and  his  crew  were  William  Lakeman,  Jr.,  Lieut.  James  Lord, 
John  Soward,  Jr.  and  Ebenezer  Kimball.  Oapt.  Daniel 
Rogers  was  the  skipper  on  one  of  her  trips  in  that  year. 

In  the  summer  of  1786,  Richard  Lakeman,  was  again 
Master.  Mr.  Shatswell  entered  into  an  agreement  that  year 
with  William  Gray,  Jr.  the  famous  "Billy  Gray"  of  Salem, 
to  take  his  fish  and  sell  him  salt.  In  the  fall,  under  com- 
mand of  Daniel  Newman,  she  sailed  for  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia with  a  full  cargo  of  local  products.  Her  manifest  in- 
cluded 

450  gallons  N".  E.  rum 

100  gallons  W.  I.  rum 

90  gals,  clove  water 

12  desks,  6  tables,  4  dozen  chairs 

20  pr.  of  shoes,  2  doz.  felt  hats 

8  quintals  cod  fish 

2  hogsheads  molasses 

2  sides  of  sole  leather 

1  box  of  chocolate 
and  a  quantity  of  American  earthem-ware. 

Only  a  portion  of  the  cargo  was  sold,  and  George  Black- 
well,  the  Virginia  agent,  receipted  for  the  furniture  that 
was  left  with  him.  This  receipt  is  of  particular  interest, 
as  it  gives  the  names  of  the  skippers  and  the  value  of  their 
products. 

1  desk  with  secret  Draws,  a  glass  in  y®  front. 
Xathaniel  Lord,  1  desk  £2-17-  4 

Elisha  Newman,  1  desk  2-17-  4 


244      IPSWICH,    IX    THE    MASSAOHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Abraham  Knowlton,  1  desk  2-17-  4 

W'".  Appleton,  3  desks  8-12-  0 

Daniel  Lummus,  1  desk  2-17-  4 

Joseph  Lord,  1  table  8 

Daniel  Lummus,  1  table  6 

Moses  Lord,  6  chairs  a  8/  2-  8-  0 

Daniel  Lord,  6  white  chairs  a  14/  4-4-0 

Daniel  Smith,  6  chairs  a  3/  18-0 

A  return  cargo  of  1173  bushels  of  corn  was  taken  on  board. 

In  May,  1787,  the  "Hannah"  fitted  for  a  fishing  trip, 
and  Capt.  iN'ewman's  crew  included  Philip  Hammond,  mate, 
Campbell  Ripley,  Ebenezer  Kimball  and  William  Lakeman. 
In  November,  under  Capt.  Hammond,  Master  on  his  first 
voyage,  perhaps,  she  loaded  again  for  Southern  ports.  In 
consideration  it  may  be  of  the  inexperience  of  Captain 
Hammond,  Nathaniel  ShatsweU  and  Daniel  Goodhue  Jr. 
sailed  in  her  with  orders  to  sell  the  cargo  and  buy  a  return 
freight  of  com  or  flour  and  instructions  were  given  to  the 
Captain,  "to  assist  Nath^  ShatsweU  and  Dan^  Goodhue  in 
selling  &  Bying  &  go  to  any  place  that  they  shall  order  in 
Virginia  or  Maryland."  Her  cargo  included  the  usual  items, 
rum,  cabinet  work,  boots  and  shoes,  1060  pounds  of  choco- 
late, presumably  from  Nathan  Pierce,  valued  at  £7-10-  0, 
12  axes,  from  John  Choate,  probably,  3-12-  0,  and  a  barrel 
of  snake-root,  32  gal.  a  2/  £3-40. 

Captain  Hammond  made  another  summer  trip  to  the  fish- 
ing banks  in  1788,  and  the  fall  trading  voyage  to  Maryland. 
These  Southern  trips  afforded  an  opportunity  to  the  Hi^ 
street  cabinet  makers  and  hatters  and  workers  at  various 
crafts  throughout  the  town  to  market  their  wares.  Abr* 
Lord  shipped  39  pr.  of  shoes  a  8/,  1  pr.  of  boots  24/,  5  pr. 
of  women's  shoes  at  5/. 

Many  articles  were  left  with  Moses  Taylor  in  Virginia. 
His  account  gives  the  list  of  disappointed  shippers. 


FISHING  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE  18tH  CENTUBY.       245 

Nath.  Lord  3*,  2  large  tables  £2-  0-  0 
and  a  small  table  valued  4/^3  and  a  desk. 

Joseph  Lord,  a  desk  2-10-  0 

William  Appleton,  a  small  desk  1-  0-  0 

Jeremiab  Kimball,  2  large  oval  tables  2-  2-  0 

John  Ringe,  2  tables  0-  8-  0 

Moses  Lord,  chairs  0-16-  0 

Daniel  Smith,  8  chairs  0-16-0 

6  white  chairs  0-12-  0 

Isaac  Lord,  5  white  hats  a  4/6  1-  2-  6 

5  black  hats  a  4  1-0-0 

Richard  Sutton,  2  pr.  of  leather  breeches  a  12/  1-4-0 

Daniel  Day,  2  fine  hats  23/  1-  3-  0 

In  other  lists,  there  is  mention  of  flag  chairs  a  2/6,  baking 
pans,  quart  mugs,  pots  and  vessels  of  earthen  ware  made  by 
some  local  potter,  and  one  large  desk,  valued  at  five  pounds. 
Many  collectors  of  old  mahogany  furniture  have  made  rich 
finds  in  Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  it  is  wholly  within  the 
bounds  of  possibility  that  some  of  the  fine  desks,  chairs  and 
tables,  made  in  the  Ipswich  cabinet  shops,  are  now  included 
in  these  antique  treasures. 

Captain  Hammond  made  his  Spring  fishing  trip  in  the 
"Hannah"  in  1Y90,  but  Thomas  Hodgkins  was  master  in  1792 
and  Lemuel  Persons  in  1793.  The  Shatswells  owned 
Green's  Point  Landing  and  had  a  wharf  there  at  which  the 
"Hannah"  discharged  her  cargoes.  The  old  account  books 
show  that  besides  the  fishing  and  trading,  they  were  exten- 
sively engaged  in  selling  timber  and  firewood,  in  ploughing 
and  trucking  for  hire,  letting  their  horses  and  their  "gun- 
dalows,"  and  exacting  charges  for  every  load  of  thatch  or 
salt  hay  landed  on  their  wharf  or  dried  on  their  land. 

Nathaniel  Kinsman  is  another  interesting  figure.  He  was 
owner  and  master  of  the  67  ton  schooner,  "Betsey,"  in  1784, 
which  was  sold  to  Beverly  in  1793.  The  Custom  House 
records  contain  the  invoices  of  his  cargoes,  Jabez  Farley  & 


246       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOJWY. 

Co.,  owners  and  consignees.  On  Aug.  18*'',  1790,  he  en- 
tered, from  Martinico,  with  6251  gallons  of  molasses  and 
104  gallons  of  rum.  In  March,  1791,  he  arrived  from  Cape 
Francois  with  658  pounds  of  coffee,  in  addition  to  his  mo- 
lasses and  sugar.  On  July  30,  1792,  he  brought  a  varied 
cargo,  2344  gallons  molasses,  3456  pounds  of  coffee,  1761 
pounds  of  cotton,  365  pounds  of  sugar,  and  40  gallons  of  dis- 
tilled spirits. 

John  Heard*^  owned  the  barquentine  or  brig  "Sarah  and 
Elizabeth"  100  tons  burthen,  built  in  Ipswich  in  1784,  and 
named  for  his  two  daughters.     She  arrived  from  Guadaloupe, 
July,  1791,  with  18,127  gallons  of  molasses  and  in  the  fol- 
lowing August,  her  cargo  included   13,656  gallons  of  mo- 
lasses, 1154  pounds  of  sugar,  403  pounds  of  cotton.     The 
sloop  "Fox,"  73  tons,  N"ath.  Dennis,  master,  built  in  Ips- 
wich in  1786,  was  owned  by  Nath.  Dennis,  Jeremiah  Stani- 
ford,  Francis  Cogswell  and  Edward  Stacey.     John  Heard 
and  Jonathan  IngersoU  bought  the  "Fox"  in  1793  and  In- 
gersoU  was  Captain  on  a  trip  to  Guadaloupe.     Thomas  Kim- 
ball was  in  command  the  following  year.     Capt.  Ingersoll 
bought  the  sloop  "Nancy,"  61  tons,  in  1793  and  John  Inger- 
soll was  Master  on  a  voyage  to  Point  Petre.     In  later  years, 
Capt.  Jonathan  Ingersoll  commanded  the  ship,  "Union"  of 
Salem.     The  Ipswich  brig,  "Jenny,"  was  wrecked  in  a  gale 
in  May,  1783,  on  a  voyage  from  St.  Christopher's  and  her 
crew  and  passengers,  fifteen  in  number,  were  taken  off  by  the 
ship,  "Grand  Turk,"  and  brought  into  Salem. 

After  his  sea  faring  days  were  over,  Captain  Ephraim 
Kendall  engaged  in  trade  on  his  own  account.  He  owned 
the  66  ton  schooner,  "Susannah,"  built  in  1783,  and  named 
probably  for  his  wife,  Susannah  (Perkins),  and  the  60  ton, 
"Lucy,"  named  for  his  daughter.  Capt  Nathaniel  Tread- 
well  was  Master  of  the  "Lucy,"  which  brought  an  assorted 

*i  Mr.  Heard  wa«  engaered  In  foreign  commerce  as  well.     See  "AufirustliM 
Heard  and  his  Friends,"  Ips.  Htstor.  Soc.  Publications  XXI. 


KISUIXG  AND  COMMERCE  IN  THE   18tH  CENTURY.       247 

cargo  of  sugar,  salt,  cotton  and  spirits  from  St.  Martins  in 

May  30,  1791.     The  "Lucy,"  was  taken  at  St.  Pierre  in 

April,  1794  and  condemned,  and  Capt.  Treadwell  became 

Master  of  the  new  schooner  "Hope"  of  92  tons,  Ipswich 

built,  in  1794,  owned  by  Nath.  Dennis,  Ephraim  Kendall, 

John  Heard  and  Jonathan  IngersoU,  and  engaged  in  the  West 

India   trade.       Philip   Hammond,   having  left   the   Shats- 

wells,  was  master  of  the  *'Susannah,"  sailing  regularly  to 

the  West  Indies  and  bringing  return  cargoes  of  molasses, 

sugar,  coffee  and  cotton.     For  many  years  he  had  escaped 

all  the  dangers  of  the  sea,  and  the  deadly  fevers  of  the  West 

Indies,  but  in  Nov.  1797,  he  fell  a  victim,  while  on  the  coast 

of  the  Islands,   and  two  of  his  crew,  Daniel  Dodge  and 

Thomas  Manning,  died  at  the  same  time. 

Jabez  Farley  and  his  brother,  Robert,  were  actively  en- 
gaged in  these  trading  ventures.  A  bit  of  business  corre- 
spondence has  been  preserved. 

Ipswich,  January  5*^,  1785. 
Oapt.  !N^at.  Kinsman.     Sir 

Pleas  to  pay  Mr.  Andrew  Haraden  the  sum  of  three 
pounds  when  you  arrive  at  your  market  in  West  Indies  and 
Charg  the  Same  to  the  Schooner  Robert. 

yours  Most  Obedient, 

Jabez  Farley. 

At  the  same  time  Robert  Farley  sent  an  order  to  Capt. 
Kinsman  for  £2.  8\  He  was  Master  of  the  brigantine,  "Bet- 
sey," of  157  tons  in  1793,  which  was  sold  to  Boston  mer- 
chants the  following  year.  Jabez  was  the  father  of  fourteen 
children,  two  of  whom  died  in  infancy,  but  five  sons  and 
seven  daughters  grew  to  mature  life.  There  is  a  family 
remembrance  that  he  named  two  of  his  vessels,  "The  Five 
Brothers"  and  "The  Seven  Sisters."  He  was  of  a  nervous 
temperament  and  when  one  of  his  vessels  was  reported  in  the 
river,  he  sent  one  of  his  sons  or  a  servant  to  find  the  result 


248      IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOKY. 

of  the  voyage  and  shut  himself  up  at  home  until  the  report 
was  brought  him.  In  1790,  Captain  Kinsman  was  Master 
of  the  schooner,  "John"  of  60  tons,  owned  by  John  Patch, 
])reviou9ly  commanded  by  Thomas  Hodgkins. 

Joseph  Dennis  was  skipper  of  the  little  sloop,  "Polly,"  33 
tons,  in  1795.  The  schooner  "Sally,"  Capt.  Smith  of  Ips- 
wich, arrived  in  her  home  port  in  March  1798  from  Surinam, 
having  been  taken  by  the  English  frigate,  Concord,  and 
carried  into  Antigua,  but  "after  examination  of  papers  was 
treated  politely  and  permitted  to  depart  without  any  ex- 
penses." 

John  Perkins  was  at  sea  in  a  Xewburyport  ship  during 
the  French  Revolution  and  was  embargoed  at  Bordeaux, 
while  the  guillotine  was  claiming  its  victims.  His  letters 
to  his  widowed  mother  contain  items  of  family  interest,  and 
reveal  the  leisurely  methods  by  which  cargoes  were  disposed 
of  and  voyages  completed. 

Bordeaux,  Nov.  7,  1793. 
Honored  Mother 

....  After  we  saiPd  from  Newburyport  for  the  fourth 
day  we  had  a  heavy  gale  of  wind  but  by  good  luck  got  clear 
of  Nantucket  Shoals.  x\fter  that  we  had  pleasant  weather 
and  arrived  in  28  days  at  St.  Ans  in  Guadaloupe  and  laid 
there  till  the  9  day  of  Ju^y  and  then  sail'd  for  France  loaded 
with  coffee  and  sugar,  we  had  a  long  and  pleasant  passage 
were  68  days  upon  our  passage  and  have  laid  here  two 
months  and  sold  nothing  nor  dont  expect  to  sell  here  unless 
times  alter  we  should  have  gone  to  some  other  port  But 
all  vessels  have  been  embargoed,  we  shall  stay  till  Spring 
and  if  the  Captain  can't  sell  to  his  mind  will  go  to  some 
ether  port. 

Nathaniel  Hodgkins  arrived  here  a  week  ago,  he  says 
that  all  is  well  at  home  and  that  Uncle  Stanwood^^  is  gone 
to  the  west  Indies  and  is  like  to  make  good  voyage  we 
have  good  usage  on  board  and  nothing  to  do  but  play.     Bread 

•»  Capt.  Isaac  Stanwood.  who  married  Bunlce  Hodsrkins,  Feb.  26,  1778. 


'EISHINQ  AND  OOMMEBOE  IN  THE  18tH  OBNTUKY.       249 

is  very  scarce  here  and  all  other  provisions,  none  is  to  be 
Lad  for  love  or  money. 

your  dutiful  son, 

John  Perkins. 

A  second  letter  to  "widow  Elizabeth  Perkins"  is  dated, 

Bordeaux,  Dec.  4,  1793. 

Honoured  Mother. 

I  take  this  Opportunity  to  let  you  know  that  I  am  well 
and  hope  by  the  blessing  of  god  that  these  few  lines  you 
and  all  my  acquaintances  the  same,  we  have  been  here  this 
3  months  and  have  not  done  nothing.  , 

....  There  has  been  an  embargo  here  this  three  months, 
there  is  no  trade  at  all  only  cutting  off  people's  heads  six 
or  seven  every  day  ....  I  hope  to  get  home  in  the  spring, 
if  not  before,  but  imcertain,  there  is  no  provisions  in  the 
place  we  cannot  get  bread  the  people  on  shore  have  only  a 
Quarter  of  a  pound  a  day. 

give  my  love  to  all  enquiring  friends  grand  father**  and 
grandmother,  Uncles  and  Aunts,  Cousins  and  the  .... 

Your  dutiful  son, 

John  Perkins. 

*  John  Hodgklns,  carpenter,  and  wife,  Elizabeth. 


CHAPTER  XL 
Trades  and  Employments  of  the  18th  Centttry. 

While  the  fisheries  and  commerce  were  the  most  impor- 
tant industries  of  old  Ipswich,  a  great  variety  of  employments 
engaged  the  men  of  the  community.  In  common  with  all 
other  towns,  it  was  largely  a  self  supporting  unit,  and  the 
varied  needs  required  many  toilers.  Jonathan  Wade's  wind- 
mill, somewhere  on  Windmill  Hill,  disappeared  before  the 
close  of  the  seventeenth  century,  but  the  abundant  water 
power  was  utilized  to  the  fullest  advantage.  Grist  mills  and 
saw  mills  were  established  at  the  location  now  known  as 
Norwood's,  at  the  upper  and  lower  dams,  and  also  on  Egypt 
river.  ^ 

On  the  farms  the  same  primitive  methods  that  had  pre- 
vailed for  centuries  were  in  vogue.  The  ground  was  broken 
up  with  a  wooden  plough,  the  mould-board  tipped  with  an 
iron  point,  drawn  slowly  by  patient  oxen.  The  harrow  was 
a  clumsy  tool,  made  of  plank  with  great  iron  teeth.  The  com- 
mon farm  wagon  was  a  '^tumbril,"  with  two  huge  wheels 
and  axle,  all  of  wood,  save  the  tires.  Hand  labor  was  the 
only  method.  Planting  and  cultivating  were  done  by  the  man 
with  a  hoe.  Grain  was  reaped  with  a  sickle,  as  in  the  days 
of  Ruth  and  Boaz,  threshed  with  a  flail  in  the  wide  bam 
floor,  and  winnowed  with  broad  lipped  winnowing  baskets, 
shaped  like  a  huge  clam  shell  the  wind  blowing  away  the 
chaff  as  the  threshed  grain  fell  in  a  thin  shower.  Flax  was 
pulled  by  hand. 

^  See  Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I,  pp.  329,  461,  462,  487,  488, 
and  more  detailed  accounts  in  Publications  of  the  Ipswich  Hlstor.  Society, 
XIX.     See  also  Chapter  XXVII.  The  Textile  Industry. 

(250) 


TBADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    251 

The  day's  work  was  long  for  the  sumraer  passed  quickly. 

On  one  Candlewood  farm  not  more  than  seventy  years  ago, 

the  men  did  the  chores  soon  after  sunrise.     After  a  hearty 

breakfast,  the  field  work  began  while  the  dew  was  upon  the 

grass.     The  mowers  moved  in  regular  lines  about  the  field, 

stopping  in  the  mid-moming  for  the  ample  lunch,  with  a 

dram  of  liquor,  which  was  brought  them,  and  continuing 

till  noon.     A  hot  dinner,  another  lunch  in  the  afternoon  and 

supper  before   sundown  strengthened  them  for  their  toil 

TUitil  dark.     Many  men  made  light  work.     Two  or  three 

great  hay-wagons  were  filled  at  once  and  the  field  was  soon 

cleared. 

In  July,  1706,  as  labor  was  very  scarce,  the  men  of  the 
Milton  parish  offered  their  services  to  the  pastor,  Rev.  Peter 
Thacher  to  make  and  house  his  hay.  Bright  and  early  on 
Monday  morning,  there  were  no  less  than  twenty-six  men 
in  the  field,  "mowers  in  a  breast" ;  on  Wednesday  there  were 
fourteen  others  with  their  rakes ;  on  Thursday,  sixteen  more 
came.  The  correspondent,^  who  sent  the  item,  added  that 
"no  doubt,  there  was  a  competent  number  on  Friday  and 
Saturday  (though  not  come  to  our  knowledge)  to  carry  it 
into  the  bam."  The  modem  hay  field  with  its  mower, 
tedder,  rake  and  loader,  all  drawn  by  horses,  knows  nothing 
of  the  enthusiasm  of  the  parson's  haying  on  that  eventful 
week.  The  most  skilful  mower,  strongest  in  his  stroke  and 
best  able  to  keep  his  scythe  at  its  keenest  edge,  struck  in 
first  with  a  mighty  swath.  A  second  mower  started  close 
behind  and  by  the  time  the  last  man  got  into  line,  the  leader 
was  far  down  the  field.  Each  pressed  the  man  before  him 
and  kept  him  at  top  speed.  Each  strove  to  show  the  cleanest 
swath.  Round  and  round  the  great  field  that  line  of  mowers 
moved  in  rhythmic  swing,  their  scythes  gleaming,  the  worthy 
minister  cheering  them  on  with  his  approving  smile.  And 
when  the  other  neighbors  came  with  forks  and  rakes,  and 

*  Boston  News  Letter.  July  22,  1706. 


252       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    OOLOXY. 

the  creaking  ox-wagons,  the  field  was  full  of  life  and  color. 
There  was  much  good  natured  fun  at  lunch  time,  and  the 
longer  pause  for  the  toothsome  dinner,  that  the  good  'wives 
brought  no  doubt;  and  through  it  all,  there  was  that  good- 
fellowship,  that  cheerful  helpfulness  that  lightened  toil  and 
made  the  day  almost  a  holiday. 

After  the  English  hay  was   safely  housed,  the  "black- 
grass"  that  grows  between  the  upland  and  the  marsh,  "was 
cut  and  then,  when  the  right  course  of  tides  came,  the  vast 
stretches  of  salt  marsh  at  the  "Hundreds,"  and  all  along 
the  river  and  its  creeks,  were  invaded  with  a  great  army 
of  hay-makers.     On  the  nearer  and  more  accessible  marshes, 
the  hay  was  stacked  on  "staddles"   to  raise  it  above  the 
high  tides.     On  the  more  distant  Plum  Island  marshes,  the 
green  salt  hay  was  loaded  into  great  "gundalows,"  which 
were  rowed  slowly  with  hugh  oars  with  a  favoring  tide  to 
^ome  convenient  dock,  where  it  was  unloaded  and  loaded 
upon  the  farm  wagons.     Every  old  time  farmer  owned  his' 
marsh  lots  and  esteemed  them  a  valuable  asset.     The  long, 
coarse,  reedy  grass,  borne  by  the  thatch-banks,  which  are  sub- 
merged by  every  tide,  was  of  less  value  but  was  reckoned 
worth  the  getting  for  bedding  and  banking  about  the  build- 
ings and  covering. 

The  soil  of  the  Ipswich  farms  was  famously  adapted  for 
the  hay  crop,  and  the  teaming  of  it  to  market  with  the  slow 
ox-teams  was  tedious  and  wearisome  work.  An  old  farmer, 
who  died  many  years  ago,  used  to  tell  that  when  he  was 
a  young  man,  walking  beside  his  oxen  at  night  on  the 
home  trip,  he  often  threw  his  arm  over  the  yoke  and  fell 
asleep  walking,  or  climbed  into  the  empty  wagon  and  took 
a  nap,  trusting  his  team  to  keep  the  road.  He  had  no  holi- 
days. Thanksgiving  day  and  the  afternoon  of  the  Fourth 
of  July  were  all  he  knew. 

The  winter  brought  no  leisure.  The  care  of  the  catUe 
twice  a  day,  made  a  great  inroad  on  the  short  day.     There 


TSADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  OENTFBY.    253 

was  cutting  of  wood  in  tie  often  distant  wood  lots,  hauling 
it  home  and  working  it  up  into  proper  size  for  the  great 
fire  places.  The  minister's  allowance  of  thirty  or  forty  cords 
of  good  oak  or  walnut  was  probably  only  the  average  sup- 
ply, that  had  to  be  provided  on  every  farm  and  for  every 
household  of  the  better  sort. 

Many  a  farmer  had  his  little  shoe  shop,  and  plied  his 
trade  of  a  cordwainer  imtil  spring.  Many  were  carpen- 
ters and  every  one  found  a  multitude  of  things  to  be  done. 
For  a  few  weeks  in  winter,  the  boys  went  to  the  district 
school,  and  by  the  time  they  were  men  grown,  they  had 
gained  a  scant  working  knowledge  of  arithmetic,  and  some 
skill  in  the  use  of  the  quill. 

Glimpses  of  the  life  on  one  of  the  quiet  Linebrook  farms 
are  afforded  by  the  ancient  account  book  of  Abraham  Howe. 
He  began  his  record  in  the  latter  years  of  the  I7th  century. 
His  son  Lieut  Mark  continued  it  after  his  father's  death 
in  1717,  and  his  son,  Nathaniel,  kept  it  until  his  death. 
Abraham  Howe  was  the  son  of  James,  who  died  on  May 
17,  1701-2,  at  the  great  age  of  104  years,  and  brother  of 
James  Howe,  Jr.,  whose  latter  years  were  burdened  with 
his  own  blindness  and  the  heavy  grief  that  befell  his  family, 
when  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  was  arrested,  tried  for  witch- 
craft and  executed  in  the  fateful  year  1692.  The  bitterness 
of  that  heart-breaking  experience  and  the  natural  resent- 
ments against  the  neighbors  who  had  testified  against  the 
unfortunate  woman,  were  eased  by  the  lapse  of  years.  Of 
these  things,  the  old  book  contains  no  trace.  We  find  in  it 
only  the  record  of  those  every  day  events  which  were  hap- 
pening in  many  other  farm  houses  in  the  parish. 

Abraham  Howe  was  a  weaver,  as  his  father  had  been, 
and  his  accounts  preserve  items  of  his  trade:  weaving  22% 
yards  of  shirting,  cotton  and  linen,  for  7  shillings  8  pence, 
36%  yards  for  10  shillings,  and  weaving  of  cotton,  linen 
and  wool  a  yard  wide.     He  could  turn  his  hand  to  a  variety 


254      IPSWICH,    IN    THK    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    OOLOWY. 

of  employments.  He  did  slaughtering  for  his  neighbors 
and  carpentering.  With  his  own  hands  he  made  the  coffin 
for  his  venerable  father.  He  was  handy  with  his  quill, 
and  in  1703,  he  spent  a  day  in  writing  evidence  before  Mr. 
Samuel  Appleton,  Justice  of  the  Court,  and  was  at  IpsTvich 
Court  two  days  in  May.  In  1710,  he  joined  his  brother, 
Capt.  John  Howe  in  a  petition  to  the  General  Court  to  se- 
cure damages  to  his  nieces,  Mary  and  Abigail,  for  the  odium 
cast  upon  them  and  the  grief  and  loss  they  had  suffered  by 
the  death  of  their  mother. 

His  son,  Lieut.  Mark  Howe^  was  a  man  of  great  strength 
of  character  and  of  marked  aptitude  for  many  activities. 
He  was  a  farmer  first  of  all  and  after  the  summer  work 
was  done,  his  cider  mill  began  its  operations.     There  was 
hewing  of  timber  and  chopping  of  fuel  in  his  great  wood 
lots.     His  oxen  and  steers  hauled  a  great  keel-piece  to  town 
in  1751  for  some  ship  that  was  building,  and  in  1765  he 
delivered  a  huge  load  of  faggots,  200  bundles  at  the  door 
of  Deacon  Nathaniel  Low.     His  "He  nut"  bark  was  in  de- 
mand.    He  washed  and  sheared  sheep  for  his  brother  In- 
crease, the  tavern-keeper,  and  his  oxen  and  hired  man  did 
the  spring  plowing  on  other  farms. 

He  was  a  weaver,  too,  as  his  father  and  grandfather  had 
been,  and  wove  not  only  shirting  but  the  more  substantial 
all  wool  cloth.  From  his  loom,  it  passed  to  Robert  Calefs 
fulling  mill,  and  he  credited  Mr.  Calef 

9  May,  1718,  by  15  yards  of  drogid  that  you  fulde  died 
and  sheard  &  prest  at  eleaven  pence  per  year(d)  13-9 

His  account  with  clerk  Nehemiah  Abbott,  (1754)  credited 

29  May,  1755,  by  your  wife  spooling  and  warping  a  piece 

12-0 
11  Aug.  1756,  by  stilling  3  pints  of  mother  time  &  other 

herbs  0-  2-  6 

25  Sept.,  by  making  a  shirt  for  me  of  fine  cloth  13-  0 

22  Oct,  by  stilling  spearmint  6  quarts  8-  0 


T&ADES  ANJ>  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    255 

Domestic  service  was  rendered  generally  by  young  girls. 
Daniel  Chapman's  daughter  Abigail  came  to  live  with  him 
ill  1742  at  an  agreed  wage  of  £12  a  year,  but  she  tired  of 
her   bargain  at  the  end  of  a  single  month.       The  widow 
Priehet  came  to  the  house  in  February,  1759,  but  went  home 
lame   in   March.     Eebecca   Smith   undertook    the   task   in 
April,  but  went  to  Thomas  Baker's  in  May.       Mrs.  Pegge 
Daniels  came  in  June  and  stayed  until  November,  and  Re- 
becca   returned    for    further    service    during    the    autumn. 
But  young  Hannah  Lakeman  held  by  loyally.     She  was 
bound  to  him  apparently  until  her  eighteenth  year.     After 
she  had  attained  that  age,  her  service  was  voluntary  and 
in  place  of  a  money  wage,  she  called  upon  her  employer  to 
furnish  wearing  apparel  and  finery  as  she  required.     Be- 
ginning with  April,  1750,  Lieut.  Howe  provided  her,  be- 
side more  ordinary  supplies,  a  gold  ring,  a  velvet  hood  and 
lace  to  it,  at  a  cost  of  £5-18-6 ;  a  pair  of  pumps  and  a  pair 
of  red  stockings;  in  Jan.,  1751,  a  broad  cloth  cloak  and 
making  £9-9-0;  silk  for  a  bonnet  and  the  making  of  it; 
and  in  January,  1753,  a  silk  crape  gown  £11 :  14,    a  veil 
£1 :  10,  a  black  handkerchief  £1 :  5,  and  a  fan  8s. 

If  the  young  Hannah  were  the  daughter  of  Solomon  and 
Hannah  Lakeman,  as  seems  probable,  her  expensive  mourn- 
ing garb  may  have  been  purchased  in  anticipation  of  the 
death  of  her  father,  which  occurred  on  Feb.  24,  1753  and 
her  step-mother,  on  Feb  18***. 

Amos  Jewett,  the  tailor,  came  to  the  farm  several  times 
a  year  and  made  and  repaired  the  clothes  of  the  family. 
His  skill  was  such  that  he  even  did  the  work  of  milliner 
and  dress  maker.     His  account  is  interesting. 

April  1750,  by  part  of  2  days  making  clothes  for 

Thaniel  1-0-0 

9  June,  1750,  by  making  a  coat  for  me  2-  5-  0 

Dec.,  1750,  by  making  three  coats  for  y®  boys  &  cut- 

ingjackits  ^  3-10-  0 


12- 

0 

1-   0- 

0 

6- 

0 

8- 

0 

9-   0- 

0 

8- 

0 

1-10- 

0 

12- 

0 

6- 

0 

256       IPSWICK,    IN    THE    MASSAOHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY, 

11  Feb.,  1750-1,  by  part  of  a  day  making  a  coat  for 
Philemon 

7  Aug.,  1751,  by  making  a  linen  jacket  for  me 
3  Dec,  1751,  by  mending  a  pare  of  leather  britches 
forme 
20  Dec,  1751,  by  part  of  a  day  making  leather 

britches  for  Mark 
y®  same  day  by  a  yard  of  red  broad  cloth  for  a  cloak 
22  Jan.,  1751-2,  by  making  a  cloak  &  trimming 
&  by  two  days  Tallering  turning  a  coat 
11  Nov.,  1752,  by  making  two  bonnets 

8  Dec,  1752,  by  making  a  gown  for  Hephzibah 
24  Nov.,  1753,  by  making  a  gown  for  hanah,  gloves 

&cap  "  1-7-  0 

Ezekiel  Potter  worked  two  days  and  a  night  making  a 
great  coat  for  him  in  17C8.  The  cordwainer  came  and 
mended  and  made  the  foot-gear  for  the  whole  family  and 
the  accounts  with  John  Lord  and  Thomas  Lord,  the  hatters, 
were  settled  in  felt  hats  and  castor  hats.  Job  Whipple,  the 
tinker,  looked  in  as  he  went  his  rounds,  mended  the  pewter- 
ware,  the  skillets  and  brass  kettles,  set  glass  as  needed,  *'ran" 
pewter  spoons  in  his  spoon-mould,  and  took  his  pay  in  wood, 
bark  and  butter. 

His  neighbors  had  few  needs  that  he  could  not  satisfy. 
When  Samuel  Potter  was  sick  unto  death,  he  wrote  his  will 
and  afterwards  assisted  the  executors  in  their  task.  He 
"pricked"  a  book  of  tunes  for  David  Neland.  He  cured 
lame  horses  and  sick  cows.  He  acted  as  village  barber  for 
the  little  group  of  families.  He  made  a  charge  against  Caleb 
Foster, 

13  Sept.,  1730,  by  cuting  your  hair  &  trimming  of  you  0-  0-  4 
and  against  Thomas  Potter, 

5  Nov.,  1733,  by  taking  of  your  beard  for  ye*  year 

past  &  more,  which  was  68  times  0-17-  0 


TRADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.  257 

Hemote  from  doctors,  and  confident  of  the  efficacy  of  home- 
ly remedies  for  minor  aihnents,  the  Linebrook  neighborhood 
may  have  summoned  the  excellent  Lieutenant  as  their  medi- 
cal adviser.  Certain  it  is  that  some  wonderful  concoctions 
had  attained  high  standing  in  the  Howe  family  and  were 
recorded  in  the  old  book. 

For  feaver  Take  bam  isop  EUicompan  root  boyle  them  in 
spring  watter  for  pain  in  y®  loins  take  wild  sallindine  for  a 
diat  drink  Balm  sage  watter  &  rushes  one  handful  of  each 
yarrow  spruse  a  handfull  of  each  elder  budds  two  handfulls 
horse  radish  root  &  burdock  each  nounc  fenell  roots  parsely 
roots  one  nounce  burdock  sed  nounce  fenell  seed  &  parsely 
seed  of  each  half  an  nounce  for  to  cure  the  quensy  draw  3 
blisters  one  behind  y®  neck  one  under  each  ear  lay  a  plaster 
of  diapalmer  to  y®  throat  &  give  salit  oyl  &  manna  .... 
&  for  drink  bovl  little  nettles  and  dissolve  allum  in  it. 

or  this,  blister  under  each  ear  one  on  each  rist  for  drink 
boil  y*  green  of  elder  fill  y*  stomak  well  with  it. 

Mark  and  Hepbzebah  Howe  suffered  a  dreadful  affliction 
in  the  month  of  November,  1736,  when  their  whole  family 
of  eight  children  was  swept  away  by  an  epidemic  of  throat 
distemper  in  twenty  three  days.  Four  more  were  born, 
Mark,  Xathaniel,  Philemon  and  Hephzebah.  At  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  French  and  Indian  war,  Lieut  Howe,  then 
just  sixty  years  old,  unbroken  by  toil  and  sorrow,  gathered 
a  squad  of  soldiers  who  went  with  him  in  Captain  Stephen 
Whipple's  company  to  Crown  Point.  His  son,  Mark,  lackinii; 
six  months  of  eighteen,  on  the  day  of  his  enlistment,  went 
with  him.  The  boy,  Philemon,  was  too  young  then  to  be  a 
soldier,  but  a  few  years  later,  he  joined  the  expedition  against 
Louisbourg  and  died  there  in  June,  1759,  lacking  a  week 
of  eighteen. 

The  principal  farm  crops  beside  the  hay  were  Indian  com, 
rye,  barley  and  some  wheat,  and  the  common  garden  vege- 
tables, cabbages,  squashes,  pumpkins,  potatoes,  etc.     A  seed 


258       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

list  of  1748  advertised  Savoy  cabbages,  potatoes,    endives, 
mangoes,  celery,  etc.     A  list  in  the  Boston  Gazette   March 
25,  1755  mentioned  Early  Hotspur,  Early  Charlton,  Spanish 
Murretts,  marrowfat  and  dwarf  peas;  Hotspur,  Sandwich 
and  Windsor  large  beans,  bush  and  pole  varieties ;  asparagus, 
cauliflower,  spinach,  parsley,  melons,  etc     The  Essex  Ga- 
zette of  Feb.  7,  1769  published  a  long  list  of  seeds,  freshly 
imported  from  London,  offered  by  Benjamin  Coats,  near  the 
school  house  in  Salem.     It  included  Blue  Marrowfat,  ILarge 
Marrowfat,  Golden  Hotspur  and  crooked  sugar  peas;  large 
Windsor,  early  Hotspur  and  early  Lisbon  beans;  early  yel- 
low,  scarlet  and  orange  carrot;  early  Dutch,  early  York- 
shire, early  Battersea,  early  sugar  loaf,  red  and  large  win- 
ter cabbage  and  cauliflower,  green  and  yellow  Savoy  celery, 
green  and  white  endive ;  salmon,  scarlet  and  London  radish ; 
best  curled  pepper  grass,  summer  and  winter  spinach ;  curie*! 
and  hambo  parsley  cabbage,  white,  goss  and  imperial  lettuce, 
early  and  late  cucumber,  long  Turkey  cucumber,  early  and 
late    turnips,    summer   and   winter   savory,    red    and   white 
clover,  red  top  Lucern,  Burnet  and  herds  grass,  and  herbs  in 
variety,  hyssop,  thyme,  sweet  marjoram,  lavender  and  rose 
mary. 

But  the  work  of  the  women  on  the  farms  was  harder  even 
than  that  of  the  men.  Upon  them  fell  a  multitude  of  tasks 
which  have  almost  been  forgotten ;  the  making  of  candles, 
butter  and  cheese,  the  cutting  and  stringing  of  apples,  the 
spinning  of  flax  and  wool,  the  knitting  of  stockings  and  mit- 
tens, the  weaving  of  linen  for  sheets,  napkins  and  fine  im- 
derwear,  and  the  homespun  woolen  cloths  for  the  outer  gar- 
ments. After  the  long  web  was  finished,  many  a  good  wife 
was  tailor  and  dress  maker.  Xo  wonder  the  day  was  not  long 
enough  and  the  evening  hours  were  spent  in  sewing  the  end- 
less seams,  or  knitting  or  spinning. 

But  men  had  their  work  in  finishing  the  nicer  fabriCvS. 
In  the  middle  of  the  century,  there  was  a  group  of  weavers, 


TBADES  ANT)  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    259 

Elisha  Brown,  William  Campanel,  Nathaniel  and  Jacob  Low, 
George  Newman,  Daniel  Safford  and  Stephen  Kinsman,  who 
made  fine  cloth  for  men's  wear,  and  when  they  had  woven 
it,  it  went  to  the  clothier  to  be  dyed  and  finished.  Caleb 
Warner,  the  clothier,  was  engaged  upon  a  piece  of  brown 
-woolen,  13  yards  in  length,  and  some  blue  drugget  cloth,  when 
Caesar,  alias  Aniball,  a  mulatto  laboring  man,  broke  in  and 
stole  the  goods. 

There  were  tailors  in  abundance,  some  of  whom,  at  least, 
'went  from  house  to  house,  making  new  garments  and  mak- 
ing over  the  old:  Mager  Gould,  John  Wise,  Jr.,  Daniel 
Ringe,  Joseph  Wilcome,  Stephen  Smith,  Joseph  Fellows, 
Aaron  Lord,  Daniel  Koss,  Samuel  Robins  and  Archelaus 
Lakeman  were  all  plying  their  craft  in  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  John  Chapman  and  Richard  Sutton 
had  the  field  to  themselves  as  "leather-breeches  makers." 

The  "eordwainer,"  too.  was  a  valued  member  of  the  com- 
munity. In  the  midcentury  there  were  John  and  Joseph 
Rrown,  Jr.,  Edmimd,  Nathaniel  and  Samuel  Heard,  Jere- 
miah Chapman,  John  Hodgkins  and  Joseph  Hodgkins,  the 
Revolutionary  Colonel  of  later  days,  Daniel  Lord  and  Lieut. 
Isaac  Martin,  who  were  known  and  styled  "cordwainers"  or 
shoemakers  and  probably  gave  all  their  time  to  their  trade. 
Leather  for  their  use  was  provided  by  the  tanners  and  cur- 
riers. The  ancient  tannery  of  Sergeant  Thomas  Hart,  by 
the  brook  near  Mr.  Ralph  W.  Burnham's  on  Linebrook  road, 
was  carried  on  for  generations,  and  Thomas  Xorton  had 
his  tan  vats  by  the  brook  on  the  South  side,  known  earlier 
as  Saltonstall's,  then  as  Norton's  brook,  on  the  grounds  of 
Mr.  Henry  Brown.  In  1762,  Benjamin  Lamson  from 
Xewbury  set  up  his  tannery,  which  passed  at  once  into  the 
hands  of  John  Farley,  who  carried  it  on  for  many  years 
and  passed  it  to  his  sons.  The  old  tan  and  bark  house  and 
the  currying  shop  were  used  finally  by  the  Worths  and 
Stackpoles  for  their  soap  manufactory.     The  Giles  Firmiii 


260       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Garden  now  occupies  the  site  of  this  old  time  industry. 
On  Market  St.,  Michael  Farley  set  up  his  tan  works  in  1755. 

Joseph  Kimball  plied  the  same  trade  at  this  period  on  the 
Topsfield  road.  Thomas  Smith,  Richard  Sutton  and  John 
Fitts  were  leather  dressers. 

The   guild  of  hatters  was  located  chiefly  on  High   St. 
Samuel  Baker,  James  Fitts,  Caleb,  Isaac,  John,  Nathaniel 
and  Samuel  Lord,  Daniel  Day  and  James  Smith  were  all 
felt-makers  or  hatters.     The  hatter  bought  his  raccoon  and 
other  skins  from  the  hunters  and  trappers,  and  by  various 
cunning  processes  transformed  them  by  beating  and  shaping 
on  wooden  forms  into  hats.     Every  well  dressed  man  in  the 
mid-century  needed  a  wig  as  well  as  a  hat.     Ebenezer  Stan- 
wood  and  Deacon  Thomas  Knowlton,  peruke-makers,  Patrick 
Farrin,  periwig-maker,  and  William  Dennis,  plain  barber, 
served  the  public  on  North  Main  Street. 

The  variety  and  delicacy  of  the  peruke-maker's  trade  is 
indicated  by  the  advertisement*  of  John  Crosby,  a  Boston 
member  of  that  craft.     He  invited  attention  to  his 

grey  and  light-grey  feather  top  dress  Wigs,  London  made, 
finished  off  in  a  workman  like  manner,  the  neatest  new 
fashion  large,  wig  and  hair  black  bags,  curling  tongs  and 
tupee  irons,  body'd  grizzle  hairs  curled  and  ready  to  work, 
brown  hairs,  black,  brown  and  pale  horse  hairs,  white  goat 
hair,  bleached  tye,  grizzle  crowns,  and  moy  ditto,  fine  China 
and  raw  silk,  narrow  and  broad  ribbons,  and  some  very  nar- 
row for  bag  wigs,  cauls,  neat  tupee  combs  in  cases  setting 
combs  for  to  dress  half  cut  wigs  and  all  other  combs  suitable 
for  a  peruke-maker's  shop,  also  hair  powder,  high  perfumed 
hard  black  and  white  pomatum  and  gum  pomatum,  excellent 
with  its  use  to  keep  hair  in  place  when  drest  and  to  make 
hair  grow  thicker,  English  black  ball  etc. 

The  honorable  trade  of  the  carpenter  gave  employment 
to  many,  for  his  task  was  not  merely  to  frame  and  construct 

s  Boston  Gazette.  May  24,  Nov.  8.  1762. 


TRADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    261 

the  house,  but  to  make  the  doors,  window  sashes  and  shut- 
ters, the  fine  panelled  wainscot,  the  elaborate  comer  cup- 
boards, mantel-pieces  and  cornices,  and  the  artistic  stair- 
cases, which  still  adorn  not  a  few  of  the  old  Ipswich  dwell- 
ings. Abraham  Knowlton  was  a  master  of  his  craft.  The 
beautiful  old  pulpit  and  sounding  board,  which  he  built 
for  the  new  meeting  house  of  the  First  Parish  in  1749, 
Btill  preserved  in  the  tower-room  of  the  present  edifice, 
attests  his  skill.  The  old  pulpit  of  the  South  Church,  built 
in  1747  and  still  preserved,  may  have  been  the  handiwork 
of  Deacon  Joseph  Appleton,  the  South  side  carpenter  and 
one  of  the  first  Deacons  of  the  new  church.  Besides  these, 
there  were  Thomas  Bumham,  William  Baker,  John  Hodg- 
kins,  Joseph  Lord,  Nathaniel  Kimball,  Francis  Goodhue, 
Nathaniel  Perkins,  Joseph  Smith,  John  Finder,  Joseph 
Fowler,  Daniel  Low  and  William  Treadwell,  and  a  goodly 
number  of  apprentices  as  well,  bound  out  to  learn  the  trade. 

Elisha  Newman,  John  and  William  Appleton,  Daniel, 
Joseph,  Nathaniel  and  Moses  Lord,  Jeremiah  Kimball, 
Daniel  Lummus,  John  Binge  and  Daniel  Smith  were  cabi- 
net makers,  many  of  them  having  shops  on  High  St.,  where 
John  Brown  plied  his  trade  as  a  turner.  Daniel  Potter  on 
Windmill  Hill  was  a  cunning  maker  of  chairs,  and  Moses 
Lord,  Jr.  followed  the  same  calling  in  1790. 

Abner  Harris  had  his  ship-building  yard  at  the  foot 
of  Summer  Street,  then  known  as  Ship-yard  Lane.  Capt 
Gideon  Parker,  a  soldier  of  the  French  and  Kevolutionary 
wars,  built  his  vessels  in  the  Cove  ship-yard.  James  Bum- 
ham  and  Jabez  Treadwell  were  coopers.  Daniel  Binge  was 
a  chaise  maker. 

Near  of  kin  to  carpenter  and  ship-builder  and  carriage- 
maker  was  the  blacksmith,  who  made  all  the  iron  work, 
hinges,  latches  and  bolts,  braces  and  tires,  horse  shoes,  spikes 
and  nails  even,  until  the  cut  nail  was  produced. 

Samuel  Ross  had  his  smithy  on  the  ledge  in  front  of  the 


262     ipswicir,  in  the  Massachusetts  bay  coi-oxy. 

old  Seminary  building  and  found  room  there  for  house,  shop 
and  barn.     The  music  of  his  anvil  filled  the  center  of  the 
town  and  before  it  was  lost,  it  was  taken  up  by  Jonathan 
Prince,  whose  shop  and  dwelling  were  on  the  site  of  the  late 
N".  Scott  Kimball's  dwelling.     Nathaniel  Foster's  shop  was 
by  the  river  side,   near  the  Abner  Harris   shipyard,   and 
Samuel  Lord's  was  on  High  St.       Benjamin  Brown  plied 
his  trade  on  the  triangular  grass  plot  in  Candlewood,  where 
the  road  to  Hamilton   curves  from  the  Essex  Road,   and 
William  Brown  Jr.  had  his  shop  near  the  engine  house  in 
the  same  neighborhood.     Nathaniel  Perkins,  Jonathan  Bur- 
nam  and  Moses  Pickard  were  men  of  the  hammer  and  anvil 
as  well. 

One  goldsmith,  Daniel  Rogers,  found  room  for  his  trade. 
Richard  Farran,  the  gimvSmith,  was  drowned  on  Ipswich  bar 
in  May,  1761.  Ammi  R.  Wise  was  a  "white-smith."  Sone 
artisans  seem  to  have  had  a  monopoly  of  their  craft.  John 
Choate,  the  axe-maker,  whose  account  with  the  storekeeper, 
Dummer  Jewett,  gives  him  credit  for  6  axes  @  45y/  £13- 
10-0  and  6  hoes  @  25/  £7-10-0 ;  Joseph  Low,  baker;  Samuel 
Piatt,  oat-meal  maker;  Xathan  Pierce,  chocolate  maker, 
Aaron  Smith,  clock-maker  in  1776  ;  Samuel  Williams,  saddler 
and  Job  Whipple,  the  travelling  tinker.  Jeremiah  Dodge 
was  a  mason,  but  there  must  have  been  others,  for  the  brick- 
laying and  plastering,  and  brick  makers  as  well. 

But  the  village  shop-keeper,  taking    it  all  in  all,  was  the 
most  useful  man  in  the  community  for  the  every  day  needs 

of  life.     Dummer  Jewett's  account  books  for  the  vears  1760 

•J 

to  1764  reveal  the  infinite  varietv  of  his  stock  in  trade  and 
the  numberless  ways  in  which  he  was  able  to  be  of  service 
to  his  townsmen.  Food  supplies  were  always  in  demand, 
but  some  were  bought  in  microscopic  quantities.  Rev. 
Jedediah  Jewett  of  Rowley  was  not  ashamed  to  buy  a  half 
ounce  of  tea,  for  a  shilling  eight  pence  Old  Tenor*  and  a 

*  The   Old   Tenor  currency   was  so  much  depreciated   that  Mr.   Jewett 
notes  an  exchange  of  £2  5s  0  for  a  dollar. 


TRADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18t1I  CENTURY.    263 

quarter  pound  for  twelve  shillings  six.  Coffee  and  choco- 
late seem  to  have  been  in  greater  demand.  Oat  meal,  doled 
out  by  the  quart,  was  sold  occasionally.  In  one  instance, 
Capt.  John  Baker  bought  a  barrel  of  flour  for  £13-11-0  O.  T. 
Figs  and  currants  served  for  dainties. 

His  counters  groaned  under  their  weight  of  dress  fabrics. 
The   age  of  ready  made  clothing  was  just  at  hand,  as  is 
evident  from  Capt.  Thomas  Staniford's  purchase  of  a  ^*great 
coat  readv  made"  for  £27-19-3.     He  was  the  master  of  the 
schooner   "Saunders"   and  the  exigency  of  an   unexpected 
voyage  may  have  required  a  sudden  purchase.     Invariably 
the    town  tailors  made  men's  clothing  and  when  a  winter 
coat  or  a  fine  Sunday  suit  was  needed,  the  whole  pattern  of 
goods,  with  trimmings,  buttons,  silk  and  thread,  was  selected 
at  the  store.     Fine  and  costly  fabrics,  in  bright  and  splen- 
did colors,  were  in  constant  demand.     Capt.  John  Farley, 
the  tanner,  had  two  and  a  half  yards  of  broadcloth,  and  a 
like    quantity  of  scarlet  shalloon.     Michael  Farley  bought 
for  his  wear,  3  yards  dark  ratteen  at  52  shillings  six  pence 
a  yard,  scarlet  shalloon  and  a  nail  and  a  half  of  velvet. 
Capt  Moses  Wells  of  Argilla  had  5  yards  of  claret  beaver 
coating.     Rev.  Jedediah  Jewett  ordered  13  yards  of  crim- 
son callimanco,  at  a  cost  of  £10-8-0,  3  yards  black  broad 
cloth  for  £22-10-0,   3^4   yards  of  checked   drugget  and   a 
yard  and  a  half  of  quattely.     Dr.    Calef  bought  crimson 
tammy,   white   tammy   and   a    pair   of   small   green    shoes. 
Capt.  Charles  Smith  had  2  yards  of  padusoy,  some  crimson 
baize  and  pair  of  callimanco  shoes  which  cost  £2.     Edward 
Kneeland,   the  school  master  is  credited  with  7  yards  of 
drawboy  and  4%  yards  of  anteloon. 

David  Andrews  bought  a  scarlet  cap  and  Purchase  Jewett 
a  green  cap.  Joseph  Fowler  allowed  himself  the  luxury 
of  a  Bengal  gown.  Elizabeth  Hovey  purchased  a  "patch 
chintz"  at  the  extravagant  figure  of  £19  and  Abraham  Howe, 
the  Linebrook  farmer,  ordered  a  suit  of  curtains  at  an  ex- 


264       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COIX>NY. 

pense  of  £35.  Calico,  striped  hoUand,  bearskin,  kersey, 
capuchin  silk,  alamode,  sagatha,  green  cambleteen,  ever- 
lasting, dowlas,  striped  camblet,  tabaret,  Bilboa  and  Bar- 
celona handkerchiefs,  Irish  linen,  yard  wide  at  30/  and 
linen  handkerchiefs,  diaper  and  cambric,  thickset,  mohair, 
serge  and  buckram,  all  found  place  on  his  shelves.  Pink, 
green  and  brown  brolio,  apron  check,  fine  and  coarse  fustian, 
Damascus  for  waistcoats  at  45/  per  yard,  plain  and  mas- 
queraded Bengal,  black,  brown  and  green  Persian  were  in 
stock.  English  lace,  too,  foimd  a  market,  though  the  lace 
pillow  was  found  in  every  household  and  many  beautiful 
patterns  were  wrought. 

When  death  came,  there  was  need  of  mourning  apparel. 
The  widow  Ann  Boardman  required  a  lawn  handkerchief, 
which  cost  £2,  bombazeen,  fringe  and  lawn.  Andrew  Bur- 
ley  provided  9  pair  men's  white  gloves  and  5  pair  men's 
black  gloves,  presumably  for  his  wife's  funeral.  Isaac  Wood- 
bury of  the  Hamlet  ordered  two  black  handkerchiefs  and  a 
dozen  long  pipes. 

For  sickness  in  the  family,  Mr.  Jewett  carried  a  large 
supply  of  drugs  and  medicines,  Stoughton's  Elixir,  Turlin- 
ton  Balsam  of  Life,  Bateraan's  Drops,  and  the  familiar 
snake-root  and  senna,  Spanish  flies  for  blisters  and  blister- 
ing salve,  spirits  of  lavender  for  head-ache,  syrup  of  marsh 
mallows  and  camomile  flowers.  A  note  in  the  margin  rec- 
ommends "camamile  flowers  good  bracer  after  a  vomit, 
choice  tea  for  breakfast." 

China  and  the  cheaper  earthen  ware,  tin  and  pewter,  tea 
kettles  and  great  brass  kettles,  which  hung  in  every  fire 
place  and  retailed  at  £16,  8s,  hardware  of  every  sort,  nails, 
hinges,  locks,  guns,  powder,  shot  and  flints,  writing  paper, 
slates  and  pencils.  Bibles  and  other  books,  spectacles  and 
half  hour  glasses,  awaited  purchasers.  Col.  Rogers  bought 
a  chafing  dish  for  £35. 

Much  of  this  extensive  trade  was  for  barter.     Jeremiah 


TRADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    265 

Sniith  had  a  case  of  knives  to  be  paid  for  in  wood,  and 
Thoinas  Perley  of  Boxford  bargained  for  cloth,  to  be  paid 
for  in  oak  bark.  Mager  Gould  made  coat  and  breeches  for 
little  Dummer  and  took  his  pay  in  goods.  The  cordwainer's 
account  for  making  and  mending  shoes  for  the  family  was 
paid  in  similar  fashion. 

Col.  Samuel  Rogers  brought  in  quantities  of  the  fragrant 
bay  berry  tallow,  17%  pounds  at  one  time.  Mr.  Jewett 
"bought  all  the  flax-seed  which  the  farmers  offered  and  as 
it  was  bought  in  lots  of  four,  six  and  even  eight  bushels, 
it  is  evident  that  the  raising  of  flax  and  the  production  of 
linen  was  an  important  industry.  In  the  fall  of  1760,  he 
bought  a  full  hundred  bushels  of  flax  seed.  A  large  part  of 
this  was  sold  to  a  Mr.  Gibbons,  an  Irishman,  on  jSTov.  12th, 
5  hogsheads,  containing  37^/2  bushels  at  35  shillings  and  5 
hogsheads  at  30  shillings  a  bushel,  a  total  charge  of  £73-2-6, 
under  which  the  thrifty  tradesman  entered. 

now  due  to  me,  but  question  whether  shall  ever  get  it, 

except  he  proves  an  honest  Irish  man,  which  is  doubtfull. 

« 

A  week  later  he  entered, 

The  Fellow  has  gone  into  y®  Southern  Goverments  a  pedling 
as  that  is  his  professed  business. 

Honey,  beef,  mutton,  hides,  hay,  apples,  potatoes,  butter 
and  cheese  were  credited  to  his  customers.  He  dealt  in 
lumber,  shingles  and  laths,  and  provided  white  lead  and 
oil  for  painting  the  meeting  house  of  the  First  Parish  in 
July,  1764.  In  June,  1760,  he  acted  as  the  Ipswich  agent 
in  selling  twenty-one  tickets  in  the  Newbury  lottery  at  two 
dollars  apiece.  His  horse  was  hired  out  to  any  patron 
who  needed  to  travel  to  Boston  or  elsewhere.  If  a  deed 
must  be  recorded,  it  was  left  with  him.  John  Choate 
brought  his  axes  to  be  sold,  if  possible,  and  ordered  a  sea- 


266     IPSWICH,  ix  the  Massachusetts  bay  colon^y. 

coat  to  be  bought  in  Boston,  for  which  he  deposited  seven 
dollars.  Another  tradesman  left  a  pair  of  leather  breeches 
to  await  sale. 

But  the  trade  in  rum  was  perhaps  the  largest  item   in 
his  business  and  it  must  have  involved   a  large   force   of 
clerks  to  attend  to  the  throng  of  customers  who  came  daily 
for  their  portion.     The  Colony   Law  required  an   account 
of  purchases  and  sales  and  Mr.  Jewett's  book  reveals   his 
purchase  of  14  barrels  of  rum  in  1761,  19  barrels  in  1762 
and  at  least  50  barrels  in  1763.     A  considerable  portion  of 
this  was  sold  in  bulk  to  the  various  inn-keepers,  much  of  it 
was  shipped  to  Virginia  in  the  trading  schooner,  "Saunders," 
in  which  Mr.  Jewett  owned  an  interest,  but  a  great  quan- 
tity remained,  which  was  sold  over  the  counter.     The  minis- 
ters and  doctors,  his  own  honored  mother,  and  nearly  all 
the  town's  folk  seem  to  have  had  credit  on  his  books.     Their 
purchases  were  moderate  in  the  main,  but  there  were  many 
who  needed  their  dailv  dram.     The  account  of  one  citizen 
for  rum  alone  was  £52  for  eight  months,  the  equivalent  of 
35  gallons,  bought  in  two  quart  portions.     His  account  con- 
tained but  one  item  of  liquor  of  another  sort,  a  small  amount 
of  brandy.     New  England  rum  and  that  alone,  seems  to  have 
been  the  universal  beverage  of  the  Town. 

This  busy  man  of  affairs  came  from  Xewbury  and  married 
Mary  Staniford,  Dec.  12,  1754.  He  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  Major  Samuel  Epes,  who  died  »Tune  30,  1761. 
Mr.  Jewett  died  on  Oct.  26,  1788,  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven, 
and  his  son,  Richard  Dummer  succeeded  him  in  the  business. 
His  son,  Israel  Kinsmlan  Jewett  followed  him,  and  Israel 
Kinsman  Jewett,  Junior,  of  the  fourth  successive  generation, 
was  associated  with  his  father,  and  succeeded  him  in  the 
business. 

But  Mr.  Jewett  did  not  enjoy  a  monopoly  of  trade,  and 
some  of  his  competitors  resorted  to  advertising  in  the  Essex 
Gazette,   the  Salem  weekly  newspaper,  which  undoubtedly 


TBADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  OENTUfiY.    267 


circulated  in  Ipswich,  .to  promote  their  business.  The  ear- 
liest which  has  come  to  our  notice  is  the  following,  which 
appeared  on  April  28,  1772. 

Imported  in  the  last  ships  from  London  and  to  be  sold  by 

Joseph  Gowen 

At  his  Apothecary  SHOP  in  Ipswich. 

A  general  Assortment  of 

DRUGS       and      MEDICINES 

and  the  most  famous  patented  medicines  all  just  imported. 

Among  which  are 
Dr.  Hills  Balsam  Honey  for     British  Oyl 


Dr.  Scott's  Powder  for  the 
Teeth 

Dr.  Story's  worm-destroying 
Cakes 

Dr.  Baker's  Seaman's  Bal- 
sam 

The  celebrated  Volatile  Es- 
sence for  the  Head 

Marv  Banister's  Golden  Tre- 
acle. 

Swinson's  Electuary  for  the 
Stone  and  Gravel. 

British  Herb  Snuff  for  the 
Head. 

Curwin's  Issue  Plaisters  (to 
stick  without  filleting) 

Ladv's  Court  Plaister 

t. 

Dr.  Godfrey's  Cordial 
Chase's  Asthmatick  Pills 
Dr.  Anderson's  Pills 
Hooper's  Female  Pills 
Frances's  Female  Elixir. 
Alum,   Copperas,  Brimstone 
Redwood,    Logwood,    Cin- 
namon, Mace,  Cloyes,  Nut- 
megs etc. 
Also  Raisins.   Currants,  Prunes,  Salt-Petre,  Sugar  Candy 
and  Barley  Sugar. 


Consumptions. 

Dr.  James's  Feyer  Powders 

Dr.  Stoughton's  Bitters  or  the 
great  Cordial  Elixir  for 
the  stomach. 

Dr.  Bateman's  Drops 

Walter  Lake's  Health-restor- 
ing Pill 

The  famous  Anodyne  Neck- 
lace recommended  by  Dr. 
Chamberlain  for  the  easy 
breeding  of  Children's 
Teeth.  Children  on  the 
very  brink  of  the  Grave 
and  thought  past  all  Re- 
covery with  their  Teeth 
have  almost  miraculously 
recovered  after  having 
wore  the  famous  Anodyn 
Necklace  only  a  few  days. 
A  Mother  then,  would 
never  forgive  herself, 
whose  Child  should  die  for 
Want  of  so  easy  a  Remedy 
for  its  Teeth 


268       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

Those  who  please  to  favour  him  with  their  Custom  may 
depend  on  the  best  Usage. 

Ezekiel  Dodge  followed  the  example  set  by  the  Apothecary 
and  inserted  his  advertisement  in  the  issue  of  May  19,  1772. 

Imported  in  the  last  Ships  from  London  and  to  be  sold  by 

EZEKIEL  DODGE 
at  his  shop  in  Ipswich 

A  good  Assortment  of  English  and  India  Goods,  suitable 
for  the  Season.  Also  glass,  stone,  delf  iron  and  tin  Ware, 
Nails  and  7  by  9  Window  Glass  etc.  all  which  will  be  sold 
by  Retail  on  so  reasonable  Terms  as  will  undoubtedly  give 
the  most  ample  Satisfaction  to  the  Purchasers.  N.  B.  Con- 
stant Attendance  will  be  given  from  6  oVlock  in  the  Morning 
till  9  at  Night  and  the  least  Favours  gratefully  acknowledged. 
Said  Dodge  has  to  sell  a  very  likely  Negro  Girl  of  about  16 
years  of  Age. 

Mr.  Dodge  varied  his  announcement  on  June  8,  1773, 
when  he  styled  himself  Vendue-Master,  (auctioneer),  and 
gave  notice  that  all  kinds  of  goods,  old  or  new,  would  be 
taken  in  for  sale,  at  his  auction-room  "a  little  to  the  north- 
ward of  Eev.  Mr.  Nathaniel  Roger's  meeting  house"  .... 
"where  he  has  for  private  sale  a  valuable  assortment  of  Eng- 
lish, West  India  and  Hardware  Gt)ods,  imcommon  cheap 


)9 


It  would  seem  that  one  apothecary  shop,  coupled  with 
Mr.  Jewett's  shelf  of  nostrums,  might  have  sufficed  for  the 
town,  but  another  citizen  thought  he  saw  room  for  himself 
and  advertised  on  Mav  4***,  1773 : 

Just  opened 

an  Apothecary  Shop 

in  Ipswich, 

near  the  Sign  of  Grapes,  in  the  house  of 

Mr.  Isaac  Dodge,  and 

To  be  sold  by 

Josiah  Lord 

a  general  assortment  of  Drugs,  Medicines 

and  Groceries. 


TBADES  AND  EMPLOYMENTS  OF  THE  18tH  OENTTJBY.    269 

Choice  new  rice,  Surinam  and  Island  molasses,  cocoa, 
coffee,  cotton  of  a  superior  quality,  etc.  were  offered  by  John 
"Winthrop  Jr.  at  Ipswich  and  Stephen  Bruce  at  his  store, 
King  St.,  Boston,  in  May,  1776. 

Dr.  Joseph  Manning  and  his  son,  Dr.  John,  Dr.  Wallis 
Rust,  Dr.  Josiah  Smith  and  Dr.  John  Calef  practised  their 
honorable  and  useful  profession.  The  cure-all  for  every 
aihnent  was  bleeding  and  in  earlier  days,  the  barber  or  *^bar- 
ber-surgeon,"  was  the  physician's  competitor,  and  tradition 
has  it  that  the  striped  barber's  pole  in  red  and  white  was 
suggested  by  the  stream  of  blood  flowing  over  the  wLite 
limb.  Blisters  and  poultices  and  home  remedies,  curious 
and  wonderful,  were  applied  by  the  mothers  and  grand- 
mothers, but  for  severe  sickness,  for  the  pulling  of  refrac- 
tory teeth,  for  the  simple  surgery  of  the  time,  the  physi- 
cian was  summoned.  The  "great  white  plague,"  consump- 
tion, made  its  dreadful  inroads  upon  the  young  and  the 
doctor  was  powerless  to  check  its  ravages.  Priscilla,  the 
daughter  of  John  Appleton,  died  on  Sept  17,  1748,  "being 
the  Last  of  Seven  Daughters  Dying  with  a  Consumption 
within  the  Space  of  three  years." 

There  was  a  wordy  battle  between  two  Boston  doctors  in 
the  Evening  Post  of  1767  and  1768,  one  accusing  the  other 
of  being  a  "cloaked  murderer,"  because  he  had  drawn  twelve 
ounces  of  blood  from  a  woman  far  gone  in  consumption, 
which  was  followed  by  the  patient^s  death  in  a  few  days. 
But  there  may  have  been  similar  practices  in  vogue  here  in 
Ipswich.  Fevers  were  treated  by  confining  the  sufferer  in 
a  close  room,  and  withholding  even  a  drop  of  cold  water 
to  relieve  the  parched  throat.  Scarlet  fever  and  measles, 
mumps  and  whooping  cough  were  allowed  to  spread  through 
families  and  neighborhoods,  as  necessary  evils  that  were  bet- 
ter suffered  in  childhood,  with  no  thought  of  isolation  or  of 
prevention.  Nevertheless  the  physician  of  the  olden  time 
was  a  large  figure  in  the  community,  and  he  held  a  place 


270       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

of  honor  and  affection  in  the  family,  second  only  to  the 
minister.  His  charges  were  moderate  and  his  daily  round 
was  largely  as  good  Samaritan  and  sympathetic  friend. 

A  communication  was  printed  in  the  Boston  Evening 
Post,  on  February  15,  1708,  addressed  "To  the  Public 
Fathers"  and  signed  "A  Friend  to  Learning."  The  writer 
was  a  physician  in  a  "considerable  town,"  which  he  does 
not  mention,  and  he  made  just  complaint  of  the  quacks  and 
mountebanks,  who  were  allowed  to  pose  as  doctors  and  of 
the  slight  appreciation  in  which  the  educated  physician  "was 
held.  There  is  a  topch  of  the  pathetic  in  the  tale,  this 
kindly  man  tells  of  his  experiences. 

If  I  go  to  a  patient  one  mile,  I  charge  8d.  the  advice, 
bleeding  or  vomiting,  8d.  more.     The  time  generally  taken 
up  in  this  service  in  the  winter  is  about  half  a  day,  people 
being  unwilling  a  Doctor  should  come  away  without  some 
little  stay;  sometimes  no  medicine  is  left,  so  that  get  only 
8*^    for  my   forenoon's   service.     Common   laborers   at   this 
time  of  year  have  1/8**  and  seldom  work  above  six  hours. 
My  shoemaker  charges  me  S*".  for  small  children's  shoes,  and 
S^    more  for  boys  of  six  years  old;  two  pair  of  which  he 
easily  makes  in  a  day;  the  leather  for  such  being  trifling. 
My  blacksmith  charges  me  5  s.  for  shoeing  my  horse,  and 
I  have  paid  3**  for  his  foreman's  service  in  altering  my  iron 
by  a  charcoal  fire.     The  tavern-keeper,  four  or  three  pence 
at  least  for  [N'ew  England :  a  gallon  of  which  cost  them  1/6** 
so  that  they  gain  upwards  of  £10  per  barrel,  inclusive  of 
retailing  and  leakage,  higher  than  Doctors  sell   spirits  of 
wine  camphorated :  and  for  cash  in  hands  without  taking 
notes  or  booking. 


I  was  called  in  to'ther  day  to  bleed  my  shoemaker's  wife ; 
I  desired  him  to  mend  my  boot  the  whilst.  I  charged  him 
8**,  he  charged  me  1*.  so  that  I  imagine  his  ends  and  wax 
were  tho't  to  be  more  valuable  than  the  wear  of  my  lancet. 
Hundreds  of  such  instances  might  be  offered  to  demonstrate 
the  valuableness  of  learning  is  sinking  into  obscurity,  and 


TRADES  AKD  EMPLOYMEI^TS  OF  THE  IStII  CENTUKY.    271 

that  if  any  one  designs  to  live  nowadays,  he  must  metamor- 
phoze  himself  into  a  tradesman. 

In  addition  to  the  cheapness  of  the  physician's  charges, 
this  worthy  man  laments  that  he  is  frequently  obliged  1c 
wait  for  settlement  five  or  six  years,  "or  forever,  as  is  oftpn 
the  case/' 

It  was  a  true  picture  no  doubt  of  our  Ipswich  doctors, 
travelling  the  long  and  lonely  roads,  their  saddle  bags  filled 
Avith  their  medicines,  facing  rain  and  snow  and  nipping 
cold,  by  day  and  by  night,  for  small  and  long  delayed  fees 
and  with  many  rasping  experiences  of  unregenerate  human 
nature. 

Of  the  lesser  and  lighter  things  that  had  a  part  in  the 
mid-century  every  day  life,  the  family  chit-chat,  the  sports 
and  games  and  amusements  that  undoubtedly  relieved  the 
routine  of  work  and  care,  we  have  little  knowledge.  There 
was  the  great  Thanksgiving  day,  with  its  feasting  and  merry- 
making, and  Guy  Fawkes  day,  November  6'**,  the  anniver- 
sary of  the  Gunpowder  Plot  of  1605,  was  celebrated  in 
riotous  fashion.  There  was  firing  of  guns  and  in  Boston, 
there  was  an  exhibition  of  "pageantry,"  with  figures  rep- 
resenting the  Pope  and  the  Devil,  attesting  abhorrence  of 
Popery  and  the  horrible  plot.  Royal  birth-days  and  the 
advent  of  an  infant  prince  or  princess  were  celebrated  in 
Boston  with  ringing  of  bells  and  bonfires  and  the  saluting 
by  the  great  guns  at  the  Castle.  The  distant  booming  heard 
distinctly  when  the  wind  was  fair,  may  have  roused  patriotic 
enthusiasm  in  Ipswich. 

Grossip  and  scandal  had  free  play  and  there  was  a  love 
of  the  marvellous  and  easy  belief  of  the  most  incredible 
things,  which  gave  spice  to  many  quiet  lives  and  secluded 
liomes.  A  half  century  only  had  elapsed  since  the  dread- 
ful witch-craft  delusion  had  carried  awav  manv  of  the  wisest 

t/  t.' 

and  strongest.     Omens  and  portents  and  prodigies  were  much 


272       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

in  evidence.  The  newspapers  of  the  mid-century  give  u» 
glimpses  now  and  then  of  the  tales  that  were  circulated  and 
credited. 

The  following  affair,  which  lately  happened  at  Danvers 
in  the  County  of  Essex  is  related  at  a  Fact.  As  three  chil- 
dren were  sitting  at  a  Door  of  a  House  an  Adder  came  from 
a  Pond  that  was  about  twenty  Rods  distant,  and  seized  the 
Hand  of  one  of  the  Children  about  two  Years  old,  and  swal- 
lowed it  as  far  as  the  Wrist,  and  immediately  twisted  its 
Tail  round  the  Child's  Legs;  upon  which  the  other  two 
Children  ran  into  the  House  aflfrighted,  where  were  two  or 
three  Women,  who  ran  to  the  Door  and  discovered  the  Child 
in  the  above  Condition,  when  one  of  the  Women,  squeez'd 
the  Throat  of  the  Adder,  by  which  the  Child  was  cleared. 
I'he  Woman  carried  the  Child  into  the  House,  when  the 
Adder  chased  her  round  the  Room  several  Times,  but  being 
disappointed  of  its  Food,  turned  about  and  bit  itself,  swelled 
to  a  considerable  Degree  and  died.  The  Child  was  not 
poisoned  nor  did  it  receive  any  harm.^ 

This  Laocoon  marvel  was  paralleled  by  a  story  which  the 
editor  of  the  Boston  Evening  Post  admitted  to  its  columns 
on  December  31,  1764. 

That  a  Man  near  Albany  contrary  to  the  Advice  and  En- 
treaties of  his  Friends  lately  went  out  to  Work  in  his  Field 
on  the  Lord's  Dav  with  a  Pair  of  Oxen  and  were  all  turned 
into  Statues,  where  it  is  said  they  remain  immoveably  fixed 
as  Examples  of  God's  Judgment  against  Sabbath  Breakers. 

This  prodig}'^  was  so  near  akin  to  the  instant  transforma- 
tion of  IjOt's  wife  into  a  pillar  of  salt,  that  it  might  have 
been  readily  accepted  by  devout  folk.  The  same  editor  pub- 
lished on  May  25,  1767  "a  phenomenon  which  was  vouched 
for  by  several  witnesses  of  undoubted  Veracity." 

A  woman  at  Walpole  made  two  loaves  of  bread  "consisting 

■The  Boston  Gazette,  June  7,  1762. 


TRADES  AND  EMPI.OYMEXTS  OF  THE  18tH  CEXTURY.  273 

wholly  of  Indian  meal  mixed  with  clear  water."  When 
taken  out  of  the  oven,  one  loaf  was  blood  red,  except  a  white 
streak  in  the  middle,  the  other  was  of  the  proper  color. 
except  a  red  streak. 

An  editorial  note  is  appended  in  parenthesis. 

(We  have  lately  heard  of  several  other  very  strange  stories 
from  the  Countrv,  but  for  want  of  more  authentic  Informa- 
tion,  we  shall  defer  publishing  them  for  the  present.) 

Such  were  the  strange  tales  that  passed  from  mouth  to 
mouth  and  there  were  dreams  to  be  discussed,  and  dream 
books  read  on  the  sly  and  ghostly  appearances  to  be  told. 
And  these  old  wives  fables  were  not  a  whit  more  foolish 
than  the  story  handed  down  to  later  generations  of  two  old 
men  of  the  Farley  family  of  tanners  on  the  South  side,  who 
prepared  to  slaughter  a  hog,  but  as  the  water  in  the  great 
kettle  did  not  come  to  a  boil  before  the  moon  reached  its 
full,  they  were  unable  to  kill,  because  the  pork  would  shrink 
on  a  waning  moon. 


CHAPTER  XII 

Schools  and  Sohool-Mastebs  of  the 
Eighteenth  Centuey. 

The  illustrious  seventeenth  century  teachers,  Lionel  Chute, 
Ezekiel  Cheever,  Thomas  Andrews,  Noadiah  Russell  and 
Daniel  Rogers  are  honored  with  deserved  remembrance,^ 
but  the  jSrst  teacher  of  a  "damie-school"  has  long  been  for- 
gotten, and  only  a  chance  record  in  the  ancient  Court  Files* 
has  preserved  her  name,  and  the  long  and  supremely  useful 
service,  which  she  rendered  to  the  second  generation  of  little 
children. 

Benedict  Pulcifer,  son  of  Benedict,  had  been  led  into  mis- 
chief by  two  associates,  brighter  and  more  cunning  than  him- 
self.* He  was  nineteen  years  old,  but  his  father  begged 
the  favor  of  the  Court  in  May,  1682,  as  he  had  always  been 
a  boy  of  simple  mind. 

My  son  was  of  a  very  weak  capacitie.  (I  pray  Qod  to 
give  him  more  understanding)  Therefore  he  might  be  eas- 
ily enticed. 

When  I  put  him  to  the  great  Scool  dame  viz.  Groodwife 
Collens  who  was  accounted  above  many  for  that  facaltie  of 
Teaching  Children  to  Read,  to  her  my  son  went  to  scool  the 
space  of  four  years,  in  which  time  he  could  not  be  brought 
by  her  to  know^  his  Letters,  shee  complaining  she  never 
amongst  all  that  ever  she  Taught  who  kept  Scool  (and  did 
little  else)  for  y®  space  of  above  thirty  years  saw  any  so 
Dull  leame,  having  in  a  manner  no  memory : 

*  See  Ipswich  In  the  Mass.  Bay  Colony,  Vol.  I,  Chap.  XIL    The  Orammar 
School  and  Harvard  College. 

•Court  FUes  37:  100.     May,  1682. 

•  Ipswich  Histor.  Society  Pubs.  XVIII:  51. 

(274) 


SCHOOLS  AJn>  SCHOOL-MASTEBS  OF  18tH  CENTURY.      275 

Then  from  her  I  putt  him  to  scooU  unto  Mr.  Andrewes 
who  I  thought  would  leame  him  if  he  were  capable  to 
Learn  of  any  bodie,  and  with  him  he  was  the  space  of  two 
years,  but  in  all  that  time  Mr.  Andrewes  could  not  bring 
him  to  learn  any  sense  though  to  know  some  of  his  Letters 
which  soon  after  he  forgot,  and  when  I  asked  Mr.  Andrewes 
what  he  demanded  for  his  pay.  Teaching  my  son,  he  An- 
swered that  he  had  taken  more  pains  than  ordinary  to  Teach 
my  son  but  he  was  not  capable  of  learning  and  therefore 
was  ashamed  to  ask  anything,  yet  I  satisfied  him  to  his 
content. 

Goodwife  CoUens  well  deserves  a  place  in  the  honor  roll 
of  teachers,  and  we  admire  the  inexhaustible  patience  and 
kindness  of  Thomas  Andrews,  who  could  turn  from  his 
bright  lads,  ready  for  College,  to  the  simple  Benedict,  strug- 
gling hopelessly  for  two  long  years  with  the  alphabet. 

The  school-house,  built  by  Mr.  Robert  Paine  in  1653  for 
the  use  of  the  Grammar  School,  near  the  comer  of  County 
Koad  and  Linden  Street,  facing  the  School-House  Green,  as 
it  was  then  called,  continued  in  use  for  half  a  century. 
Mr.  Ezekiel  Cheever,  the  first  school  master,  occupied  the 
dwelling  and  taught  the  school  until  1660,  Mr.  Andrews 
following  him  with  twenty-three  years  of  faithful  service 
until  1683,  Mr.  Eussell  teaching  from  1683  to  1686,  and 
Mr.  Eogers  until  1715. 

The  Selectmen  reported  to  the  Town  on  Dec.  19,  1700, 
that  several  charges  must  be  met,  which  included  "about 
mending  the  school-house,  £4,  16s,"  and  in  1704,  the  need 
of  a  new  building  was  apparent.  From  the  beginning,  the 
meeting-house  had  been  the  only  public  building.  Town 
meetings  and  all  other  public  gatherings  had  been  held  there. 
The  increased  size  of  the  Town  meetings,  due  to  the  natural 
growth  of  population,  coupled  possibly  with  the  unwilling- 
ness to  use  the  new  meeting  house  for  all  public  functions, 
rendered  the  building  of  a  Town  House  advisable.  The 
Courts  of  Justice  had  held  their  sittings  in  the  tavern  of 


276        IPSWIOJI,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Jolm  Sparks,  but  there  was  evident  demand  for  a  more  be- 
coming and  convenient  Court-Room. 

Accordingly  the  Town  voted  on  May  11,  1704,  to  build 
a  Town  House,  "with  a  school-house  under  it."  The  upper 
story  provided  a  spacious  Court  Eoom,  and  the  County 
shared  the  expense  of  the  new  structure.  The  ancient  rec- 
ord book  of  the  Feoffees  contains  the  scarcely  legible  entry : 

At  a  meeting  of  y*'  Feoffees  in  y*  new  school-house  .... 
Mr.  Robert  Payne  in  behalf  of  y*  Rest,  having  rece'd  .... 
school  house  from  the  Committee  of  the  Town  did  in  y*" 
Name  of  the  Rest  deliver  ye  same  to  Mr.  Daniel  Rogers 
the  School  master,  desiring  him  to  remove  thither  as  soon 
as  he  could  with  convenience  .... 

In  July,  1702,  permission  had  been  given  by  the  Town 
to  the  inhabitants  of  the  Chebacco  parish  "to  sett  a  school 
house  upon  some  convenient  place  in  the  Common  for  y*^ 
Encourageing  of  Learning  among  them."  With  this  ex- 
ception, there  was  no  other  school  building  in  the  whole 
township.  Little  children,  however,  and  girls  of  any  age, 
were  not  eligible  for  the  Grammar  School  and  there  were 
"dame  schools,"  or  schools  of  like  nature,  taught  in  private 
houses  in  the  various  neighborhoods.  Mr.  Rogers  resigned 
his  position  as  school-master  in  1715  and  became  a  Justice 
of  the  Sessions  Court.  In  his  long  period  of  service  from 
1687  to  that  date,  he  had  fitted  a  fine  group  of  promising 
lads  for  college,  and  had  enjoyed  the  satisfaction  year  by 
year  of  seeing  his  pupils  take  their  degrees  at  the  Harvard 
Commencement  and  go  forth  into  the  broad  world,  to  win 
for  themselves  positions  of  honor  and  usefuLiess. 

During  Mr.  Rogers's  tenure,  the  relations  between  the 
Town  and  the  Feoffees  of  the  Grammar  School  began  to  be 
strained.  Although  the  Feoffees  held  the  Paine  bequests 
in  trust,  as  the  income  of  these  funds  did  not  suffice  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  school,  and  the  Town  made  direct  ap- 


SCUOOLS  AND  SCHOOL-MASTERS  OF  18tH  CENTURY.      277 

propriations  in  its  behalf,  they  did  not  have  complete  au- 
thority in  the  conduct  of  the  school's  affairs.  As  early  as 
March  14,  1709-10,  the  Town  voted 

to  give  to  Dan^  Rogers  school  mast'  Ten  poimds  in  money 
in  y^  next  Town  Kate  to  help  him  build  a  stone  wall  about 
y*  school  orchard  &  Land  upon  Condition  he  be  att  y®  charge 
of  all  y*  it  shall  cost  more  &  cause  all  y®  outside  to  be  so 
fenced. 

Making  contribution  to  the  Grammar  School  funds,  the 
Town  naturally  claimed  a  voice  in  school  affairs.  It  as- 
serted itself  very  definitely  in  the  vote  passed  on  April  8, 
1714: 

Whereas  y^  Committee  which  y®  Town  chose  to  treat  with 
y®  Feoffees  of  y®  Grammar  school  about  setting  up  a  free 
schoole  in  y®  Towne  have  had  a  meeting  with  sd  Feoffees. 
It  was  thought  by  us  that  y*  Town  for  this  year  should 
make  an  addition  of  twenty-five  pounds  to  the  present  in- 
come which  belongs  to  y®  School  &  that  upon  their  soe  doing 
a  school-master  should  be  chosen  by  a  Committee  appointed 
by  y®  Town  to  jo>Ti  with  the  Feoffees  of  y*  School  in 
teaching  Grammar  Scholars  &  also  English  scholars  y*  have 
been  entered  y®  scholars  to  perfect  y"  in  y'  reading  &  to  in- 
struct y"*  in  writing  &  Cyphering. 

And  that  the  School  shall  for  the  year  be  absolutely  free 
to  all  such  schollars  belonging  to  this  Town.  This  was 
agreed  upon  by  y®  Feoffees  &  y®  Comittee  for  y®  Town. 

John  Appleton 
Jabez  Fitch 
Philemon  Dean 
Jonathan  Wade 
.Daniel  Hinge 
Andrew  Burley 
John  Kogers 
Matthew  Whipple 
Samuel  Appleton 
Svmon  Wood 
John  Whipple 
Nathaniel  Lord. 


278        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

This  was  accepted  and  adopted  by  the  Town  and  it  i^as 
also  voted,  "that  the  AVatch  house  be  improved  this  present 
summer  by  such  a  person  as  y®  Selectmen  shall  judge  meet 
who  will  undertake  also  the  teaching  of  young  Child"  to  read." 

This  is  apparently  the  germ  of  the  public  school  system, 
the  Town  in  its  corporate  capacity  through  its  Committee 
providing  for  the  education  of  the  children  in  reading  and 
writing.  The  watch-house  was  near  the  meeting-house  and 
as  the  peril  of  Indian  attack  no  longer  remained,  it  served 
the  community  very  well,  as  a  centrally  located,  albeit  crude 
school  room.  In  the  following  March,  the  use  of  the  watch 
house  for  the  ensuing  summer  was  granted  "to  such  woman, 
as  will  teach  children  to  read  and  as  in  y'  prudence"  the 
Selectmen  shall  appoint. 

In  Feb.  1715-6,  a  Committee  of  the  Town  was  appointed 
to  agree  with  the  Feoffees  in  providing  a  school-master  for 
the  free  school.  Mr.  Ebenezer  Gay,  a  Harvard  graduate  in 
the  class  of  1714,  was  chosen,  but  he  kept  the  school  only 
one  year.  Thomas  Norton,  a  native  of  the  Town  and  a 
resident.  Deacon  of  the  First  church  in  his  later  years,  fol- 
lowed Mr.  Gay  with  a  similar  short  term.  Benjamin 
Crocker,  Hansard,  1713,  was  chosen  master  in  1717  and 
kept  the  school  two  years,  but  acted  as  school  master  for 
short  intervals  in  after  years,  alternating  with  service  as 
chaplain  in  the  Louisbourg  expedition  and  ministerial  supply. 

"For  y®  encouragement  of  y®  Grammar  School  in  y*  Town 
of  Ipswich,''  it  was  voted  on  May  8,  1718, 

That  what  y®  Income  of  y®  School  by  every  child  goeing 
to  school  who  shall  pay  for  y^  schooling  att  y®  rate  of  20  sh. 
p'  schollar  what  that  will  faile  of  sixty  pounds  the  Town 
will  make  up  to  y®  sum  for  y*  year  ensueing. 

A  contention  now  arose  between  the  Town  and  the  Feoffees, 
the  Town  maintaining  that  "as  respected  the  School  farm 
and  other  lands  granted  by  the  town,  no  power  was  given 


SCHOOLS  AND  SCHOOL-MASTEKS  OF  18tH  OENTTJRY.     279 

by  the  Town  to  their  trustees  to  appoint  successors  in  that 
trust  for  receiving  and  applying  the  rents,  or  of  ordaining 
and  directing  the  affairs  of  the  school."  On  Nov.  5,  1719, 
the  Town  ordered  "That  the  Selectmen  with  all  convenient 
speed  provide  a  School  Master  to  make  up  y*  remainder 
of  this  p'sent  year,"  and  in  the  following  February,  as  the 
tenants  of  the  school-farm  withheld  their  rents,  on  the  ground 
that  no  legal  provision  was  m'ade  for  collecting  them,  a 
Committee  of  three  was  chosen  to  readjust  the  lease  made 
with  Mr.  John  Cogswell  and  the  other  tenants,  and  if  no 
agreement  could  be  made,  to  proceed  to  law.  A  month  later, 
March  8,  1719-20,  Rev.  John  Eogers  and  Rev.  Jabez  Fitch, 
ministers  of  the  First  Church,  presented  a  Memorial  to  the 
Town,  praying  that  the  lease  of  the  school-farm  be  not  dis- 
turbed, but  it  found  little  favor  and  a  minority  pressed  for 
a  law  suit  with  the  tenants.  The  Town  met  again  on  June 
6,  1720^  and  a  Committee  of  three,  John  Wainwright  Esq., 
Ensign  Gteorge  Hart  and  Mr.  Thomas  Boardraan,  were 
chosen  to  make  new  leases  of  the  school  lands  for  a  term 
not  exceeding  twenty-one  years.  The  Town  voted,  also, 
"that  the  Selectmen  take  the  necessary  care  to  bargain  and 
agree  with  a  Gramar  School  Master  for  the  Towne  for  the 
year  ensneing." 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Selectmen,  June  20,  1720,  Mr.  Henry 
Wise  accepted  the  offer  the  Selectmen  made  him  for  keep- 
ing the  school  for  the  year  ensuing.  Accordingly  the  Select- 
men delivered  the  key  of  the  school  house,  and  he  began  to 
instruct  the  Grammar  School  forthwith.  Mr.  Wise  was  the 
son  of  Rev.  John  Wise  of  the  Chebacco  parish,  a  graduate 
of  the  Grammar  School  and  of  Harvard,  in  the  class  of  1717. 

The  Town  thus  assumed  complete  control  of  the  Grammar 
School,  and  for  twenty-seven  years,  there  is  no  recorded  act 
of  the  Feoffees.  Further  action  was  taken  on  Jan.  24, 
1720-1,  when  the  Town  affirmed : 


280        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

lest  there  should  be  any  words  wanting  to  express  the 
Town's  mind  &  meaning  concerning  the  last  mentioned  Com- 
mittee and  their  authority.  It  is  farther  Concluded  agreed 
&  Voted  by  this  Town  of  Ipswich  and  the  Town  doth  hereby 
Constitute,  authorize,  nominate  and  appoint  the  said  John 
Wainwright  Esq.  Ens.  (Jeorge  Hart  &  Mr.  Thomas  Board- 
man  to  be  Trustees  for  the  use  of  the  Gramar  School  ac- 
cording to  the  authority  reserved  by  the  Town  vote  aforesaid 
of  January  11***  1650.  hereby  also  impowering  &  appoint- 
ing the  said  Trustees  to  eject  all  or  any  persons  in  posses- 
sion of  school  lands^  etc. 

Voted  that  the  Town  will  not  allow  a  School  to  be  kept 
in  the  Town  house  &  that  the  Selectmen  have  the  immedi- 
ate care  of  said  house. 

No  record  remains  to  inform  us  whether  the  school  was 
obliged  to  seek  a  new  habitation  and  where  it  was.  The 
watch  house  was  no  longer  regarded  as  a  fit  place  for  a 
school.  The  Alms  house,  a  large  log  house,  built  in  1719, 
about  40  feet  long,  16  feet  wide  and  6  feet  high,  near  the 
Pound  on  Loney's  Lane,  was  larger  than  its  inmates  needed, 
but  the  pride  of  the  Town  forbade  the  removal  of  its  famous 
Grammar  School  thither.  But  when  William  Stone,  a  poor 
fisherman,  sick  and  unable  to  earn  an  honest  living,  and  un- 
willing to  become  a  burden  to  the  Town,  petitioned  for  a 
disused  room  that  he  might  keep  a  reading  and  writing 
school,  the  Town  readily  consented  and  granted  him  the 
use  of  the  "westerly  middle  room"  in  1725.  Mr.  Felt  in  his 
History  of  Ipswich,  which  was  printed  in  1834,  states  that 
the  Grammar  School  had  place  in  the  Town  House  until 
1794,  and  the  remembrance  of  people  then  living  would 
easily  cover  the  intervening  period  of  forty  years. 

Thomias  Norton  Jr.,  son  of  Deacon  Thomas  Norton,  Har* 
vard,  1725,  was  chosen  teacher  in  June,  1729  with  a  salary 
of  £55,  and  for  the  first  time,  the  Town  made  provision  for 
an  ofiicial  inspection  of  the  school,  voting: 

that  the  Selectmen  be  also  desired  to  take  care  and  have 


SCHOOLS  AND  SCHOOL-MASTERS  OF  18tH  OENTUBY.     281 

the  more  immediate  Inspection  of  the  School  &  see  that 
it  is  duly  &  regularly  kept  and  that  the  children  be  well 
instructed  and  taught. 

He  was  chosen  again  in  1730,  but  there  seems  to  have 
been  a  suspicion  that  he  was  not  wholly  fit  for  his  task,  as 
Daniel  Appleton,  Esq.,  Mr.  Thomas  Staniford  and  Mr. 
Jonathan  Wade  were  appointed  a  Committee  of  inspection : 

and  if  sd.  Committee  should  be  of  opinion  that  the  said 
school  master  does  not  attend  and  perform  his  duties,  they 
are  authorized  to  choose  another  and  said  Mr.  Norton  is 
dismissed,  but  if  they  find  no  default  in  the  said  school 
master's  conduct  for  the  first  three  months,  then  he  is  to 
continue  for  three  mionths  longer  and  so  to  continue  for  the 
year. 

Whatever  may  have  been  his  youthful  indiscretion,  Mr. 
Norton  retrieved  himself  in  the  course  of  this  critical  year 
and  was  chosen  annually  until  1740. 

Meanwhile  the  contention  between  the  Town  and  the 
Feoffees  and  the  tenants  of  the  School  Farm  had  been  carried 
into  Court,  and  in  1729  the  Town  received  £100  from  Gif- 
ford  Cogswell  "on  acc't  of  charges  at  Law  ab't  the  School 
Farm."  Taking  advantage  apparently  of  this  educational 
windfall,  Adam  Cogswell,  Thomas  Choate  and  Solomon 
Giddings  of  the  Chebacco  parish  petitioned  the  Town  in 
March,  1729-30,  "that  a  sum  of  money  be  raised  to  enable 
remote  parts  of  the  Town  to  have  school  set  up  among  them- 
selves for  the  more  convenient  education  of  children."  The 
Town  voted  £100,  the  precise  sum  received  from  the  School 
farm  tenants,  to  be  distributed  to  the  several  parishes  and 
neighborhoods  in  proportion  to  their  share  of  the  Province 
Tax,  to  pay  for  the  support,  in  whole  or  part,  of  reading  and 
writing  schools.  Accordingly  there  was  paid  to  Henry 
Spillar,  for  the  First  or  Town  parish  £41,  to  the  Chebacco 
Committee  £20,  to  the  Hamlet  Committee  £20,  to  Mark 


282        IPBWIOH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Howe  of  the  Linebrook  settlement  £4-8-9,  to  Moses  Davis 
for  "his  neighborhood,"  now  known  as  the  Village,  £6-11-10, 
and  to  Dea.  Fellows,  for  "his  neighborhood,"  now  known 
as  Candlewood,  £2-4-0. 

An  appropriation  of  £50  for  reading  and  writing  school- 
masters was  made  in  1730-1,  and  the  next  year,  John  Smith 
and  others  of  "Little  Chebacco,"  as  the  Argilla  neighbor^ 
hood  was  often  called,  petitioned  for  their  part  of  the  re- 
mainder of  the  £100  unappropriated,  £5-15-5,  as  well  as 
part  of  the  £50  for  a  school  in  their  neighborhood.  Their 
petition  was  negatived,  but  their  appeal  seems  to  have  been 
regarded  a  few  years  later,  when  an  appropriation  was  made 
for  those  portions  of  the  First  Parish  least  benefitted  by 
the  Grammar  School,  to  enable  them  to  keep  a  school  among 
themselves.  Henry  Spillar  was  allowed  the  use  of  a  room 
at  the  southerly  end  of  the  almshouse  in  May,  1732,  that  he 
might  teach  the  youths  reading,  writing  and  ciphering. 
He  received  the  same  favor  the  following  year,  with  a  grant 
of  £15  in  consideration  of  his  age  and  the  destitute  condition 
of  his  family. 

In  1734,  the  Town  voted : 

that  the  Reverend  Elders  or  Ministers  of  the  town  be 
desired  to  make  a  visit  once  a  quarter  to  the  Grammar 
school  &  inquire  into  the  proceedings  of  the  School  Master, 
and  of  his  instructing  &  educating  the  youth,  and  that  our 
honoured  Judges,  Col®  Wainwright  &  Col.  Berry  be  desired 
to  assist  in  this  affair. 

The  School  Committee  was  now  a  well  established  addition 
to  the  Town  officials,  and  the  most  prominent  citizens  found 
place  from  year  to  year  on  this  dignified  Board.  The  Ham- 
let parish  petitioned  for  a  portion  of  the  inconue  of  the 
Grammar  School  for  the  establishment  of  a  school  in  1738, 
and  on  March  4,  1739-40,  the  school  appropriation  was  in- 
creased to  £150,  inclusive  of  school  rents,  for  the  Grammar 


SCHOOLS  AND  SCHOOL-MASTERS  OF  18tH   CENTURY.      283 

School  and  the  reading  and  writing  school,  and  it  was 
divided  between  the  three  parishes.  Notwithstanding  this 
zeal  for  her  schools,  the  Selectmen  were  authorized  by  the 
To-wn  in  April,  1739,  to  answer  to  the  Court  of  General 
Sessions  to  a  bill  of  presentment  found  against  the  Town 
*^for  not  keeping  a  reading  &  writing  school."  In  May, 
1742,  a  further  division  of  the  school  funds  was  made  '^to 
those  parts  of  the  first  parish  in  Ipswich  that  have  lest  [least] 
benefit  of  the  Grammar  School  to  enable  them  to  keep  a 
school  among  themselves." 

Mr.  Daniel  Staniford,  Harvard,  1738,  succeeded  Mr. 
Xorton  as  teacher,  and  kept  the  school  five  years.  Upon 
the  completion  of  his  term,  Benjamin  Crocker  was  again 
chosen  and  served  continuously  from  March  4,  1745-6  to 
March  6,  1753,  when  John  Dennis  was  chosen.  He  was  a 
Hansard  graduate  of  1730,  and  had  served  as  chaplain  at 
Fort  St.  George  and  Fort  Frederick  from  Sept.  1737  to 
March,  1749. 

At  the  March  meeting  of  1753,  the  Feoffees  were  again 
in  evidence.  Although  the  rent  of  the  school  lands  had  been 
included  for  many  years  in  the  salary  of  the  Grammar  School 
master,  it  would  seem  that  the  rents  had  not  been  paid,  and 
now  it  was  voted  by  the  Town,  "that  the  Feoffees  in  con- 
junction with  the  Selectmen  be  impowered  to  proceed  in 
recovering  school  rents."  Col.  Berry,  on  behalf  of  the 
Feoffees,  addressed  a  Petition  to  the  General  Court.  It  re- 
sulted in  the  passage  of  an  Act  "for  regulating  the  Gram- 
mar School  in  Ipswich  and  for  the  incorporating  certain 
persons  to  manage  and  direct  the  same." 

Reciting  the  story  of  the  various  bequests  and  Town  grants 
and  the  existing  doubt  as  to  the  power  of  the  Town  or  the 
Feoffees  to  compel  the  payment  of  rents,  the  Act  incor- 
porated Thomas  Berry,  Daniel  Appleton,  Samuel  Rogers, 
Esq.  and  Benjamin  Crocker,  the  surviving  Feoffees  and 
Francis  Choate,  Esq.,  Capt.  Nathaniel  Treadwell  and  Mr. 


284        IPSWICH^  IN  THE   MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

John  Patch,  Jr.,  three  of  the  present  Selectmen,  joint  Feof- 
fees, with  full  power  to  lease  lands,  recover  rents,  appoint 
Grammar  School  miasters  and  agree  for  their  salaries,  etc. 
This  Act  was  limited  to  ten  years  from  March  1,  1756. 
Before  this  term  expired,  a  new  Act,  identical  except  in  the 
persons  named,  was  passed,  limited  to  twenty  years  from 
March,  1766,  and  in  1787  it  was  made  perpetual. 

Mr.  Samuel  Wigglesworth,  Jr.,  son  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wig- 
glesworth  of  the  Hamlet  parish,  Harvard,  1752,  had  heen 
elected  school-master  by  the  Town  in  May,  1755,  and  he 
kept  the  school  until  1759.  A  reading  and  writing  school 
master  was  also  employed  by  the  Town,  keeping  his  school 
in  the  Chobacco  parish  throe  months  and  a  fortnight,  in 
the  Hamlet  the  same  period,  in  the  West  parish,  now  known 
as  Linebrook,  two  months,  and  the  other  three  months  in 
the  two  Town  parishes. 

In  March,  1760,  William  Brown  and  others  of  the  South 
Eighth  district,  now  known  as  Candlewood,  made  their  ap- 
])eal  for  a  school,  which  was  referred  to  the  two  Town  par- 
ishes for  adjustment  In  March,  1761,  in  response  to  the 
petition  of  Lieut.  Daniel  Giddings  and  others  of  the 
Chebacco  parish,  twenty  feet  near  the  Lime  Kiln  was  granted 
as  a  site  for  a  school  house, 

Benjamin  Crocker  succeeded  Mr.  Wigglesworth  in  the 
years  1759  and  1760,  and  in  1761,  Joseph  Howe,  son  of 
Increase  Howe,  the  tavern-keeper,  a  Harvard  graduate  in 
the  class  of  1758,  became  the  school-master.  He  had  mar- 
ried Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Col.  Thos.  Berry,  Jan.  9,  1759. 
The  bride  died  in  May  of  the  same  year  in  her  twenty-second 
year.  Mr.  Howe  died  in  March,  1702.  His  frail  health, 
presumably  prevented  his  teaching  longer  than  a  single  year. 

Daniel  ?foyes  from  the  Byfield  parish,  of  the  Harvard 
class  of  1758,  came  to  Ipswich  to  teach  the  school  in  1762 
and  continued  at  his  task  imtil  1773.  He  married  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Capt.  John  Boardman,  in  1763.     During  his 


SCHOOLS  AND  SCHOOL-MASTERS  OF  18tH  CENTURT.      285 

long  public  career,  he  served  the  Town  in  many  capacities, 
as  ^Postmaster,  Register  of  Probate  nearly  forty  years,  a 
iriieinber  of  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  and  Inspection 
in  the  Revolution  and  Representative  to  the  Provincial  Con- 
gress and  General  Court.  He  lived  in  the  house,  much 
changed  from  successive  remodellings,  on  the  comer  of  Cen- 
tral and  Market  Streets,  now  owned  by  Mr.  Moritz  B. 
Philipp. 

Mr.  Noyes  was  chosen  by  the  Town  as  its  reading  and 
writing  school  master  for  several  years  and  in  1769,   the 
Town  voted  that  the  person  chosen  by  the  Feoffees  as  Gram- 
mar School  m^aster  should  be  the  master  of  the  reading  and 
writing  school.     In  1783   there  was  a  demand  for  longer 
terms   of  the  reading   and   writing  schools   and   provision 
was  made  for  one  school,  to  be  kept  the  whole  year  in  the 
Chebacco,  Hamlet  and  Linebrook  parishes  and  the  other  in 
the  First  and  South  parishes  with  accommodation  for  the 
children  in  the  "Village." 

The  system  of  "district  schools,"  as  they  were  called  was 
now  definitelv  established.  In  each  district,  the  lines  of 
which  were  accurately  determined,  all  the  tax  payers  con- 
stituted a  kind  of  corporation,  which  had  a  regular  organi- 
zation, provided  the  school-house  at  its  own  expense,  ap- 
pointed the  teachers,  and  drew  from  the  Town  treasury  for 
the  support  of  the  school  an  amount  proportioned  to  the 
taxable  property  in  the  district.  All  the  children  of  the 
district,  except  those  whose  age  and  attainmtents  permitted 
them  to  attend  the  Grammar  School,  went  to  this  "deestrict 
school,"  from  little  tots  four  and  five  years  old  to  young 
men  and  women  in  their  teens.  Of  these  ancient  schools, 
only  scant  records  remain. 

A  few  fragmentary  records  of  the  "Proprietors  of  the 
School-house,"  and  incidental  allusions  in  the  Shatswell 
account  books,  afford  valuable  information  regarding  the 
neighborhood,  which  centers  about  the  Paine  school-house. 


286        IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLOXY. 

The  earliest  allusion  is  in  1750,  "reckoned  with  wido^w 
Hannah  Nason  about  scooling."  The  widow  Foster  was 
school-mistress  in  1758,  and  the  widow  FuUiton  in  1766. 
The  Proprietors  Record  contains  brief  notes  of  the  meetings 
of  the  Proprietors,  which  were  organized  with  choice  of  a 
Moderator  and  Committee  to  hire  the  teacher  and  agree  on 
the  salary. 

On  June  16,  1767,  they  voted  to  hire  Mrs.  FuUington  for 
five  months  and  to  pay  her  forty  pounds,  old  tenor.  On 
January  25,  1768,  it  was  voted, 

That  we  hire  a  mistress  to  keep  the  school  nine  months  & 
the  school  to  begin  to  be  kept  the  first  day  of  March  next. 

That  we  give  Mrs.  Wells  £60  for  keeping  the  school  nine 
months. 

Apparently  the  wood  for  the  fire  was  provided  by  the 
parents,  and  in  case  of  a  refusal  to  find  the  wobd,  "the 
Committee  are  ordered  to  dismiss  the  schoUar  from;  the 
School." 

The  widow  Mary  Heard  was  employed  one  year,  and  a 
scrap  of  record  contains  the  vote,  the  year  not  mentioned: 
"they  that  send  children  to  Sowe  to  pay  her  Sixpence  a  week 
more  than  the  Proportion  of  Sixty  Pounds  O.  T."  No 
record  remains  of  the  years,  1772  to  1785,  but  John  Hart 
was  teaching  a  portion  of  the  time.  His  account  with  Mr. 
Richard  Shatswell  is  an  amusing  revelation  of  the  school 
methods  of  the  time.  He  may  have  kept  account  with  every 
other  parent  in  the  same  fashion. 

Mr.  Richard  Setshwell  to  John  Hart,  D'. 

1776  Nov.  19  To  Johns  part  of  Charcoal/'2'*  0-  0-  2 
22*  To  Schooling  Hannah  between  y*  11  Day 

of  June  &  22**  of  oct^  4  months  8  Days        0-  7-  8 

1777  April  5  To  Schooling  Natha"  from  feV  24*V 

5  weeks  0-  5-  0 

1776  Dec^  18.  To  Schooling  John  to  Read  and  write 

month  4-  0 


SCHOOLS  Ain>  SCHOOL-MASTEBS  OF  18tH  CENTURY.     287 

1777  Septm"^  10.  To  Schooling  Hannah  3  months  8-  0 

1778  May  5*^  To  Schooling  John  from  Jan'.  5  four 

months  @  6/  1-4-0 

28"*  To  Ditto  moses  4  months  23  Days  @  6/       1-  8-  6 

1779  Jn'  23*  To  Schooling  your  Two  Boys  T  write 

and  Kead  from  Nov*"  30     1  month  &  23 

Davs  5-  8-  9 


9-  5-  1 


Sup.  C  1776  Decem*-  11 

By  214  lb.  fowls  @  3/6  old  Ten'  14  lb.  Hogs  fatt 

Vs  10^/^  old  Ten'  in  Lawful  ntoney  0-  1-  2 

1777  July  15*^  By  1/0  lb.  Butter  /6*  0-  6 

1778.  Jan'  26.  By  Cash  6/.  .  .  .  6/  11^4  lb. 

mutton  @  1/6  1-  1-  5 

March  12.  By  foot  wood  12/  June  15  1  lb. 

Butter  4/  -16- 

1779  Jan.  9.  By  y2  foot  walnut  wood  12/  0-12-  0 

23  By  1  weeks  absence  of  John  &  Moses  at 

School  @  7/6  each  15-  0 

April  1.  By  cash  4/  4-  0 


3-10-  1 

9-  5-  1 
3-10-  1 

5-15-  0 


Decern.  1*^   1772  To  Schooling  John  from  July  19. 

19  weeks  @  /6    '  9-6 


•1 


6-  4-  6 


1772.  Jan.  3.  By  hailing  Load  of  wood  from 

Nath*  Lords  /8**  0-  0-  8 
Agust  6.     By  1/2  lb.  pork  /314  (17) 

pack  Barley  /10%  1-  2 

Octo  20.  By  3  lb.  Lamb  @  /2  6 

Decem'  1.  By  your  part  School  house  Rent  1-  7     3-11 

£6-  0-  7 


288        IPSWICH^  IN  THE   MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

The  pedagogue's  shortcomings  in  spelling  may  be  dealt 
with  leniently,  as  the  most  learned  took  large  liberties  at 
this  period,  but  his  jumbling  of  dates  and  his  error  of  a 
shilling  in  his  first  addition,  £9-5-1,  for  £9-6-1  may  have  dis- 
credited him  with  the  canny  merchant. 

Under  the  year  1780,  a  page  contains  the  original  Pro- 
prietors of  the  School  House. 

Daniel  Lummus  Benj"  Kimball 

Jeremiah  Lord  Jr.  Nath"  Lord  Hatter 

Richard  Shatswell  Jr.  Joseph  Fowler 

Moses  Lord  Daniel  Rindge 

Philip  Lord  Jeremiah  Kimball 

Nath"  Lord  Thomas  Smith 

Naty  Kimball  William  Baker 

Aaron  Day 

John  &  Jeames  Lord  Bought  Lummus  right  John  Coles 
Jewett  Bought  Smith  right 

Edward  Kneeland,  school-master,  is  mentioned  in  Dum- 
mer  Jewett's  accounts,  1757-1764,  John  Caldwell  4"*  is 
called  school-master,  in  a  deed  of  the  year  1787.  They  may 
have  taught  their  own  private  schools  or  the  district  schools. 
A  subscription  paper,  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Ipswich 
Historical  Society,  was  circulated  in  May,  1784,  to  secure 
funds  for  a  new  school  building,  near  the  Town  House,  which 
then  occupied  the  triangular  lot  in  front  of  the  Methodist 
meeting-house.  Gen.  Michael  Farley's  name  headed  the 
long  list  of  subscribers,  with  a  gift  of  £3.  Nearly  a  hun- 
dred citizens  contributed  cash  or  labor,  timber,  bricks  and 
stone,  amounting  to  more  than  £80  in  money  and  £8  in  labor 
and  materials. 

On  the  petition  of  Gen.  Farley  and  others  the  Town 
granted  a  lot  26  feet  by  86  feet  for  a  school  house,  "near  Mr. 
Joseph  Fowler's  barn,"  in  June,  1784.  An  ancient  school 
building,  which  occupied  the  same  site  as  the  present  Deni- 


SCHOOLS  AND  SOHOOL-MASTEES  OF  THE  18tH  CENTURY.    289 

son  school-house,  is  still  remembered  by  our  oldest  citizens. 
This  is  undoubtedly  the  building  erected  at  this  time. 

In  1792,  a  Committee  of  eleven  was  chosen  to  visit  the 
Town  schools,  a  committee  of  seven  for  Chebacco  and  of 
nine  for  the  Hamlet;  also  a  smaller  Committee  for  Line- 
brook,  Lieut.  Nathaniel  Appleton  and  Barnabas  Dodge  for 
the  Appleton  district,  Capt.  Moses  Jewett  and  Daniel  Nourse 
for  the  Village,  Timothy  Bragg  and  Lieut.  Nehemiah  Brown 
for  Candlewood,  John  Patch  Esq.  and  Capt.  Adam  Smith 
for   Argilla.     The  Committee  of  eleven  was  composed  of 
the  most  conspicuous  citizens:  Rev.  Mr.  Dana  of  the  South 
Cliurch  and  Mr.  Frisbie  of  the  First,  Col.  Nathaniel  Wade, 
Capt.  Ephraim  Kendall,  Daniel  Noyes  Esq.,  Mr.  Samuel 
Sawyer,  Capt.  Thomas  Dodge,  Dea.  John  Crocker,  Mr.  John 
Heard,  Dr.  John  Manning  and  Capt.  Daniel  Rogers.     The 
Town  had  instructed  the  various  Committees  to  meet  and 
draw  up  articles  of  Regulation  for  the  schools.     This  im- 
posing Committee  made  an  elaborate  and  valuable  deliver- 
ance in  its  report  to  the  Town. 

They  have  contemplated  a  few  things  in  which  they  sup- 
pose they  have  the  concurrence  of  the  Trustees  of  the  Gram- 
mar School  and  which  with  all  deference  they  submit : 

1.  That  a  line  of  division  between  the  two  schools,  ac- 
companied with  some  proper  arrangements,  would  probably 
save  time  and  contribute  to  the  advancement  of  learning  in 
both. 

2.  That  for  the  present  those  go  with  the  Latin  scholars 
to  the  Grammar  school  who  study  English  grammar,  those 
who  are  to  be  taught  book-keeping  and  after  them  the 
foremost  in  reading  &  spelling  untill  the  number  in  the 
Grammar  School  shall  rise  to  a  3*  part  of  y®  whole  existing 
number  in  both. 

3.  That  to  read  well  in  the  Bible  &  spell  well  should  be 
necessary  qualifications  for  entering  as  students  in  English 
grammar. 

4.  That  in  order  to  being  taught  book-keeping,  the  pupil 
must  have  gone   thro  the  four  first  rules  of  Arithmetic: 


290       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

simple  &  compound  Reduction  in  both  parts,  the  Rules  of 
Proportions  direct,  inverse,  &  compoimd  and  the  rales  of 
practise. 

5.  That  the  master  of  the  English  school  attend  upon  all 
in  Arithmetic,  except  the  Latin  scholars  and  those  in  book- 
keeping as  aforesaid. 

6.  That  in  both  schools,  the  Catechism  of  the  Assembly 
of  Divines  with  Doct'  Watts's  Explanatory  Notes  and  the 
Catechisms  by  the  same  author  be  constantly  used  as  much 
as  3  or  4  times  a  week  according  to  the  different  grades  of 
the  Scholars,  imtil  the  same  be  committed  to  Memory. 

7.  That  from  the  beginning  of  Apr'  to  the  first  of  Sept' 
the  schools  be  kept  from  8  in  the  morning  until  12  &  from 
2  P.  M.  to  5  &  that  they  be  kept  on  Thursday  afternoons 

excepting  Lecture  Days. 

So  the  children  had  a  strenuous  five  months,  at  least,  for 

their  wrestling  with  the  three  R's,  book-keeping  and  English 
grammar,  the  Latin  and  Greek  in  the  Grammar  School,  the 
frequent  and  diligently  repeated  exercises  in  the  Bible  and 
the  Catechism,  the  school  sessions  occupying  seven  hours  a 
day  and  six  days  a  week,  save  the  afternoon  of  the  "Thurs- 
day lecture,"  to  which  they  were  obliged  to  go. 

Resuming  the  survey  of  the  Grammar  School,  Mr.  Daniel 
Xoyes  was  succeeded  as  school-master  by  Thomas  Bumham, 
a  Harvard  graduate  of  1772,  in  the  year  1774.  Mr.  Bum- 
ham  taught  five  years,  then  entered  the  Revolutionary  army 
and  attained  the  rank  of  Major,  and  resumed  his  school 
duties  in  1786.  The  school  was  taught  in  1779  by  ISTathaniel 
Dodge,  son  of  Col.  Isaac  Dodge,  one  of  the  most  prominent 
citizens.  He  had  been  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1777.  He 
taught  another  year  in  1784,  and  then  turned  actively  to 
his  large  business  affairs.  In  1780,  Mr.  !N'oyes  returned  to 
the  school  for  a  year:  Jacob  Kimball  of  the  Harvard  class 
of  1780  served  as  teacher  in  1781 ;  Rev.  John  Tread  well 
was  School-master  from  1783  to  1785.  He  was  bom  on 
the  Island  farm/  was  graduated  from  Harvard,  1758,  was 

*  Publications  of  Histor.  Society,  No.  XVin,  p.  34. 


SCHOOLS  AND  SO HOOL-M ASTERS  OF  THE  18tH  OENTUKY.    291 

ordained  minister  of  the  First  Congregational  Church,  Lynn, 
1763.  Resigning  his  pastorate  in  1782,  he  returned  to  his 
native  town,  but  after  teaching  two  years  and  serving  as 
Representative  two  years,  1785  and  1786,  he  removed  to 
Salem  and  engaged  in  the  practise  of  law,  and  became  a 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas. 

Major  Burnham  resumed  his  old  position  in  1786  and 
continued  to  teach  for  five  years,  when  young  Daniel  Dania, 
son  of  Dr.  Joseph  Dana  of  the  South  Church,  a  graduate 
of  Dartmouth  College  in  1788,  taught  for  a  single  year  in 
1792.  lie  entered  the  ministrv,  was  President  of  Dart- 
mouth  College  for  a  year,  when  his  health  failed.  Resum- 
ing his  profession,  he  spent  many  years  in  the  pastorate  of 
the  Presbyterian  church  in  Newburyport.  His  brother, 
Joi^eph,  his  class  mate  in  Dartmouth,  followed  him  as  teacher 
of  the  school 'in  1793.  He  became  a  Professor  in  an  Ohio 
college.^ 

The  Grammar  School,  as  has  been  said  was  kept  in  the 
lower  story  of  the  Town  House  on  Meeting  House  Hill  from 
1704.  In  1794,  largely  by  the  help  of  a  public  subscrip- 
tion, a  new  school-house  was  built  in  the  school-orchard,  on 
the  comer  of  County  Road  and  Argilla  Road,  and  the  school 
returned  nearly  to  its  original  location. 

The  brilliant  Joseph  McKean,  Harvard,  1794,  kept  the 
i?chool  from  1794  to  1796,  the  first  of  the  long  line  of  teach- 
ers, who  have  taught  in  the  ancient  hip  roofed  structure.* 
He  was  studying  divinity  with  Dr.  Dana,  and  settled  as  pas- 
tor in  Milton,  Mass,  but  became  Professor  of  Rhetoric  and 
Oratory  in  Harvard.  Dr.  Dana's  third  son,  Samuel,  Har- 
vard, 1796,  taught  from  1797  to  1800,  while  fitting  himself 
for  the  ministerial  profession.  He  was  Pastor  of  the  C^'on- 
grcgational  church  in  Marblehead  for  many  years. 

*  See  Augustine  Heard  and  his  Friends.    Pub.  of  Ipswich  Histor.  Society, 
No.  XXI,  pp.  6,  6. 

*  Now  used  as  a  barn  by  the  I^throp  Brothers.     It  was  removed  to  its 
present  location  in  1835. 


292       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLONY. 

During  Samuel  Dana's  tenure  of  office  complaint  was 
made  that  boys  not  resident  in  Ipswich  were  attending  the 
school,  and  evidently  Dr.  Joseph  Dana,  was  one  of  the  of- 
fending parties.  He  addressed  to  the  Mjoderator  of  tno 
Town  Meeting  on  March  27"*,  1798,  a  written  defence, 
and  a  justification  of  the  policy  of  admitting  such  students 
to  the  school.  He  remarked  that  a  "handsome  edifice"  had 
been  "just  built  by  subscription,"  and  claimed  that  tlie  few 
non-resident  scholars  were  a  benefit  to  the  school. 

It  is  an  agreeable  circumstance  that  2  of  our  latin  scholars 
go  into  classes  with  children  of  the  town.  A  third,  who 
has  no  class-mate  in  Latin,  always  recites  at  home.  The 
2  others  go  into  reading  classes  and  write.  There  is  then 
the  trouble  of  2  writing  constantly;  3  more  by  spells — a 
little  Arithmetic,  and  but  a  little,  because  2  who  occasion- 
ally practise  in  it,  are  for  the  most  part  overlooked  out  of 

school Losing  the  stimulus  and  help  which  som^  of 

them  give  would  be  a  real  loss.  And  on  a  moderate  reckon- 
ing, the  hours  out  of  school,  which  the  Master  has  devoted 
this  year  and  the  last  to  ruling  books,  setting  copies  and 
sums,  for  such  a  number  of  writers  and  cypherers  belong- 
ing to  the  school  (which  he  is  not  obliged  to  do),  are  an 
ample  equivalent  for  the  extra  time  spent  upon  these  chil- 
dren :  for  which,  nevertheless,  they  pay  and  very  cheerfully, 
whatever  is  required  of  them. 

Dr.  Dana's  letter  reveals  the  decadent  condition  of  the 
ancient  school.  The  Town's  people  were  dissatisfied  with 
it  and  bright  boys  like  Daniel  Treadwell,  the  future  Har- 
vard Professor,  were  sent  to  school  in  other  towns.  The 
teachers  were  capable  and  often  brilliant,  but  their  tenure 
was  brief  and  continuity  of  work  was  impossible. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 
The  Bseaoh  with  Gbbat  Britain. 

The  increased  determination  of  the  mother  country  to  im- 
pose restrictive  regulations  upon  the  commerce  of  the  Colo- 
nies and  to  enforce  them  bv  Writs  of  Assistance  caused 
tmiversal  resentment.  The  culminating  affront,  however, 
'was  the  passage  of  the  "Stamp  Act"  in  March,  1765,  which 
required  that  legal  documents  and  official  papers  should  be 
written  on  stamped  paper  and  that  stamps  should  be  affixed 
to  printed  books  and  newspapers.  The  cost  of  the  stamps 
was  insignificant,  but  the  principle  involved  was  subversive 
of  the  liberty  of  the  Colonists.  The  tax  had  been  imposed 
by  Parliament  As  the  Colonists  had  no  representatives 
in  that  body,  this  was  taxation  without  representation,  and 
such  taxation  was  tyranny.  Intense  popular  excitement  fol- 
lowed. The  Virginia  Assembly  made  spirited  protest. 
Riots  occurred  as  soon  as  the  names  of  the  stamp  distribu- 
tors were  known.  In  Boston,  the  house  of  Lieut.  Gbv. 
Hutchinson  was  wrecked  and  custom  officials  were  mobbed. 

A  Town  meeting  assembled  in  Ipswich  on  October  2l8t 
to  consider  the  situation.  There  had  been  much  previous 
discussion,  no  doubt,  by  the  citizens,  when  they  met  on  lec- 
ture days  and  market  days,  and  in  quiet  groups  in  their 
homtes.  Some  representative  citizen,  Daniel  !N'oyes,  the 
school-master,  perhaps,  or  Francis  Choate,  had  prepared  an 
elaborate  document,  which  was  read  and  adopted  by  the 
assembly  of  citizens.  It  took  the  form  of  Instructions  to  Dr. 
John  Calef,  the  Representative  in  General  Court. 

In  formal  phrase,  it  recited  the  principle : 

(298) 


294       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

That  as  our  subordination  to  our  Mother  Country  has  its 
foundation  intirely  In  our  Charter,  you  are  strenuously  the 
Decently  to  maintain  that  any  Measure  not  Consistent  with 
those  Charters,  &  that  Deprives  of  any  Right  in  them  is 
Neither  Consistent  with  such  Subordination  Nor  Implyed 
in  it. 

When  our  Fathers  Left  their  Native  Country  ....  they 
came  of  their  Own  accord  and  att  y'  own  Expense  and  took 
possession  of  a  country  they  were  obliged  to  Buy  or  Fight 
for  and  to  which  the  Nation  had  no  more  Right  then  the 
Moon. 

The  Charter,  it  affirmed,  was  "the  only  Reward  the  Pro^ 
ever  had  for  Purchasing  att  an  Infinite  Expense  of  their 
Own  Blood  &  Treasure  their  Large  Part  of  New  Accession 
of  Empire  Wealth  &  Glory  to  the  British  Nation."  "The 
Distressing  and  Ruining  Measures"  lately  adopted,  it  fur^ 
ther  declared,  were  destructive  of  their  right  of  self-gov- 
ernment, which  the  Charter  secured  and  which  the  mother 
land  had  tacitly  acknowledged  for  many  years. 

When  the  first  of  November  arrived,  the  date  set  for  the 
operation  of  the  Stamp  Act,  not  a  stamp  could  be  bought, 
and  the  Act  could  not  be  enforced.  This  odious  measure 
was  repealed  in  1766,  but  in  1767,  the  Townshend  Acts,  so 
called,  were  passed,  one  of  which  provided  for  a  tax  on  wine, 
glass,  tea,  gloves,  &tc,  inported  into  the  Province. 

Dr.  Calef  was  a  practising  physician  and  a  prominent 
citizen,  but  in  the  political  ferment  of  the  time  he  failed  to 
satisfy  his  constituents.  In  the  following  year,  Capt 
Michael  Farley  was  chosen  Representative.  He  was  already 
in  middle  life,  six  years  older  than  Dr.  Calef,  a  tanner  by 
trade,  and  an  officer  in  the  militia.  He  had  never  before 
attained  the  dignity  of  high  political  office,  though  he  was 
a  man  of  forceful  personality  and  unusual  ability.  From 
the  year  1766,  however,  he  was  constantly  in  public  life. 
He  had  married  Elizabeth  Choate,  daughter  of  Captain 
Robert  Choate,  Feb.  5:  1746,  and  their  thirteenth  child, 
Sarah,  was  bom  July  16,  1769. 


THE  BBEAOH  WITH  OBEAT  BRITAIN.  295 

l>urmg  his  first  year  of  service  in  the  General  Court,  the 
British  government  demanded  damage  for  the  destruction 
of  property  by  the  riot  roused  by  the  Stamp  Act.  The 
Town  instructed  him  at  a  Town  meeting  on  August  18, 
1766,  to  use  his  influence  to  prevent  any  money  being  paid 
out  of  the  Province  Treasury  for  this  purpose,  but  directed 
him  to  "move  it  to  the  Court  to  ask  his  Excellency  our 
Governor  to  Recommend  it  to  his  People  in  this  Grovem- 
ment  to  Kelieve  ye  Sufferers  either  by  Subscription  or  Con- 
tribution as  in  Cases  of  Calamities  by  Fire." 

Capt.  Farley,  no  doubt,  discharged  his  duty  satisfactorily 
as    he   was   chosen    Representative    again    in    May,    1768. 
During  the  winter  of  1767-1768,  the  General  Court  issued 
a  Circular  Letter,  which  was  sent  to  the  other  Assemblies, 
notifying  them  of  the  measure  adopted  by  Massachusetts 
with  regard  to  resistance  to  the  Townshend  Acts  and  sug- 
gesting concerted  action.,    Gov.  Bernard  was  instructed  by 
the  Colonial  Secretary  to  demand  the  Massachusetts  Assem- 
bly to  rescind  this  Letter,  and  to  command  the  Gk)vernors 
of  the  other  colonies  to  dissolve  their  Assemblies  if  they 
voted  to  act  with  Massachusetts.       He  acted  at  once  upon 
these  instructions  but  on  June  30'**,  1768,  the  Legislature 
refused  to  rescind  its  vote,  seventeen  voting  in  the  affirma- 
tive, ninety-two  in  the  negative.       This  decision  was  ap- 
plauded throughout  the  Colonies  and  the  other  Assemblies 
soon  adopted  the  same  course. 

A  Town-meeting  was  called,  "Pursuant  to  a  request  of  a 
Great  "Number  of  the  Free  holders  ....  to  try  their  minds 
by  a  Vote,  whether  they  Approve  of  the  Proceedings  of  the 
late  House  of  Representatives  in  not  Rescinding  etc."  It 
met  on  August  11*"*,  and  it  was 

Voted,  that  the  To^\ti  of  Ipswich  Highly  Approve  of  the 
Conduct  of  those  Gentlemen  of  the  late  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, who  were  for  maintaining  the  Rights  and  Libertys 
of  their  Constituents  and  were  against  the  Rescinding  the 
resolves  of  a  former  House. 


296      IPSWICH,    IN   THE    MAS8A0HU8ETTB   BAY    COLOKT. 

Voted,  that  the  thanks  of  this  Town  be  given  to  the  Worthy 
&  Much  Esteemed  Ninetv-two  Gentlemen  of  the  late  Hon** 
House  of  Representatives  for  their  firmness  &  Steadiness  in 
Standing  up  for  and  adhering  to  the  Just  Kights  and  Lib- 
erty s  of  the  Subject  when  it  was  Required  of  them  at  the 
Peril  of  their  Political  Existance  Rescind  the  resolves  of 
the  then  former  House  of  Representatives. 

The  glorious  "^N^inety-Two"  became  a  popular  toast^  and 
a  Song^  was  inspired. 

Addressed  to  the  Sons  of  Liberty  on  the  Continent  of 
America,  particularly  to  the  Hlustrious,  Glorious  and 
Never-to-be-forgotten  Ninety  Two  of  Boston 

Tune,  "Come  Jolly  Bacchus"  or  "Glorious  First  of  Au- 
gust.'' 

Come  jolly  SONS  of  LIBERTY 

Come  ALL  with  Hearts  UNITED 

Our  Motto  is  WE  DARE  BE  FREE 

Not  easilv  afFriffhted. 

Oppressions  Band  we  must  subdue 

Now  is  the  Time  or  Never 

Let  each  Man  PROVE  this  Motto  true 

And  SLAVERY  from  him  sever. 

Unfortunately  for  himself  as  after  events  proved,  Dr. 
Calef  voted  with  the  minority. 

The  seizure  of  the  sloop,  "Liberty,"  owned  by  John  Han- 
cock for  alleged  smuggling  of  dutiable  goods,  led  to  a  riot. 
More  ships  and  soldiers  were  demanded  by  the  Royal  Gov- 
ernor. He  was  requested  by  the  Town  of  Boston  to  summon 
the  Legislature,  and  upon  his  refusal,  proposals  for  a  Con- 
vention of  Towns  were  sent  bv  Boston  to  all  the  Towns. 
Capt.  Farley  was  chosen  the  Delegate  from  Ipswich  on  Sept 
19*^. 

Informers,  who  reported  smuggling  to  the  Custom  House 
officials,  received  summary  treatment.       A  Custom  House 

^  From  the  Pennsylvania  Journal  of  Aug.  4th,  printed  in  the  Essex  Ga- 
zette, August  9-16.  1768. 


THE  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BRITAIN.  297 

waiter,  guilty  of  this  offence,  was  taken  to  Salem  Common  in 
Sept.    1768/ 

where  his  Head,  Bodv  and  Limbs  were  covered  with  warm 
Tar  and  then  a  large  quantity  of  Feathers  were  applied  to 
all  Parts,  which  by  closely  adhering  to  the  Tar,  Exhibited 
an  odd  figure,  the  Drollery  of  which  can  easily  be  imagined. 

He  was  set  in  a  cart,  with  a  placard,  "Informer,"  on  his 
breast  and  back,  led  into  Main  Street  and  escorted  out  of 
town  by  a  cheering  crowd,  who  warned  him  of  worse  treat- 
ment if  he  returned.^ 

Joshua  Vickery,  a  ship  carpenter  of  Newburyport,  de- 
clared that  on  Saturday,  Sept.  lO"',  he  was  seized  and  carried 
to  the  stocks,  where  he  sat  from  3  to  5  P.  M.  "most  of 
the  time  on  the  sharpest  stone  that  could  be  found  which 
put  him  to  extreme  pain  so  that  he  once  fainted."  He  was 
then  put  in  a  cart  and  carried  through  the  town  mth  a 
Tope  round  his  neck,  his  hands  tied  behind  him,  severely 
pelted  with  eggs,  gravel  and  stones.  He  was  taken  into  a 
dark  warehouse,  where  he  was  kept  over  Sunday,  hand 
cuffed  and  without  bedding.  Having  made  the  edge  of  a 
tar  pot  serve  as  a  pillow,  his  hair  was  torn  out  of  his  head 
when  he  arose.  On  Monday  morning  he  was  compelled  to 
lead  a  horse  cart  about  the  town,  though  his  persecutors, 
he  affirmed,  were  well  satisfied  of  his  innocence,  and  with 
Prancis  Magno,  who  was  stripped  naked,  tarred  and 
feathered,  was  committed  to  jail  for  breach  of  the  peace.* 

To  deprive  the  Townshend  Acts  of  all  value  as  a  measure 
for  revenue,  the  merchants  of  Boston  and  other  large  towns 
bound  themselves  by  agreements  not  to  purchase  any  of  the 
articles  taxed.  Ipswich  took  spirited  action.  At  a  Town 
meeting,  held  on  March  19***,  1770,  a  Committee,  previously 
appointed,  reported  as  follows : 

'ESssex  Gazette,  Sept.  6-13,  1768. 
•  Ssaez  Gasette,  Sept.  20-27,  1768. 


298     irswicir,  in  the  Massachusetts  bay  colony. 

Taking  under  consideration  the  Distrest  State  of  Trade 
of  this  (jovernment,  (and  the  Whole  Continent  by  Reason 
of  a  Late  Act  of  Parliament  Imposing  Duties  on  Tea,  Glass, 
etc.)  ....  Voted,  that  we  are  Determined  to  Retrench  all 
Extravagances  and  that  we  will  to  the  utmost  of  our  Power 
&  Ability  Encourage  our  own  Manufactures  and  that  we 
will  not  l3y  ourselves  or  any  for  or  under  us  Directly  or  In- 
directlv  Purchase  anv  Goods  of  the  Persons  who  have  Im- 
ported  or  Continue  to  Import  or  any  Person  or  Trader  who 
shall  Purchase  any  Goods  of  said  Importer  Contrary  to  the 
agreement  of  the  Merchants  in  Boston  and  the  other  Trad- 
ing To^vns  in  this  Government  &  the  neighboring  Colonies 
Until  they  make  a  Publick  Retraction  or  a  Gen*  Importa- 
tion Takes  Place. 

And  Further  taking  under  Consideration  the  Excessive 
Use  of  Tea,  which  has  been  such  a  bane  to  this  Country. 

Voted  that  we  will  abstain  therefrom  ourselves  &  Reco- 
mlend  the  Disuse  of  it  in  our  Familys  Untill  all  the  Revenue 
Acts  are  Repealed. 

Upward  of  three  hundred  "Mistresses  of  Families"  in 
Boston  had  bound  themselves  by  Jan.  31**,  1770,  to  "totally 
abstain  from  Tea  (sickness  excepted)  not  only  in  our  re- 
spective families  but  that  we  will  absolutely  refuse  it,  if  it 
should  be  offered  to  us  upon  any  Occasion  whatsoever."  A 
hundred  and  twenty-six  young  ladies  of  Boston  signed  a 
similar  agreement.* 

No  doubt  the  women  of  Ipswich  wore  equally  patriotic, 
but  the  tradition  remains  that  the  excellctit  wife  of  the 
doughty  Capt.  Farley  persisted  in  slipping  in  to  neighbor 
Dame  Heard's  and  partaking  of  the  forbidden  thing.  As 
dealers  who  sold  tea  were  boycotted,  the  family  supply 
was  soon  exhausted.  The  hardship  suffered  by  the  Colonial 
women  while  the  tea  embargo  prevailed  is  a  forgotten  page 
in  the  story  of  the  times.  Tea  alone  was  excepted,  when 
Parliament  repealed  the  Townshend  Acts,  in  response  to  the 
appeal  of  English  merchants,  whose  trade  had  suffered  severe- 
ly from  the  refusal  of  the  Colonists  to  purchase. 

*  Essex  Gazette,  Feb.  6-13,  1770. 


TUB  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BEITAIN.  299 

But  the  women  of  Massachusetts  made  far  more  effective 
protest  against  the  odious  taxes  than  their  resolve  to  ab- 
stain from  the  use  of  tea.  They  set  themselves  vigorously 
to  the  making  of  cotton  and  woolen  fabrics  in  their  homes, 
that  there  might  be  no  sale  for  English  goods.  One  family 
in  Eoxbury,  carded,  spun  and  wove  645%  yards  of  cloth 
from  Jan.  1,  1768  to  Dec.  29"*  following  and  at  that  time 
had  yam  enough  at  the  weavers  for  100  yards  more.^  Spin- 
ning bees  became  a  popular  amusement.  A  communication® 
from  Ipswich,  dated  June  22,  1769,  gives  a  graphic  account 
of  one  of  these  unique  affairs. 

It  gives  us  a  noble  Prospect  to  see  what  a  spirit  of  In- 
dustry and  Frugality  prevails  at  this  day  in  the  American 
young  Ladies,  and  Generosity  toward  their  Grospel  ministers. 

Yesterday  morning  very  early  the  young  Ladies  in  that 
Parish  of  this  Town  called  Chebacco,  to  the  number  of  77, 
assembled  at  the  house  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  John  Cleaveland  with 
their  spinning  wheels;  and  though  the  Weather  that  day 
was  extremely  hot,  and  divers  of  the  young  Ladies  were 
but  about  13  years  of  Age,  yet  by  six  o'  the  clock  in  the 
Afternoon  they  spun  of  Linen  Yam,  440  Knots,  and  carded 
and  spun  of  Cotton,  730  Knots,  and  of  Tow  600,  in  all 
1770  Knots,  which  make  177  ten-knot-skeins,  all  good 
yam,  and  generously  gave  their  Work  and  some  bro't  Cotton 
and  Flax  with  them,  more  than  they  spun  themselves,  as 
a  Present  .... 

After  the  Music  of  the  Wheels  was  over,  Mr.  Cleaveland 
entertained  them  with  a  Sermon  on  Prov.  14:  1,  "Every 
wise  Woman  buildeth  her  house  but  the  foolish  plucketh  it 
down  with  her  hands/'  which  he  concluded  by  observing, 
How  the  Women  might  recover  to  this  Country  the  full  and 
free  Enjoyment  of  all  our  Eights,  Properties  and  Privi- 
leges (which  is  more  than  the  Men  have  been  able  to  do), 
and  so  have  the  Honour  of  building  not  only  their  own  but 
the  houses  of  many  Thousands  and  perhaps  prevent  the  Ruin 
of  the  whole  British  empire  viz.  by  living  upon  as  far  as 
possible  only  the  Produce  of  the  Country,  and  to  be  sure 

■Essex  Gazette,  Jan.  10.  1769. 
*  E^ssex  Gazette,  June  27,  1769. 


800       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONTT. 

to  lay  aside  the  use  of  all  foreign  Teas.  Also  by  wearing, 
as  far  as  possible  only  Cloathing  of  this  Country's  manufac- 
ture. 

Their  Behaviour  was  decent  and  they  manifested  nothing 
but  Pleasure  and  Satisfaction  in  their  Countenances  at  their 
retiring,  as  well  as  through  the  whole  preceding  Transactions 
of  the  Day. 

The  women  of  the  Linebrook  Parish  to  the  number  of  13, 
met  at  the  house  of  Rev.  George  Leslie  on  August  15**,  "in 
the  Design  of  a  spinning  match."  "One  of  these  young 
ladies  carded  the  whole  of  the  day  and  of  the  other  twelve, 
some  carded  and  spun  and  others  only  spun."  After  the 
work  was  done,  the  pastor  "entertained  the  spinners  and  a 
number  of  others  of  both  sexes  with  a  discourse."  Perhaps 
the  young  men  were  permitted  a  part  in  the  final  exercises 
of  the  day. 

From  the  town  of  Middleton  came  the  extraordinary  re- 
port, that  there  were  between  seventy  and  eighty  looms  in 
the  ninety  dwellings,  and  that  from  January  1769  to  Janu- 
ary 1770,  there  were  woven  on  these  looms,  20,522  yards 
of  cloth,  more  than  40  yards  apiece  for  every  man,  woman 
and  child.'' 

The  Columbian  Centinel  of  Jime  7,  1791  contained  an 
interesting  communication  showing  that  the  fine  art  of  spin- 
ning was  still  popular. 

The  Printer  is  requested  to  record  it  among  the  numerous 
instances  of  female  benevolence  and  harmony,  which  have 
been  exhibited  in  these  times,  and  so  well  reprove  the  jar- 
ring dissensions  of  the  men  that  at  Ipswich  lately,  at  the 
house  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Dana,  a  numerous  band  of  ladies  in 
harmonious  concert  have  again  "laid  their  hands  to  the  spin- 
dle and  held  the  distaflP"  and  presented  the  fruit  of  their 
generous  toil,  118  rim  of  good  yam  viz,  88  linen,  30  cotton, 
the  materials,  provisions  and  handsome  attendance,  all  fur- 
nished by  themselves,  and  those  who  joined  with  them,  "Give 

*  Essex  Gazette.  Feb.  27,  1770 


THE  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BRITAIN.  301 

her  of  the  fruit  of  her  own  hands  and  let  her  own  works 
praise  her  in  the  gates." 

The  inarch  of  critical  events  now  became  rapid.  In 
March,  1770,  the  clash  between  the  soldiers  and  citizens, 
known  as  the  "Boston  Massacre"  caused  the  death  of  several 
Boston  men.  In  1772,  the  "Gaspee,"  a  British  armed  ves- 
sel, stationed  in  Narragansett  Bay  to  prevent  smuggling, 
ran  aground  and  was  captured  and  burned  by  an  attacking 
party  from  Providence.  A  pamphlet  was  published  in  Bos- 
ton, reciting  the  encroachments  by  the  Crown  upon  the 
liberty  of  the  Colonists,  which  was  circulated  among  the 
towns.  In  the  Essex  Gazette,  Jan  7-14,  1772,  proposals 
appeared  for  reprinting  by  subscription  in  a  handsome  oc- 
tavo volume,  the  famous  "Vindication  of  the  Government  of 
New  England  Churches"®  by  John  Wise,  the  minister  of 
the  Chebacco  Parish,  first  published  in  1717. 

That  bold  and  brilliant  book  had  produced  a  profound  im- 
pression by  its  impassioned  advocacy  of  democracy  in  the 
government  of  the  churches.  "The  end  of  all  good  govern- 
ment," he  affirmed,  "is  to  cultivate  humanity  and  promote 
the  happiness  of  all,  and  the  good  of  everj'^  man  in  all  his 
rights,  his  life,  liberty,  estate,  honor  and  so  forth,  without 
injury  or  abuse  to  any."  "JTo  wonder,"  says  Prof.  Tyler,^ 
"that  the  writer  of  that  sentence  was  called  up  from  his 
grave  by  the  men  who  were  getting  ready  for  the  Declaration 
of  Independence." 

The  advertisement  of  the  "Proposals"  continued. 

The  aforesaid  Proposals  were  agreed  to  by  most  of  the 
Clergy  of  that  day,  by  which  a  new  System  of  Church  Gov- 
ernment would  have  taken  place  had  not  that  reverend  and 
bold  Champion,  the  Author,  stept  forth  for  the  Churches 
Defence.  And  as  Human  Nature  is  the  same  now  as  it 
was  then,  'tis  thought  by  some  Judicious  Persons  prudent 

•  T&gea  28-30. 

•  History  of  American  Literature  during:  the  Colonial  Time  II:  116. 


302       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOXY. 

that  the  Male  Members  of  every  Congregational  Church  in 
the  World  should  furnish  themselves  with  this  truly  valu- 
able Book. 

Three  hundred  subscriptions  had  been  obtained  already. 
The  whole  edition  of  five  hundred  copies  was  sold  at  once, 
and  a  new  issue  was  proposed  in  February. 

At  a  Town  meeting  on  Dec.  28,  1772,  Ipswich  made  its 
response  to  the  Boston  Protest  in  a  lengthy  and  elahorate 
series  of  Eesolves.     These  affirmed  the  right  of  the   Colo- 
nists to  enjoy  and  dispose  of  their  property  in  common  with 
all  other  British  subjects,  the  unwarranted  assumption  of 
power  by  Parliament  to  raise   a  revenue  contrary  to    the 
minds  of  the  aggrieved  and  injured  people,  the  expenditure 
of  this  revenue  in  providing  salaries,  which  rendered   the 
Governor  and  Judges  independent  of  the  people,  the  neglect 
of  their  petitions  for  redress,  and  closed  with  the  resolution 
to  choose  a  Committee  to  correspond  with  the  Committees 
of  other  towns. 

The  Committee,  which  reported  these  Kesolves,  appended 
their  names : 

Francis  Choate  Mr.  Daniel  Eogers 

Capt.  Michael  Farley  Dea.  Stephen  Choate 

John  Calef  Esq.  Maj'  John  Baker 

Will"  Storey  Esq.  Mr.  John  Crocker 

Mr.  John  Hubbard  M'  William  Dodge 

Mr.  Daniel  Noyes  Mr.  John  Treadwell 

Joseph  Appleton  Esq. 

The  Report  was  read  and  put  to  vote  paragraph  by  para- 
graph, and  unanimously  adopted.  Capt  Farley,  Mr.  Daniel 
Noyes  and  Major  John  Baker  were  chosen  the  Committee 
of  Correspondence,  "to  Receive  and  Communicate  all  salu- 
tary measures  that  shall  be  proposed  or  offered  by  any  other 
Town." 

On  Dec.  16**^  1773,  the  tea,  which  had  been  brought  into 
Boston  harbor  was  thrown  into  the  sea.     A  week  later,  the 


THE  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BRITAIN.  303 

Ipswich  citizens  met  in  most  violent  mood,  and  adopted  a 
series  of  Resolutions,  which  are  of  unique  interest 

Resolved.  I.  That  the  Inhabitants  of  this  Town  have 
received  real  pleasure  and  Satisfaction  from  the  noble  and 
spirited  Exertions  of  their  Brethren  of  the  Town  of  Bos- 
ton and  other  Towns  to  prevent  the  landing  of  the  detested 
Tea  lately  arrived  there  from  the  East  India  Company 
subject  to  a  duty  for  the  sole  Purpose  of  Raising  a  Revenue 
to  Support  in  Idleness  and  Extravagance  a  Set  of  Mis- 
creants, whose  vile  emissaries  and  Understrappers  swarm  in 
the  Sea  Port  Towns  and  by  their  dissolute  Lives  and  Evil 
Practices  threaten  this  Land  with  a  Curse  more  deplorable 
than  Egyptian  Darlmess. 

11.  That  we  hold  in  utter  Contempt  and  Detestation  the 
Persons  appointed  Consignees  ....  who  have  rendered 
themselves  justly  Odious  to  every  Person  possessed  of  the 
least  Spark  of  Ingenuity  or  Virtue  in  America. 

Ill ' 

IV.  That  it  is  the  Determination  of  this  Town  that  no 
Tea  shall  be  brought  into  it  during  the  Term  aforesaid  and 
if  any  Person  shall  have  so  much  Effrontery  and  Hardiness 
as  to  offer  any  Tea  to  sale  in  this  Town  in  Opposition  to 
the  general  Sentiments  of  the  Inhabitants  he  shall  be  deemed 
an  Enemy  to  the  Town  and  treated  as  his  superlative  Mean- 
ness and  Baseness  deserve. 

Gen.  Gage  arrived  in  Boston  in  April,  1774,  succeeding 
Gov.  Hutchinson,  as  Governor  of  the  Province.  The  port 
of  Boston  was  closed  by  Royal  edict  on  May  23^.  The  line 
of  cleavage  between  those  who  professed  themselves  loyal  to 
the  Crown,  who  were  called  Tories,  and  the  great  body  of 
the  people,  began  to  be  sharply  defined. 

The  Justices  of  the  Court  of  General  Sessions  and  Jus- 
tices of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  of  Worcester  drew  up 
a  Memorial  congratulating  Gov.  Gage  on  his  safe  arrival 
and  protesting  against  all  "Riots,  Routs  Combinations  and 
unwarrantable  Resolves."  The  Committees  of  Correspon- 
dence of  Worcester  and  other  towns  published  appeals  to  the 


i 


I 


304       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

people  to  break  off  all  connection  with  Great  Britain.  The 
Justices  of  the  Plymouth  County  Courts  sent  an  address  to 
Gen.  Gage  on  July  6***,  and  the  Essex  County  Justices  on 
July  26^^^ 

The  list  of  Councilors  appointed  by  the  King  was  re- 
ceived in  August.  The  popular  indignation  now  burst  all 
bonds.  At  Worcester,  two  or  three  thousand  citizens  went 
to  the  house  of  Hon.  Timothy  Paine,  a  member  of  this  body, 
and  obliged  him  to  read  his  resignation  in  person  with  his 
hat  off.  Thev  marched  then  to  Rutland  and  waited  on  Hon. 
John  Murray. 

The  Governor  issued  a  Proclamation  forbidding  a  Town 
meeting  in  Boston  and  ordered  the  Committee  of  Corres- 
pondence to  disperse  the  people.  He  ordered  out  his  troops. 
Thev  marched  to  the  town  line,  halted  and  loaded  and  about 
eighty  advanced  to  within  one  eighth  of  a  mile  of  the  Town 
House.  But  the  meeting  had  transacted  its  business  and 
dissolved.  ^^ 

On  Thursday  morning,  Sept.  1,  1774,  260  British  regulars 
in  13  large  flat  boats  went  up  Medford  river,  landed  and 
marched  to  the  powder  house  on  Quarry  hill,  Charlestown, 
whence  thoy  took  250  half  barrels  of  powder  and  carried 
them  to  the  Castle.  A  detachment  went  to  Cambridge  and 
brought  off  two  field  pieces,  lately  sent  there  for  Col. 
Brattle's  regiment.  It  was  rumored  that  the  Committee 
of  Correspondence  of  Salem  was  liable  to  arrest  and  to  be 
sent  to  England  in  the  "Scarborough.'' 

Middlesex  County  took  the  alarnu  By  evening,  large 
bodies  of  men  began  to  assemble  with  their  arms  and  pro- 
visions. By  Friday  morning,  some  thousands  had  arrived 
in  Cambridge,  armed  only  with  sticks,  as  they  had  left  their 
fire-arms.  When  the  Boston  Committee  of  Correspondence 
arrived  in  Cambridge,  they  found  a  great  assembly  about 

»•  Essex  Gazette.  June  28,  1774-July  26th. 
"  Essex  Gazette.  Aug.  23-30.  1774. 


THE  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BRITAIN.  305 

the  Court  House  and  Judge  Danforth  speaking  from  the 
steps  assuring  them  he  had  resigned  his  office  and  present- 
ing a  written  certificate.  Judge  Joseph  Lee  delivered  the 
same  assurance.  Lieut.  Gov.  Oliver  went  from  Cambridge 
to  Boston  about  8  o'clock  and  informed  Gov.  Gage  it  was 
not  a  mad  mob  but  a  gathering  of  the  free  holders  of  the 
County.  Returning  at  once  he  met  the  Committee  and  de- 
clared he  was  ready  to  resign  as  Councilor,  but  that  he  had 
scruples  about  laying  down  his  office  as  Lieut.  Governor,  as 
he  was  constitutionally  in  office. 

Commissioner  Hallowell  chanced  to  come  through  on  his 
way  to  Boston  and  a  troop  of  150  horsemen  galloped  after 
him.  The  greater  part  soon  returned  but  one  man  followed 
and  stopped  his  chaise  in  Roxbury.  Greatly  frightened,  the 
Commissioner  snapped  his  pistol  at  him  and  mounting  his 
servant's  horse,  rode  at  top  speed  to  the  camp  in  Boston, 
declaring  that  he  was  pursued  by  thousands. 

A  Boston  gentleman,  seeing  movements  in  the  camp 
indicating  an  attack,  sent  word  to  Cambridge.  The  people 
sent  instantly  for  their  anns  and  dispatched  horsemen  to 
discover  the  approach  of  soldiers.  The  alarm  proved  false, 
they  resumed  their  deliberations,  and  presented  to  the  Lieut. 
(Jovemor  a  document,  which  he  signed,  appending  to  it  by 
their  consent  the  statement, 

My  house  at  Cambridge  being  surrounded  by  about  4000 
People  in  compliance  with  their  Commands,  I  sign  mv  name. 

Thos.  Oliver.^2 

Cambridge,  Sept.  2. 

Exaggerated  rumors  of  a  clash  with  the  troops  spread 
abroad.  In  Connecticut,  no  less  than  40,000  men  were  re- 
ported in  motion  and  under  arms  on  Saturday,  Sunday  and 
Monday,  and  many  meeting  houses  were  not  opened  for 
Sabbath  worship,  as  the  report  had  spread  that  the  troops 

"  Essex  Gazette.  Aug.  30- Sept.  6,  1774. 


306       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

had  fired  and  killed  several.  The  Xew  York  Gazetteer  of 
Sept.  8***  stated  that  people  were  greatly  alarmed  by  an  ex- 
press from  Col.  Putnam  of  Pomfret  reporting  that  six  per- 
sons had  been  killed,  that  the  artillery  had  been  playing 
all  night  upon  the  Town,  and  begging  them  to  rally  their 
forces  and  march  to  the  relief  of  Boston.^' 

These  wild  rumors  of  blood  shed  were  hardly  quieted  be- 
fore the  delegates  from  all  the  towns,  67  in  number,  arrived 
in  Ipswich  on  Tuesday,  Sept.  6,  and  the  Ipswich  Convention 
began  its  deliberations,  which  required  two  days.  Jere- 
miah Lee  Esq.  of  Marblehead  was  the  Chairman.  Resolu- 
tions were  adopted  by  unanimous  vote,  binding  themselves  to 
stand  together  in  opposition  to  the  Crown,  demanding  the  res- 
ignation of  officials  holding  office  by  Royal  appointment,  and 
declaring  the  Provincial  Congress,  soon  to  assemble,  abso- 
lutely necessary  for  the  common  safety.^* 

Demand  was  made  at  once  upon  Hon.  William  Brown  of 
Salem  that  he  resign  his  office  as  Coimcilor,  which  he  stead- 
fastly refused  to  do.  Dr.  John  Calef,  the  former  Repre- 
sentative, was  no  longer  in  public  office,  but  his  Tory  sen- 
timents had  become  a  theme  of  common  remark.  He  had 
made  a  voyage  to  London,  sailing  on  Dec.  30,  1772,  as  agent 
for  a  number  of  proprietors  and  settlers  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  Province,^^  called  the  "Penobscot  Associated  Loy- 
alists," who  had  built  houses  on  the  Penobscot  river,  think- 
ing they  would  be  well  within  the  limit  of  what  would  be 
determined  to  be  British  territorv.  Dr.  Calef  remained 
more  than  a  year  in  England,  endeavoring  to  secure  the 
Penobscot  as  the  boundary.  He  was  in  close  touch  with 
Lord  ITorth,  who  was  warmly  in  favor  of  this  scheme,  and 
a  lingering  family  tradition  has  it  that  one  morning  Lord 
North  greeted  him  with  the  exclamlation,  "Doctor,  Doctor,  we 
cannot  have  the  Penobscot  made  the  boundary,  the  pressure 

"Essex  Gazette,  Sept.  6-13th.  1774. 

^*  Essex  Gazette.  Sept.  6-13,  1774. 

"  Essex  Gazette.  Dec.  29 -Jan.  5.  1773. 


THE  BKEAOH  WITH  GBEAT  BRITAIN.  307 

is  too  strong."  During  his  stay  in  England,  Dr.  Calef  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Selina,  Countess  of  Huntington,  and  be- 
came warmly  interested  in  her  work. 

His  extreme  unpopularity  on  his  return  is  evident  from 
a  rough  newspaper  squib  that  appeared  in  August,  1774. 

To  the  Inhabitants  of  the  County  of  Essex. 

Beware. 

A  strange  phenomenon  appeared  in  the  Town  of  Danvers 
very  lately.  It  took  its  way  from  Agawam,  many  were  the 
conjectures  what  it  was,  some  thought  it  was  some  kind  of 
the  human  species  others  by  the  appearance  of  the  head 
that  it  was  really  a  Calf^®  but  being  carefully  viewed  by  a 
venerable  Sachem,  he  declared  it  to  be  a  Tool  of  Power 
and  gave  the  following  account  of  his  observations  viz. 
That  somie  time  after  the  ore  was  dug  and  a  little  refined, 
it  was  put  into  the  hands  of  one  who  could  to  appearance 
work  any  bad  metal  into  any  shape  and  for  what  use  he 
pleased.  When  he  had  worked  this  lump  of  bad  stuff,  it 
came  out  of  his  hands  in  the  form  of  a  Pole- Ax.  Many 
of  the  tribe  from  whence  he  came  used  it  till  thev  were  tired 
and  found,  although  to  outward  appearance  pretty  good,  yet 
there  being  no  steel  put  into  it,  it  proved  to  be  no  better 
than  a  dull  mattock,  and  somebody  have  lately  sent  it  to 
Danvers  to  impose  on  the  good  people  there,  who,  it  is  hoped, 
will  take  this  hint,  and  never  try  to  improve  it  and  if  it 
should  be  sent  to  any  other  town  it  is  hoped  they  will  take 
the  hint. 

A  word  to  the  wise  is  sufficient 
Done  at  Headquarters  in  Agawom 
in  the  eighth  moon 

PAIJGUS. 

Dr.  Calef  addressed  a  petition^'^  to  the  General  Court  in 
July,  1775,  which  stated  that  he  had  built  a  ship,  designed 
for  the  West  Indies,  and  that  it  might  be  made  ready  for 
sea  in  a  few  days.     It  lay  at  Danvers,  with  officers  on  board 

*•  The  name  Calef  seems  to  have  been  commonly  pronounced  Calf.    It 
was  often  so  spelled. 
^^Mass.  Archives,  180:  81. 


308       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

and  provisions  for  the  voyage.  He  prayed  the  Court  to 
grant  permission  to  dispatch  the  ship  to  the  Penobscot  for 
a  load  of  lumber  for  the  West  Indies,  and  offered  to  give 
bonds  that  she  would  bring  a  return  cargo  of  commodities 
needed  for  this  market.  The  petition  was  dismissed  sum- 
marily. 

The  climax  of  the  Doctor's  unpopularity  was  reached  in 
early  October.  A  great  crowd  of  citizens  gathered  about 
his  residence  and  demanded  of  him  a  written  declaration 
of  his  political  sentiments  and  formal  confession  of  his 
wrong  courses.     The  document  was  as  follows : 

Inasmuch  as  a  great  Xumber  of  Persons  are  about  the 
House  ^®  of  the  Subscriber  who  say  they  have  heard  I  am 
an  Enemy  to  my  Country  &tc.  and  have  sent  a  large  com- 
mittee to  examine  me  respecting  my  Principles. 

In  Compliance  with  their  Request  do  declare. 

First.  I  hope  and  believe  I  fear  God,  honour  the  King 
and  love  my  country. 

Secondly.  I  believe  the  Constitution  of  civil  Govemmoit, 
as  held  forth  in  the  Charter  of  Massachusetts  Bay  Province, 
to  be  the  best  in  the  whole  World,  and  that  the  Kights  and 
Privileges  thereof  ought  to  be  highly  esteemed,  greatly 
valued  and  seriouslv  contended  for,  and  that  the  late  Acts 
of  Parliament  made  against  this  Province  are  unconstitu- 
tional and  unjust,  and  that  I  will  use  all  lawful  Means  to 
get  the  same  removed ;  and  that  I  never  have  and  never  will 
act  by  a  Commission  under  the  new  Constitution  of  Gov- 
ernment, and  if  ever  I  have  said  or  done  anything  to  en- 
force said  Act,  I  am  heartily  sorry  for  it:  and  as  I  gave 
my  Vote  in  the  General  Assembly  on  the  30*^  of  June, 
1768,  contrary  to  the  Minds  of  the  People,  I  beg  their  For- 
giveness, and  that  the  good  People  of  the  Province  would 
restore  me  to  their  Esteem  and  Friendship  again. 

John  Calef. 
Ipswich,  Oct.  3,  1774. 

"  Dr.  Calef  owned  and  occupied  the  house  on  the  site  now  occupied  by 

the  mansion  of  the  late  John  I^oard  Esq.     He  sold  to  John  Heard  In  1777. 

About  the  year  1800,  Mr.  Heard  removed  the  old  house  to  a  lot  on  Poplar 

St.  and  built  the  new  dwelling.     The  Caldwell  sisters  owned  the  old  Calef 

house  In  later  years. 


THE  BBEAGH  WITH  GBEAT  BRITAIN.  309 

I  am  free  the  said  Committee  should  make  use  of  the 
above  Declaration^^  as  they  think  proper. 

John  Calef, 

After  he  had  read  the  above  Declaration  it  was  put  to 
Vote  and  the  Company  voted  Acceptance. 

Dr.  Calef  was  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  citizens  of 
Ipswich.  He  was  born  Aug.  30,  1726,  married  Margaret, 
daughter  of  the  Kev.  Nathaniel  Rogers,  (inten.  Nov.  7,  1747) 
\^'ho  died  March  27,  1751  at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  leav- 
ing two  children,  Margaret  bom  in  1748,  who  married  Dr. 
Daniel  Scott  of  Boston,  in  October,  1767,  and  Mary,  bap- 
tized March,  1750,  married  Capt.  John  Dutch  of  Ipswich. 
Dr.  Calef  married  Dorothy,  daughter  of  Rev.  Jedediah  Jewett 
of  Rowley,  on  Jan.  18,  1753,  and  eleven  children  were  bom 
to  them:  Capt.  John,  who  was  drowned  in  February,  1782; 
Jedediah,  who  died  in  1778  in  his  23*  year;  Robert,  who 
died  in  N'orfolk,  Va.  in  1801,  aged  forty-one;  Samuel  and 
Jedediah  Jewett,  the  youngest  of  the  family,  who  was  bom 
on  June  22,  1778.  The  daughters  were  Elizabeth,  Dorothy, 
Sarah,  Susanna,  Mehitable  and  Martha.  Elizabeth  and 
Martha  died  in  Sept.,  1771.  Mehitable  married  Capt 
Henry  Mowat,  who  commanded  the  British  ship  "Albany'' 
at  the  siege  of  Penobscot  in  1779. 

Dr.  Calef  had  served  as  surgeon  in  the  campaign  against 
Louisbourg,  and  acquitted  himself  with  great  credit  in  the 
French  and  Indian  War.^^  He  was  a  friend  of  Rev.  Gleorge 
Whitefield  and  was  one  of  the  pall  bearers  at  his  funeral. 
Mr.  Whitefield  provided  in  his  will  for  a  funeral  ring  for 
him.  He  entered  the  British  service  and  was  surgeon  of 
a  regiment  at  the  siege  of  Penobscot. 

In  December,  1779,  a  Cartel  arrived  in  Ipswich  to  take 
Dr.  Calefs  family  to  the  Penobscot.  An  interesting  sou- 
venir of  this  event  is  the  original  charge  of  Capt  Daniel 

»  Thla  was  published  in  the  Ensex  Gazette,  Oct.  11-18,  1774. 
••  See  Chapter  Vm. 


310       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY   COLONY. 

Rogers  for  guarding  the  vessel  while  she  lay  in  port>  pre- 
served in  a  box  of  old  papers  in  the  Town  House. 

The  Town  of  Ipswich  to  Dan*  Rogers  Dr. 
Dec.  15,  1779. 

To  my  service  together  with  three  Men  Detached  from  my 
Company  to  serve  as  Guard  on  Board  the  Cartel,  which  came 
for  Doc^  Calef 's  family,  provisions,  drink,  etc.  etc.  £45-  0-  0 

Ipswich,  March  27,  1780. 

Only  a  part  of  his  family  followed  their  father.  His 
sons,  John  and  Robert  remained  in  Ipswich,  and  on  Sept. 
13,  1780,  Robert  petitioned  the  General  Court  for  permis- 
sion to  go  to  Penobscot  for  his  sister  Sarah.  The  Court  did 
not  approve  his  request,  but  ^^esolved  that  the  Prayer  of 
said  Petitioner  be  so  far  granted  as  that  the  said  Sarah 
Calef  be  permitted  to  return  into  this  State  in  the  first  cartel 
from  Penobscot."^^ 

After  the  war,  Dr.  Calef  made  his  home  in  St.  John,  but 
removed  to  St.  Andrews,  N.  B.  where  he  died  in  1812.  He 
wrote  an  account  of  the  siege  of  Louisbourg,  which  has  not 
been  preserved,  and  a  narrative  of  the  si^e  of  Penobscot. 
Although  his  son,  Jedediah  Jewett  Calef  settled  in  Rowley, 
the  family  name  in  this  vicinity  has  long  been  extinct.** 

On  the  day  after  the  Ipsvrich  people  had  waited  on  Dr. 
Calef,  the  ilamilton  folk  visited  Nathaniel  Brown  Esq.  in 
a  body,  presented  formal  charges  of  being  a  Tory  and  ex- 
torted a  written  confession.  *•  In  Rowley,  a  number  of 
freeholders,  having  met  at  the  house  of  Solomon  !N'elsony 
proceeded  to  the  residence  of  Thomas  Gage,  accused  of  Tory 
speeches,  and  forced  him  to  make  an  humble  recantation. 
Benjamin  Adams  Sen.,  husbandman,  was  suspected  of  simi- 
lar sentiments  and  the  penalty  meted  out  to  him  was  in- 

»  Records  of  General  Court  40:  557. 

*>  An  interesting:  narrative  of  Dr.  Calef  in  his  later  yesLTs  may  be  found  in 
▲cadiensis  Vol.  VIC,  No.  8,  pp.  190,  229,  260,  261-273. 
«  Essex  Gazette,  Oct  4-11,  1774. 


THE  BBEAOH  WITH  GBEAT  BRITAIN.  311 

geniously  humiliating.     "Voted,  he  was  unworthy  of  pub- 
lic Notice."24 

The  port  of  Boston  remained  closed  to  all  shipping  through 
the  summer  and  autumn  of  1774.     As  the  people  were  re- 
duced to  great  extremities  for  food,  the  neighboring  towns 
rallied  nobly  to  their  relief.     Ipswich,  already  burdened  by 
the   great  expense  occasioned  by  an  epidemic  of  smallpox, 
voted  to  raise  a  hundred  pounds  by  popular  subscription,  and 
the  Selectmen  were  asked  to  "make  a  proportion  of  the  same 
among  the    Inhabitants  ....  according   to   the   Province 
Tax,  exclusive  of  the  poor  Inhabitants  of  this  Town."     The 
Southern  colonies  responded  with  fine  enthusiasm.     A  sloop 
from  Charleston,  S.  C.  arrived  in  Salem  in  July  with  205 
tierces  of  rice,  the  gift  of  twenty  gentlemen.     Two  vessels 
arrived  at  Newport  from  South  Carolina,  laden  with  sup- 
plies and  bringing  word  that  2000  barrels  of  rice  had  been 
subscribed.     The  County  of  Fairfax  in  Virginia  subscribed 
£273  in  specie,  38  barrels  of  flour  and  150  bushels  of  wheat. 
Providence,  Philadelphia  and  New  Hampshire  towns  gave 
generously.     In  December,  the  donations  from  near  and  far 
had  reached  such  extraordinary  proportions,  that  the  Bos- 
ton authorities  published  on  Dec.  8,  the  donations  "lately 
received  by  the  port  of  Boston,"  which  amounted  in  the  ag- 
gregate to  miore  than  £200  in  money,  612  sheep,  74  oxen  and 
cattle,  4010  bushels  of  grain,  256  barrels  of  flour,  105  barrels 
of  ship  stuifs,  35  cords  of  wood,  etc.     This  common  interest 
in  the  relief  of  Boston  was  another  factor  that  was  welding 
the  people  of  all  the  colonies  into  a  unit,  in  resistance  to  the 
Crown. 

The  First  Provincial  Congress  met  in  Salem  on  Friday, 
October  7,  1774,  Ipswich  being  represented  by  Capt, 
Michael  Farley  and  Mr.  Daniel  Noyes.  It  recommended 
that  companies  of  Minute-men  be  organized  and  that  "each 
of  the  minute  men  not  already  provided  therewith,  should 

»  Essex  Gazette.  Oct.  25-Nov   1,  1774. 


312       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

be  immediately  equipped  with  an  effective  Fire-arm  Bayonet, 
Pouch,  Knapsack,  Thirty  roimds  of  Cartridges  and  Ball, 
and  that  they  be  disciplined  three  times  a  week  and  oftener 
as  opportunity  may  offer." 

Ipswich  responded  with  the  '^Troop's  Covenant." 

The  Troop  of  Horse  in  the  third  Regiment  of  Militia  in 
the  County  of  Essex,  Being  about  to  choose  their  Officers, 
(agreeable  to  the  Advice  of  the  Provincial  Congress)  came 
into  the  following  Agreement  this  fourteenth  day  of  Novem- 
ber, Anno  Domini  1774,  viz  .... 

We  the  Subscribers  the  Troopers  hereafter  If amed  prom- 
ise to  subject  ourselves  to  the  Officers  that  may  be  chosen 
whither  it  be  the  cap*"  or  other  Officers  under  him,  duely 
Chosen  by  a  Major  part  of  the  Troop,  and  that  we  will 
attend  all  military  Musters,  and  in  case  of  Delinquency,  we 
Promise  to  pay  a  fine  as  By-Law  in  that  case  is  made  and 
provided,  imless  a  Reasonable  Excuse  be  given  to  the  Com- 
manding Officer  for  the  time  being,  in  witness  whereof  We 
have  hereunto  sett  our  hands  the  Day  &  year  above  written 

Timothy  Bragg  Tho*  Dodge 

Robert  Perkins  George  Dodge  J*". 

Robert  Bumum  John  Emerson 

John  Kinsman  Aaron  Eveleth 

Amos  Burnam  Seth  Goodhue 

Isaac  Burnam  eToseph  Goodhue 

Paltiah  Brown  Mark  Haskell  3* 

Elisha  Brown  Jr.  T^ehemiah  Jewett 

Ebenezer  Brown  Aaron  Jewett 

Nehemiah  Brown  Samuel  Kinsman 

Sam*  Bragg  Joseph  Metcalf  J' 

John  Bradstreet  Samuel  Potter 

Allen  Baker  Nehemiah  Patch 

Francis  Brown  John  Pearson 

William  Conant  Jun.  Samuel  Quarles 

Nehemiah  Choate  Joseph  Roberts 

John  Cross  Nath*  Smith 

Joseph  Cummings  Juner  Thomas  Smith 


THE  BREACH  WITH  GREAT  BRITAIN.  313 

Joseph  Brown  Michael  Kinsman 

John  Harris  Juner  John  Whipple 

Zebulon  Smith  Moses  Conant 

Abner  Day  Jr.  John  Chapman 

Robert  Choat 
after  Signing,  the  Troopers 

herein  named  the  same  day  March  13***  1775,  the  above 

Proceeded  and  made  Choice  named  John  Pearson  pason- 

of  Moses  Jewett  Captain  ally  appeared  &  was  sworn  to 

Robert  Perkins  Lieut*  the  faith  full  Discharge  of  the 

John  Kinsman  Comet  office  of  Clerk  to  the  Troop 

Slisha  Brown  Qurterms.  in  Ipswich 

John  Pearson,  Clerk  Before  Aaron  Potter,  Justice 

Nehemiah  Choate,  Corpriel  Peace^^ 
Nathaniel  Smith  Corpriel 

At  the  Town  Meeting,  held  on  November  21**: 

The  Proposals  and  Resolves  of  the  Continental  Congress 
being  Read  the  Vote  being  put  whether  the  Town  do  approve 
of  said  Proposals  and  Resolves,  it  pass'd  in  the  Affirma- 
tive Unanimouslv. 

Voted  that  Mr.  N.  P.  Major  J.  B.  Lt.  Isaac  Dodge 
Capt.  M.  F.  Ens.  John  Patch,  Mr.  Jon.  Cogswell  Jr.  Mr. 
Jacob  Goodhue,  Mr.  John  Patch  y*  4"*  Capt.  John  Whipple 
Jr.  Lt.  Abraham  Howe,  Mr.  John  Fowler  Be  a  Committee 
to  see  that  the  said  Resolves  are  most  punctually  observed. 

The  Resolves  of  the  Provincial  Congress  being  Read,  the 
Vote  Being  put  whether  the  Town  will  comply  with  the 
said  Resolve,  it  passed  in  the  affirmiative. 

It  was  voted  that  no  more  delegates  be  sent  to  the  Pro- 
vincial Congress. 

On  Nov.  21'*,  1774,  the  crisis  was  at  hand.  The  enlist- 
ment of  soldiers  according  to  the  Proposals  of  the  Provincial 
Congress  was  approved,  and  a  plot  of  land  at  the  easterly 
end  of  the  Town  House,  fifty  feet  long  and  twenty-five  feet 
wide  was  granted,  "during  the  Town's  pleasure"  "to  a  num- 
ber of  Subscribers  in  order  to  Erect  a  House  for  the  En- 

*  Original  document  In  posseBsion  of  Mr.  A.  Everett  Jewett  of  Ipswich. 


314       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

couragement  of  Military  Discipline."  A  Committee  on  Min- 
ute Men  reported  a  contract  to  be  signed  by  those  who  en- 
listed, and  their  proposed  wages,  on  Jan.  3,  1775.  This 
report  recommended  the  enlistment  of  a  quarter  part  of  the 
Training  Band  or  Alarm  List,  and  the  payment  of  a  shilling 
to  each  enlisted  man  for  each  half  day  he  iattended  muster. 
Every  man  was  bound  to  "attend  Duty  two  half  days  in 
each  week."  After  the  first  of  April,  the  pay  was  advanced 
to  two  shillings,  to  be  continued  imtil  "taken  into  Province 
pay  or  Dismissed  by  said  Town." 

At  the  same  meeting,  Col.  Michael  Farley  was  appointed 
Delegate  to  the  Provincial  Congress  to  be  held  at  Cambridge, 
Feb.  1"*.  Mr.  Daniel  Noyes,  William  Story  Esq.  and  Dea- 
con Stephen  Choate  were  chosen  a  Committee  to  prepare 
Instructions.  These  Instructions  were  embodied  in  a  series 
of  Resolutions  which  were  approved  by  the  Town  and  entered 
in  full  in  the  Town  Records.  The  first  of  tiiese  enjoined 
upon  their  delegate  to  see  that  one  of  the  first  acts  of  the 
Congress  should  be  to  set  apart  a  day  for  fasting  and  prayer. 
The  second  suggested  the  inquiry  whether  any  of  the  towns 
have  neglected  to  comply  with  the  Resolves  of  the  Conti- 
nental or  Provincial  Congress.  The  third  Resolution  is  of 
especial  interest. 

It  is  with  Regret  that  we  find  there  are  Enemies  among 
ourselves,  who  insinuate  &  endeavor  to  persuade  others  that 
This  Province  is  seeking  after  Independency  &  want  to 
break  off  from  their  allegiance  to  the  Crown  of  Great  Bri- 
tain, which  is  a  thing  that  has  not  the  Least  Foundation  in 
Truth;  neither  can  these  wicked  Persons,  we  believe,  Pro- 
duce so  much  as  one  single  Instance  thereof  ....  Never- 
theless to  avoid  giving  them  the  least  handle  against  us,  we 
desire  you  would  Endeavor  that  nothing  be  done  by  the 
Congress  to  change  or  alter  the  Form  of  Government  ap- 
pointed by  Our  Last  Charter,  but  that  with  patience  and 
due  Fortitude  we  bear  the  Injuries  brought  upon  us,  wait- 
ing for  [the]  time  of  our  deliverance. 


THE  BBEAOH  WITH  QR£AT  BBITAIN.  315 

Evidently  the  popular  sentiment  in  Ipswich,  though  ex- 
ceedingly hostile  to  the  Tory  attitude,  was  far  from,  demand- 
ing separation  from  the  mother  country  even  at  the  moment, 
vrteii  the  Colonies  were  arming  for  their  defence. 

AVar  was  now  inevitable  and  it  was  only  a  question  of  a 
f e"viir  months  or  even  weeks,  before  a  clash  with  the  British 
troops  would  be  precipitated.  Indeed  the  popular  feeling 
^wras  so  tense,  and  preparations  for  the  conflict  were  so  far 
advanced,  that  any  moment  might  witness  blood  shed.  That 
fatal  moment  seemed  at  hand  in  mid  December. 

A  swift  messenger  from  Boston  informed  the  men  of  Ports- 
mouth that  two  regiments  were  coming  to  take  possession 
of  their  fort.  By  beat  of  drum,  200  men  assembled  imme- 
diately and  went  to  the  Castle  in  2  gundalows.  They  were 
joined  by  150  more  on  the  way.  Capt.  Cochran  refused 
to  surrender  the  fort  at  their  demand  and  fired  3  guns,  but 
without  fatal  result.  They  immediately  scaled  the  walla, 
disarmed  the  garriflon,  and  took  possession  of  97  barrels  of 
powder,  which  they  conveyed  to  a  safe  hiding  place.  The 
next  day  the  town  was  full  of  men  from  the  country,  who 
marched  in  in  due  fom  and  chose  a  Committee  to  wait  on 
the  Governor  and  inquire  as  to  the  truth  of  the  reported 
march  of  the  British  troops.  The  next  morning,  it  was  re- 
ported that  a  thousand  or  fifteen  hundred  men  ''of  the  best 
property  and  note  in  the  Province,"  were  on  the  march  to 
Portsmouth.  Happily  the  alarm  was  needless  and  once  more 
the  country  side  grew  quiet. 


CHAPTER  XIV 
The  Revolution aby  War 

The  drill-shed,  authorized  by  the  vote  on  Nov.  2V\  1774, 
was  no  doubt  built  at  once.  On  Dec  19^,  the  Town  ap- 
pointed its  Committee  to  draw  up  a  contract  for  men  to 
sign,  which  reported  its  scale  of  wages  and  form  of  con- 
tract on  Jan.  3,  1775. 

Oapt  Wade's  company  of  minute  men  signed  their  con- 
tract on  January  24*"*. 

We,  whose  Names  are  hereunto  Subscribed,  do  voluntarily 
Inlist  our  selves,  as  Minute  Men,  to  be  ready  for  Military 
operation,  upon  the  shortest  notice.  And  we  hereby  Prom- 
ise &  engage,  that  we  will  immediately,  each  of  us,  provide 
for  &  equip  himself  with  an  eifective  fire  Arm,  Bayonet, 
Pouch,  Knapsack,  &  Thirty  round  of  Cartridges  ready  made. 
And  that  we  may  obtain  the  skill  of  compleat  Soldiers,  We 
promise  to  convene  for  exercise  in  the  Art  Military,  at  least 
twice  every  week;  and  oftener  if  our  officers  shall  think 
necessarv. 

And  as  soon  as  Such  a  Number  shall  be  Inlisted,  as  the 
present  Captain,  Lieutenant  &  Ensign  of  ye  Company  of 
Militia  shall  think  necessary,  we  will  proceed  to  choose  such 
Officers,  as  shall  appear  to  them  &  to  ye  Company  to  be  neces- 
sary. The  Officers  to  be  chose  by  a  Majority  of  ye  Votes 
of  the  Inlisted  Company  And  when  ye  officers  are  duly 
chosen,  We  hereby  proniise  &  engage  that  we  will  punctually 
render  all  that  obedience  to  them  respectively,  as  is  required 
by  the  Laws  of  this  Province  or  practiced  by  any  well  regu- 
lated Troops.  And  if  any  officer  or  Soldier,  shall  neglect  to 
attend  the  time  &  place  of  exercise,  he  shall  forfeit  &  pay 
the  sum  of  two  shillings  LawfuU  money  for  the  use  of  ye 

(316) 


THE  BEVOLUTIONARY  WAK. 


317 


Company,  Unless  he  can  oifer  such  an  excuse  to  the  officers 
of  y^  Company  as  to  them  shall  appear  sufficient. 

IN".  B.  It  is  to  be  understood  that  when  nine  Company's 
of  fifty  men  Each  are  Inlisted,  that  then  the  said  Officers  of 
the  Minute  Company's  Proceed  to  Chose  their  Field  Officers, 
agreeable  to  the  proposal  of  the  Provincial  Congress. 

Ipswich,  Jan^  24^^  1775. 


Joseph  Hodgkins 
Aaron  Perkins 
Francis  Hovey 
John  Graves  Jr. 
IFrancis  Merrifield 
Jonathan  Foster 
Daniel  Goodhue 
Jabez  Farley 
Nathaniel  Brown 
Isaac  Giddings 
INath^  March 

Nathanael  Tread  well 

Samuel  Bumham 

Stephen  Dutch 

Benjamin  Heard 

Jeremiah  Stanford  Juner 

Nathaniel  Ross 

William  Gtoodhue  Juner 

John  Stanwood  in  the  place 
of  Wm  Longfellow. 

Philip  Lord  Juner 

Benjamin  Ross 

Michael  Farley  Jun. 

John  Fowler 

Samuel  Lord  5 

Henry  Spiller 

Joseph  Appleton  Juner 

William  Dennis 

Nathaniel  Jewett 

John  Waite 


Nathanael  Rust  Juner 

Charles  Lord 

Ephraim  Goodhue 

Nathaniel  Lord  ye  3* 

Benjamin  Averell 

Isaac  Stanwood 

John  Fitts  Juner 

Daniel  Stone 

John  Harris  5 

Joseph  Fowler  3** 

eTabez  Sweet  Juner 

Thomas  Appleton  Juner 

Kneeland  Ross 

Ebenezer  Lakeman  for  the 
Room  of  John  Waitt 

John  Peters  in  the  Room  of 
Benjamin  Averell 

Thomas  Hodgkins  in  the 
Room  of  Jeremiah  Stan- 
ford 

Nathaniel  Wade 

Asa  Baker 

Nath.  Souther 

James  Fuller  Lakeman 

Jabez  Ross  Jun.  in  room  of 
Jon.  Perkins 

Thomas  Bordman  Juner 

Edward  Stacy 

Nathaniel  Lakeman  in  the 
Room  of  Philip  Lord.^ 


Abraham  Knowlton  Juner 

^  The  original  roll  is  in  i>osse8slon  of  Mr.  Jesse  H.  Wade. 


318       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

The  first  hostile  act  of  Gen  Gkge's  troops  was  the  expe- 
dition headed  by  Col.  Leslie  which  marched  from  Marble- 
head  to  Salem  on  Sunday,  February  26,  to  seize  the  mili- 
tary supplies  which  had  been  gathered  there.     The  draiiv 
bridge  over  the  North  River  was  raised  and  the  minute 
men  rallied  to  resist  further  advance.      The  stores  were 
hastily  removed,  and  after  a  parley,  Col.  Leslie  agreed,   if 
the   bridge   should  be   lowered,   that  he   would  march    his 
troops  a  little  way  and  then  return.     Word  was  sent  at  once 
to  the  whole  country-side.     The  Salem  Gazette,  issued   on 
[March  7***,  in  its  account  of  the  event^  says  that  "people 
of  all  the  neighboring  Towns  as  well  as  those  at  30  or  40 
miles  Distance,  were  mustering  and  great  numbers  actually 
on  their  march  for  this  place,  so  that  it  is  thought  12  or 
15,000  men  would  have  been  assembled  within  24  hours  after 
the  alarm." 

Ipswich  must  have  heard  the  news.  There  is  no  record 
of  any  march  of  the  soldiery,  but  fresh  impetus  was  given 
to  the  enrollment.  A  few  days  later,  "the  alarm  list  of  the 
Third  Company  in  Ipswich  convened  and  after  choosing 
a  moderator,  made  choice  of  the  following  Gentlemen  for 
their  officers,  Capt.  John  Whipple  Jr.  Captain,  Mr.  John 
Thomson,  2°^  Lieut,  and  Ensign  Jonathan  Lamson,  Ensign.'' 
This  was  the  Hamlet  Company.  Thomas  Burnham,  teacher 
of  the  Ipswich  Grammar  School,  had  organized  a  com- 
pany, and  Capt.  Abraham  Dodge  commanded  another  com- 
pany. Capt.  Jonathan  Cogswell's  company  was  composed 
almost  whollv  of  Chebacco  men. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  April  19*"*  the  British  regulars 
marched  to  Lexington  and  Concord.  Swift  riders  bore  the 
c^ll  to  arms  far  and  wide.  From  all  the  neighboring  towns 
and  villages,  the  minute  men  poured  in,  and  had  a  valiant 
part  in  the  pursuit  of  the  retreating  soldiers.  The  day  was 
well  advanced  before  the  tidings  reached  Ipswich.  The 
alarm  was  sounded  and  the  minute  men  dropped  their  tools, 


THE  BE  VOLUTION  AKY  WAR.  319 

left  the  ploughs  in  the  furrows,  seized  their  arms  and  rallied 
at  the  appointed  rendezvous. 

The  march  was  soon  begun  and  company  after  company 
hurried  away  to  the  shrill  music  of  fife  and  drum.  Capt. 
Ifathaniel  Wade,-  Capt.  Thomas  Bumham,*  the  school  mas- 
ter, and  Capt.  Daniel  Rogers,*  marched  at  the  head  of  their 
companies.  Capt.  Moses  Jewett^  led  his  horse  troop.  Capt. 
.Vbram  How®  with  his  43  men,  marched  from  the  Line- 
brook  Parish,  Capt,  Jonathan  CogswelF  from  Chebacco,  and 
Capt.  eTames  Patch**  and  Dr.  Elisha  Whitney  from  the 
Hamlet. 

The  day  was  so  hot  that  the  British  regulars  dropped 
in  their  tracks,  overcome  by  the  heat,  but  the  hardy 
minute  men  of  Ipswich  pushed  on  to  Medford,  24  miles 
away,  before  they  halted  for  the  night. 

Capt.  Jonathan  Bumham  at  the  head  of  his  Hampton 
company  arrived  in  Ipswich  the  next  morning,  after  an  all 
night  march.  According  to  his  own  story,®  he  found  the 
town  panic-struck,  "because,  "two  Men  of  Wars  tenders  were 
in  the  river  full  of  men  and  would  land  and  take  twenty 
British  soldiers  out  of  a  goal  that  was  taken  prisoners  at 
Lexington  battle  and  would  bum  the  town,  so  we  stayed 
that  day  and  night.''  The  town  was  nearly  defenceless, 
as  more  than  three  hundred  men  were  in  the  eight  com- 
panies of  minute-men,  but  about  two  hundred  men  were 
mustered  and  Capt.  Burnham  was  chosen  as  their  comman- 
der. 

Everybody  was  busy  hiding  valuables  or  carrying  them 
away  to  some  place  of  safety.     One  brave  Ipswich  woman, 

>  Mass.  Archives  13 :  167. 

*  Mass.  Archives  11:  204. 

*  Mass.  Archives  13 :  74. 
«Mass.  Archives  12:  163. 
•Mass.  Archives  12:  146. 
^Mass.  Archives  11:  204. 
*Mass.  Archives  13:  65. 

*  The  Life  of  Col.  Jonathan  Burnham.  now  livlngr  In  Salisbury,  Mass. 


320       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOXY. 

however,  as  the  family  tradition  asserts,  was  wholly  un- 
moved, Daniel  Ringe's  good  wife,  Elizabeth.  It  w^as  her 
washing-day  and  she  stood  to  her  scrubbing.  Her  father, 
who  had  just  buried  his  silver  spoons  in  the  cellar,  ran  to 
his  daughter's  dwelling  to  render  her  assistance.  Surprised 
at  her  indiiference,  he  cried  out,  "Why  Betty  are  you  wash- 
ing ?"  "Yes,"  she  replied,  "if  the  red  coats  come  they  may 
as  well  have  my  clothes  wet  as  dry." 

The  "alarm,"  to  which  Captain  Bumham  alludes,  spread 
far  afield  and  took  on  serious  and  even  ludicrous  propor- 
tions. Without  stopping  to  find  whether  there  was  any 
truth  in  the  alarming  report,  frightened  messengers  put 
spurs  to  their  horse?  and  roused  the  whole  country  side  with 
their  out  cry. 

Mr.  Coffin,  the  historian  of  Newbury,  describes  the  fright 
vividlv. 

On  Friday  afternoon,  April  twenty-first,  the  second  day 
after  the  Lexington  fight,  the  people  of  Xewburyport  held 
an  informal  meeting  at  the  town  house,  and  just  as  the 
Reverend  Thomas  Gary  was  about  opening  the  meeting  with 
prayer  a  messenger  rushed  up  stairs,  in  breathless  haste, 
crying  out,  "For  God's  sake,  turn  out!  turn  out!  or  you 
will  all  be  killed !  The  regulars  are  marching  this  way  and 
will  soon  be  here.  They  are  now  at  Ipswich  cutting  and 
slashing  all  before  them." 

The  messenger  proved  to  be  Mr.  Ebenezer  Todd,  who 
stated  that  he  had  been  sent  from  Rowley  to  Vam  the  peo- 
ple of  their  impending  destruction.  The  news  spread  like 
wild  fire,  and  being  generally  credited,  the  consternation 
became  almost  universal.  As  a  large  part  of  the  militia  had 
marched  to  the  scene  of  action  early  the  next  morning  after 
the  fight  at  Lexington,  the  terror  and  alarm  among  the  wo- 
men and  children  was  proportionately  increased,  especially 
as  from  all  quarters  was  heard  the  cry,  "The  regulars  are 


THE  RBVOLUTIONAEY  WAR.  321 

coming:.  They  are  down  to  Old  Town  bridge  cutting  and 
slashing  and  killing  all  before  them !  They'll  soon  be  here !" 
It  is  remarkable  that  the  same  story  in  substance  was  simul- 
taneously told  from  Ipswich  to  Coos.  In  every  place  the 
report  was  that  the  regulars  were  but  a  few  miles  behind 
them. 

Mr.  Eliphalet  Hale  of  Exeter  was  at  Ipswich  and  waited 
to    ascertain  the  correctness  of  the  report.     Learning  that 
it  was  without  foundation,  he  made  haste  to  undeceive  the 
people  by  riding  from  Ipswich  to  Newbury  in  fifty  minutes. 
In  the  mean  time  all  sorts  of  ludicrous  things  were  being 
done  by  men  and  women  to  escape  impending  destruction. 
Vehicles  of  every  kind  filled  with  all  sorts  of  people  to- 
gether with  hundreds  on  foot,  were  to  be  seen  moving  with 
all  possible  speed  further  north  to  escape  the  terrible  regu- 
lars. 

Some  crossed  the  river  for  safety.  Some  in  Salisbury  went 
to  Hampton  and  spent  the  night  in  houses  vacated  by  their 
owners  who  had  gone  on  the  same  errand  further  north 
....  One  man  yoked  up  his  oxen  and  taking  his  own 
family  and  some  of  his  neighbor's  children  in  his  cart,  drove 
off  to  escape  the  regulars  ....  One  woman  having  con- 
cealed all  her  pewter  and  silver  ware  in  the  well,  filled  a 
bag  with  pies  and  other  edibles  and  set  off  with  it  and  her 
family  for  a  safer  place,  but  having  travelled  some  dis- 
tance and  deposited  her  bag  to  make  some  enquiry,  she  found 
on  her  return  that  there  had  been  "cutting  and  slashing''  not 
indeed  by  the  regulars  among  the  people  but  by  the  irregu- 
lars among  her  provisions. 

Another  woman,  as  I  am  informed,  having  run  four  or 
five  miles,  in  great  trepidation,  stopped  on  the  steps  of 
Reverend  Mr.  jNToble's  meeting-house  to  nurse  her  child  and 
found  to  her  great  horror  that  she  had  brought  off  the  cat 
and  left  the  child  at  home.  In  another  instance,  Mr.  [....] 
having  placed  his  family  on  board  of  a  boat  to  go  to  Ram  Is- 
land for  safety,  was  so  annoyed  with  the  crying  of  one  of 
his  children  that  he  exclaimed  in  great  fright,  "Do  throw 


322       IPSWIOH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

that  squalling  brat  overboard  or  we  shall  all  be  discovered/' 
Mr.  J —  L. —  seeing  Mr.  C —  H. — ^  a  very  corpulent  man, 
standing  at  his  door  with  his  musket  loaded  inquired  of 
him  if  he  was  not  going.  "Going?  no."  said  he,  "I  am 
going  to  stop  and  shoot  the  devils." 

It  has  come  down  in  history  as  the  "Great  Ipswich 
Frischt,"  and  it  furnished  Mr.  Whittier  material  for  a  verv 
spirited  tale  in  his  Prose  Miscellanies.  The  innocent  oc- 
casion of  it  all  was  "the  discovery  of  some  small  vessels 
near  the  entrance  of  Ipswich  river, — one  at  least,  known 
to  be  a  cutter,  and  it  was  apprehended  that  they  were  oome 
to  relieve  the  captives  there  in  jail."^^  We  may  be  sure 
there  was  fright  with  good  reason  at  the  farms  on  Castle 
Hill  and  Castle  T^eck,  when  those  British  vessels  were  seen, 
standing  in  over  the  bar. 

On  the  22"*  of  April,  1775  the  Warrant  for  a  Town-meet- 
ing was  posted.  It  met  on  the  24***  at  7  o  clock  in  the 
morning,  and  Voted  that: 

Dummer  Jewett  Esq.  Lieut.  John  Choate,  and  Mr.  Daniel 
Xoves  be  a  Comimittee  to  ioin  with  the  other  Conmiittees 
from  the  several  Sea-Port  Towns,  in  this  County  to  meet 
them  at  the  tavern  near  Beverly  meeting  house  this  day  and 
to  Consult  upon  the  Measures  to  be  taken  for  our  safety 
at  this  DiflScult  time. 

The  likelihood  of  attack  from  the  sea  was  a  constant  source 
of  anxiety,  intensified  by  the  order  passed  by  the  Provincial 
Congress  on  April  27***,  requiring  these  Essex  County  sea- 
port towns  to  endeavor  to  have  all  the  effects  of  the  inhabi- 
tants removed  as  quickly  as  possible.  "Congress  considers 
it  absolutelv  necessary  for  said  inhabitants  to  be  in  readi- 
ness  to  go  into  the  country  on  the  shortest  notice."  It  was 
further  ordered  on  April  29^,  that  word  should  be  sent  to 

*•  From  a  letter  of  Benjamin  Greenleaf  of  Newburyport  to  the  Committee 
of  Correspondence  in  Hampton,  N.  H.  (Currier's  Hist,  of  Newburyport, 
I:  543.  544.  545). 


THE  BEVOLUTIONAKY  WAB.  323 

the  neighboring  towns,  requiring  one  half  the  militia  to 
be  sent  immediately  to  Roxbury  and  Cambridge  and  the 
remainder  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  march  at  a 
minute's  warning. 

Capt.  Wade  was  again  in  the  field  with  many  of  his  men. 
He  was  then  twenty-six  years  old;  Joseph  Hodgkins,  his 
First  Lieutenant,  was  thirty-two ;  his  fifer  was  William  Gal- 
loway, a  lad  of  seventeen  and  William  Osbom  of  Boston, 
eighteen  years  old,  beat  the  drum.  Three  sons  of  Philip 
and  Sarah  Lord  came  from  their  home  on  the  Linebrook 
Road,  now  owned  by  Mr.  Ralph  W.  Bumham,  David, 
eighteen  years  old,  Charles,  twenty-one  and  Philip,  twenty- 
seven.  Francis  Merrifield,  thirty-six  years  old,  was  the 
senior  member  of  the  company,  Thomas  Hodgkins,  5"*,  six- 
teen years  old,  was  the  youngest. 

Capt.  Elisha  Whitney  marched  again  from  the  Hamlet 
and  Capt  Abraham  Dodge  and  his  Chebacco  men  were  again 
in  the  field.  Capt.  Gideon  Parker,  who  had  served  with 
distinction  in  the  French  and  Indian  war,  marched  as  a 
private  in  Capt.  Rogers's  minute  men  on  the  Lexington  alarm, 
but  early  in  June,  he  had  recruited  a  company.  Although 
he  was  then  fifty  years  old,  he  was  again  commissioned 
Captain,  and  led  his  company  to  the  front.^^ 

As  there  was  no  arsenal  or  depot  of  supplies,  on  May 
9***,  the  Provincial  Congress  instructed  Selectmen  to  make 
search  in  their  towns  and  "borrow  or  purchase  arms  or 
accoutrements  from  those  who  can  best  spare  them."  Fif- 
teen muskets  were  borrowed  from  individuals  to  equip  Capt. 
Dodge's  company.  Every  soldier  thus  armed  was  required 
to  pay  6  shillings,  and  if  he  failed  to  return  his  gun  to  its 
owner,  the  full  value  would  be  deducted  from  his  wages. 
Every  one  was  ordered  to  save  his  straw  that  the  camp 
might  be  ])]'ovided  with  bedding.  An  order,  passed  May 
10***,  forbade  any  one  to  remove  to  !Nova  Scotia  or  else- 

"Masii.  Archives  146:  207.    Muster -rolls*  15:  91. 


324       IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

where,  without  permission  of  the  Committee  of  Correspon- 
dence of  the  Town.  Col.  John  Baker,  Dummer  Jewett 
Esq.  Mr.  Daniel  Noyes,  Lieut.  John  Choate  and  Captain 
John  Whipple  Jr.  were  chosen  a  Committee  of  Intelligence 
for  Ipswich. 

Delegates  from  the  towns  in  Essex  County  met  at  Ips- 
wich on  May  4^^,  at  the  request  of  the  Committee  of  Safety 
of  Xewburyport,  to  consider  the  establishment  of  a  regular 
post  from  Xewburyport  to  Cambridge.  The  Provincial 
Congress  voted  on  May  13**,  to  establish  Post  offices  in  Cam- 
bridge, Salem,  Ipswich,  ^N'ewburyport,  Haverhill,  etc 
James  Foster  was  appointed  Post-master  at  Ipswich.  Eates 
of  postage  wose  established,  5^,4  pence  for  any  distance  not 
exceeding  60  miles  and  for  every  ounce  weight,  four  times 
as  much  as  a  single  letter. 

Another  Town  meeting  assembled  on  May  15***,  at  S 
o'clock  A.  M.  to  consider 

whether  the  Town  will  petition  the  Committee  of  War 
that  they  would  grant  a  regiment  of  the  H^ew  Raised  Army 
to  be  stationed  at  Ipswich,  Xewbury  and  Xewburyport,  or 
otherwise  that  the  Towns  mentioned  may  be  guarded  in 
this  difficult  time.  Inasmuch  as  the  Scituation  of  these 
Towns  are  such  that  the  Stock  will  immediately  be  put  to 
Pasture,  where  the  said  Stock  will  be  exposed  and  Great 
Numbers  of  Chattle  and  Sheep  may  be  taken  by  arnied 
cutters,  unless  prevented  by  our  Guards.  .  .  . 

The  Town  voted  to  request  protection,  to  continue  the 
Town  watch  of  four  persons  already  in  service,  and  that 
two  persons  should  continue  their  constant  watch  on  Castle 
Hill.  The  Selectmen  were  instructed  to  "provide  a  suit- 
able Quantity  of  Tarr  in  order  to  set  it  on  fire  on  a  Beacon 
Erected  for  that  purpose  that  the  Town  mjay  be  Alarmed 
in  the  night  and  that  the  Flagg  be  hoisted  in  the  Day  time 
to  Alarm  the  Town."     Dummer  Jewett  Esq.  Nath.  Farley, 


THE  BEVOLUTIONABY  WAB.  325 

Capt.  Jona.  Cogswell,  Dea.  Nath.  Whipple,  Lieut.  Thomas 
Foster  were  added  to  the  Committee  of  Correspondence. 

William  Wade,  a  carpenter  on  the  South  side,  presented 
his  bill  to  the  Town  in  May,  1775. 
To  work  on  the  Flag-Staff  &  watch-house  at  Cassell 

Hill  0-15-  4 

Oct.     To  carriage  a  field  Piece  6-13-  4 


7-  8-  8 

A  memorandum,  dated  November  24,  1775,  of  supplies 
and  assistance  to  the  Continental  Army  and  "for  the  Com- 
pany stationed  in  the  Town  of  Ipswich"  show  that  the  re- 
quest of  the  Town  was  honored  and  a  company  assigned 
for  the  defence  of  the  Town. 

At  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill  on  June  17*^  1775,  Ips- 
wich men  had  a  brave  part.  Capt  Nathaniel  Wade's  com- 
pany and  Capt.  Abraham  Dodge's  were  in  the  line  in  Col. 
Moses  Little's  regiment.  Jesse  Story  Jun.,  son  of  Jesse 
Story  of  Chebacco,  a  lad  of  eighteen  years,  was  killed  on 
the  field,  the  first  Ipswich  man  to  lay  down  his  life  in  the 
struggle  for  Independence.  Philip  Lord,  a  private  in  Capt. 
Wade's  company  lost  his  gun  in  the  battle. 

Joseph  Hodgkins,  First  Lieut,  in  Capt.  Wade's  company, 
gave  details  of  the  battle,  in  the  family  letters,  which  are 
still  preserved: 


Cambridge,  June  y*  18,  1775. 
Dear  wife.  I  take  this  opportunity  to  inform  you  that  I 
am  well  att  Present.  I  would  Just  inform  you  that  wee 
had  a  verry  hot  ingagement  yesterday.  But  God  Preserved 
all  of  us  for  which  mercy  I  Desire  Ever  to  be  thankfull 
we  have  Bin  alarmed  to  Day  But  come  to  no  Engagement 
it  is  all  most  knight  now  and  we  are  going  to  Entranching 
to  night  therefore  I  Cannot  be  Pertickler  Dont  be  Discoiv 
edged  I  hope  that  wee  shall  Be  Carred  thrue  all  our  Diffiltiea 
and  have  abundant  occasion  to  Prase  the  Lord  together     So 


326       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOKT. 

no  more  at  Present     But  remain  your  Loving  Husband  till 

Death. 

Joseph  Hodgkins. 

Cambridge,  June  y*  20,  1775. 
Dear  wife  I  take  this  oppertunity  to  inform  you  that 
I  am  well  but  Verry  Much  Worred  with  our  Last  Satterday 
Cumege  &  yesterday's  moving  Down  to  winter  Hill  where 
we  now  are  &  Live  in  Expectation  of  further  Engagement 
with  the  Enemv.  But  I  Desir  to  be  content  with  the  alot- 
ments  of  gods  Providence  and  hope  in  his  mercy  for  Salva- 
tion and  Deli^'e^ance  from  all  these  Eavels  witch  we  feel  & 
fear. 

Cambridge,  June  y**  23^  1776. 
....  Have  not  time  to  write  Pertickler  of  y*  Engage- 
ment But  we  whare  Exposed  to  a  very  hot  fire  of  Cannon 
&  small  armes  about  two  ours  But  we  whare  Presarved 
I  had  one  Ball  went  under  my  arme  and  Cut  a  large  hole 
in  my  Coate  &  a  Buck  shot  went  through  my  coate  &  Jacket 
But  neither  of  them  Did  me  any  harme. 

Cambridge,  July  3,  1776. 
Loveing  wife  .... 

.  .  .  ,  I  have  nothing  Remarkable  to  rite  Except  that 
geaneral  Washington  &  Lea  got  in  to  Cambridge  yesterday 
and  to  Day  they  are  to  take  a  Vew  of  y®  Armey  &  that  will 
be  atended  With  a  grate  Deal  of  grander  there  is  at  this 
time  one  &  twenty  Drumers  &  as  many  fiffers  a  Beting  and 
Playing  Round  the  Prayde.  But  I  must  Conclude  by  Sub- 
scribing myself  your  Loveing  Husband 

till  Death 

Joseph  Hodgkins. 

Deacon  Francis  Merrifield  in  his  old  age  used  to  de- 
scribe the  battle  and  the  approach  of  the  regulars.  "When 
they  got  so  near  we  could  fairly  see  them,  they  looked  too 
handsome  to  be  fired  at,  but  we  had  to  do  it.'' 

The  burden  of  providing  and  maintaining  an  army  in 
the  field  was  felt  at  once.  The  troops  had  volunteered  but 
they  were  poorly  equipped  and  scantily  clothed.  On  July 
6*   1776,  the  Provincial  Congress  ordered  that  13,000  coats 


THE  REVOLUTIONAEY  WAR.  327 

should  be  provided,  one  for  each  non-commissioned  officer 
and  soldier  in  the  Massachusetts  army,  to  be  proportioned 
immediately  on  all  the  towns,  according  to  the  last  Provin- 
cial tax.  Ipswich  was  made  responsible  for  204  coats  of 
good  plain  cloth,  and  the  women  of  the  town  must  have 
-worked  long  and  hard  to  finish  them  before  they  were  needed. 
The  work  gained  a  romantic  character,  from  the  very 
su^estive  direction  which  accompanied  the  Order,  that 
a  certificate  should  be  sewed  in  each  coat  specifying 
-where  it  was  made,  and  we  may  well  imagine  more  than 
one  of  the  women  of  Ipswich  stretched  the  order  and 
appended  her  name,  and  then  waited  the  acknowledg- 
ment from  the  unknown  soldier,  who  enjoyed  the  fruit  of 
her  labors- 
Clothing  of  every  sort  was  required  from  the  towns  and 
the  bill  which  the  Ipswich  Selectmen  presented  to  the  Treas- 
urer of  the  Colony  in  September,  1775,  leads  us  to  believe 
that  the  Colonial  soldiers  vied  with  Joseph  of  old  in  the 
color  of  their  garments,  and  that  the  smartly  uniformed 
British  troops  may  have  been  moved  to  mirth  by  the  motley 
appearance  of  their  rustic  foes. 

Sept.  1775 

To    6  pair  of  Striped  woolen  Breeches  at  7/1 

(C 

iC 

i( 

iC 

u 

a 
cc 

iC 

a 
cc 

iC 

a 


41 

Bear8kin 

8 

Ratteen 

7 

Kersey 

4 

Swanskin 

2 

Searge 

2 

Blue  Broad  Cloth 

2 

Redish  "        « 

6 

Leather 

8 

« 

4 

u 

3 

(( 

1 

Fustian 

2 

Serge 

3 

u' 

t7/l 

2-  2-  6 

8/ 

16-  8-  0 

8/10 

3-10-  8 

lO/f) 

3-12-11 

9/ 

1-15-  0 

14/4 

1-  8-  8 

10/ 

1-  0-  0 

10/ 

1-  0-  0 

18/ 

5-  8-  0 

16/ 

6-  8-  0 

15/ 

3-  0-  0 

14/ 

2-  2-  0 

9/2 

1-10-  4 

21/4 

n/6 

1-  8-  6 

328       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOXY- 

96  pr  breeches  .  49-  7-  1 

3  white  cotton  &  linen  shirts  at  9/6  1-  8-  6 

8                  "  "           9/3  3-14-  0 

2  striped      "              "  "           9/9  19-  6 

41  checkt  woolen  ''           6/5  13-  3-  1 

57  shirts 

63  pr.  stockings  at  3/  9-  9-  0 

50  "     shoes  6/  17-14-  0 

The  patriot  army  lay  encamped  for  weary  months,  while 
the  siege  of  Boston  dragged  on,  neither  party  making  any 
active  assault.     In  September,  Gen.  Montgomery  set  out  to 
take  Quebec.     A  force  of  1100  men,  consisting  of  two  bat- 
talions of  musketmen  and  3  companies  of  riflemen  as  Light 
Infantry  under  the  command  of  Col.  Benedict  Arnold,  was 
detached  for  this  service.    The  little  army  marched  in  several 
separate  bodies.     They  reached  Ipswich  on  September  15'\ 
and  all  dav  lone:,  the  stillness  of  the  summer  air  was  broken 
by  the  shrill  notes  of  fifes  and  the  roll  of  drums,  as  com- 
pany  after  company  marched  along  the  old  Bay  Road,  fol- 
lowed by  the  rumbling  wagon  trains  with  their  camp  equip- 
ment. 

The  Journal  of  Ebenezer  Wild^^  notes  that  the  division 
of  which  he  was  a  member,  marched  very  early  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  though  the  weather  was  very  sultry,  covered  25 
miles  and  encamped  at  Beverly. 

Sept.  15.  This  morning  marched  briskly  along  and  got 
into  ISTewburyport  at  8  **  clock  at  night  ....  After  a 
general  review  on  the  17***,  embarked  on  the  18***  and  sailed 
on  the  19***. 

The  Battalion  commanded  by  Major  Return  J.  Meigs 
marched  on  the  li***,  through  Maiden,  Lynn  and  Salem  and 
encamped  in  Danvers. 

"Mass.  Histor.  Society  Proceedings  1885-1886,  Vol.  II.,  Sec.  Series. 


THE  REVOLUTIONARY  WAR.  329 

15.  In  the  moraing  continued  our  march  throgh  the 
towns  of  Beverly  and  Wenham  and  encamped  at  Rowley. 

It  reached  Newburyport  at  10  A.  M.  on  the  16^\^^  The 
2™*  Battalion  encamped  at  Salem  on  the  14^,  on  the  15"" 
encamped  at  Ipswich,  and  reached  Newburyport  on  the  16***. 

This  Battalion  included  apparently  the  famous  Capt. 
Daniel  iforgan  with  his  Virginia  riflemen,  and  two  com- 
panies of  Pennsylvania  riflemen,  commanded  by  Captain 
William  Hendricks  and  Captain  Matthew  Smith.  The  ex- 
citement occasioned  by  the  marching  soldiery,  with  music 
and  flags,  was  only  a  prelude  to  the  astonishment  and  won- 
der, roused  by  the  camp.  The  spectacle  of  tents  pitched,  camp 
fires  lighted  and  supper  cooked,  was  the  rarest  sight  Ipswich 
had  ever  seen.  These  riflemen,  with  their  fur  caps  and 
deerskin  frocks,  fresh  from  the  wild  life  of  the  woods,  were 
strange  figures  in  the  old  Puritan  town.  Perhaps  they  grati- 
fied the  throng  of  towns  folk  with  an  exhibition  of  their  skill 
as  marksmen.  A  Pennsylvania  newspaper  described  a 
camp  of  one  of  these  companies  on  the  march  to  Cambridge. 

One  of  the  company  held  a  barrel  stave  perpendicularly 
in  his  hands  with  one  edge  close  to  his  side  while  one  of 
his  comrades  ....  at  the  distance  of  upwards  of  sixty 
yards  and  without  any  kind  of  a  rest  ....  shot  several 
bullets  through  it.  The  spectators  appearing  to  be  amazed 
•  .  .  .  were  told  that  there  ....  was  not  one  who  could 
not  y)lug  nineteen  bullets  out  of  twenty,  as  they  turned  it, 
within  an  inch  of  the  head  of  a  ten  penny  nail.  At  night, 
a  great  fire  was  kindled  ....  where  the  company  gave  a 
perfect  exhibition  of  a  war-dance,  and  all  the  manoeuvres 
of  Indians,  holding  council,  going  to  war,  circumventing 
their  enemies  by  ...  .  ambuscades,  scalping,  &tc. 

But  if  the  veil  of  the  Future  could  have  been  drawn 
aside,  the  Ipswich  folk  would  have  gazed  with  keener  in- 

» Journal  of  Major  Return  J.  Meigs.  Mass.  Histor.  Soc.  Collections  IL, 
2nd  Series,  p.  227. 


330       IPSWICir,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY- 

terest  on  the  leader  of  the  expedition,  Col.  Benedict  Arnold, 
or  on  a  youth  in  his  twentieth  year,  marching  in  the  ranks, 
who  was  destined  to  rise  to  high  renown  by  his  great  talents, 
and  rival  his  leader  in  a  deed  of  endless  shame.      Aaron 
Burr,  prostrated  by  a  nervous  fever  in  his  tent  at  Cambridge, 
heard  his  friend  Ogden,  conversing  with  fellow  soldiers  about 
Arnold's  Expedition.       He  called   Ogden  in   and    inquired 
about  it.     Raising  himself  up  in  bed,  he  declared  he  would 
go  and  at  once  commenced  dressing  himself.     He   formed 
a   mess   with   four   or   five  hearty   fellows   and   "^vith    his 
new    associates    in    arms,    on    the    14***    September,     1775, 
shouldered  their  muskets,  took  their  knapsacks  upon   their 
backs  and  marched  to  the  place  of  embarcation."^*     Arnold 
led  his  men  from  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec  through  the 
Maine  forests  to  Quebec.     They  underwent  incredible  hard- 
ships, and  made  an  heroic  attack  on  the  impregnable  fortress 
on  the  last  day  of  the  year,  only  to  suffer  disastrous  defeat. 
Shortly  after  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  the  Provincial 
Congress  ordered  that  10  companies  of  50  men  each  should 
be  raised  in  the  County  of  Essex,  to  be  stationed  by  the 
Committee  of  the  Congress,  chosen  for  this  purpose,   and 
to  be  under  the  direction  of  the  Committee  of  Correspon- 
dence of  the  town  where  they  were  stationed.     An  Ipswich 
company  was  dispatched  to  Gloucester^  ^  in  October  to  aid 
in  the  defence  of  that  exposed  town,  and  on  Nov.  29***,  Capt 
Moses  Jewett's  horse-troop^^  was  sent  there  to  guard  the  har- 
bor and  the  ship  "Nancy."     The  privateer  schooner,  "Lee," 
Captain  John  Manly,  had  captured  and  brought  in  the  ord- 
nance-ship, "Nancy,"  from  London  bound  for  Boston  with 
a  great  quantity  of  small  arms  and  ammunition,   besides 
cannon   and   a  large  brass  mortar  of  a  new  construction. 
Those  munitions  of  war  were  greatly  needed  and  were  carted 
at  once  to  Cambridge. 

**  Memoir  of  Aaron  Burr.     Matthew  L.  Davis,  1836,  p.  62. 
"  Babson's  History  of  Gloucester,  pp.  396,  397. 
"  Orierinal  Roll  owned  by  A.  Everett  .Tewett. 


THE  BE  VOLUTION  ARY  WAR.  331 

The  sailors  captured  at  Cape  Ann  were  brought  to  Ips- 
wich and  confined  in  the  jail,  which  stood  on  or  near  the 
site  of  the  residence  of  the  late  Rev.  David  Tenney  Kimball, 
near  the  meeting-house  of  the  First  Parish.  Some  British 
soldiers  taken  at  Dorchester  were  also  imprisoned  there. 
Serg*.  Thomas  Livermore  of  the  63**  Regiment  addressed  a 
petition  to  the  General  Court,  Nov.  28*^,  1775,  in  behalf 
of  seven  soldiers  and  nine  sailors,  his  fellow  prisoners,  "con- 
fined to  the  narrow  limits  of  a  Goal  and  deprived  of  every 
injoyment  that  the  Almighty  has  been  pleased  to  bestow  upon 
us,  except  our  meate  which  we  have  in  plenty  and  in  due 
season."  Five  of  their  number  had  been  very  sick,  and  one 
remained  very  ill,  with  nothing  to  cover  him  but  his  clothes. 
The  soldiers  each  needed  a  shirt  and  bedding.  The  sailors 
"each  want  Every  Necessary  to  hide  their  Nakedness.^*^ 

The  General  Court  took  action  very  considerately  and  in- 
structed the  Selectmen  to  furnish  them  with  clothing  and 
bedding  and  return  their  account  to  the  Court.  ^® 

Zephaniah  Decrow,  a  political  prisoner,  had  been  confined 
in  the  jail  prior  to  September,  but  on  Sept.  18***  he  had 
been  taken  to  Wenham  and  delivered  to  the  Committee  of 
safetv  of  that  Town.^^ 

As  Winter  set  in,  there  began  to  be  a  scarcity  of  food 
supplies.  The  farms  had  been  cultivated  very  indifferently, 
as  many  of  the  farm  people  were  in  the  army.  Early  in 
December  the  Town  voted  to  procure  two  vessels  and  fit 
them  for  sea,  with  the  co-operation  of  the  citizens,  to  secure 
cargoes  of  com,  rye  and  wheat.  On  Dec.  13***,  Daniel  Noyes, 
Capt  Daniel  Rogers,  Capt.  Isaac  Dodge,  John  Crocker, 
Samuel  Lord,  Capt.  Ephraim  Kendall,  Major  Jonathan 
Cc^swell,  Capt.  Abraham  How  and  Mr.  John  Patch  y*  3*, 
were  chosen  a  Committee  of  Inspection,  and  also  to  act  as 
a  Committee  of  Correspondence  and  Safety. 

"Mass.  Archives  180:  234;  also  137:  99;  8:  193.   228,  236:  9:  2;  33:  373. 
Names  of  the  prisoners  are  sriven. 
"Gteneral  Court  Records  33:  373. 
^Town  Papers. 


332       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY- 

The  Winter  camp  on  Prospect  hill  brought  bitter  experi- 
ences both  to  the  unseasoned  soldiers  and  to  the  friends  at 
home.     Lieut.  Hodgkins  wrote  on  Jan.  7,  1776 : 

It  is  a  good  Deal  Sickly  among  us  we  Bured  Willeby 
Nason  Last  thursday  eTohn  Sweet  is  Very  Sick  in  Camp  & 
Josiah  Persons  of  Cape  Ann  in  our  Company  is  Just  moved 
to  the  ospittle  ....  John  Holladay  Died  Last  thursday 
night     there  whas  five  Bured  that  Day. 

P.  S.  we  Live  in  our  tents  yet  But  the  men  are  Chiefly 
gone  into  Barracks. 

On  Peb.  3^,  he  Avrote, 

we  Live  in  our  tent  yet  only  when  we  are  Smoaked  out 
and  then  we  git  Shealter  Some  whar  Else. 

The  British  evacuated  Boston  on  March  17,  1776,  sail- 
ing for  New  York.  The  American  army  followed,  and  in- 
teresting glimpses  of  the  summer  campaign  are  afforded  by 
the  frequent  letters  of  Lieut.  Hodgkins.  His  regiment 
marched  by  way  of  Providence  and  JTorwich  to  New  Lon- 
don, sailing  from  there  on  April  14***  and  landing  on  Long 
Island  on  May  2"^.  Writing  on  August  25***,  he  reports  the 
death  of  his  cousin  Abr"*  Hodgkins,  "lamented  Both  by 
officers  and  men,"  and  a  sharp  skirmish.  They  had  gone 
42  miles  on  an  expedition  to  destroy  boats  and  collect  cattle, 
when  having  received  word  that  the  enemy  had  landed,  they 
made  a  forced  return  march  of  34  miles  without  a  stop. 
Lieut.  Lord  was  shot  through  the  thigh.  "I  had  my  sleave 
button  shot  out  of  my  sleave  and  the  skin  a  little  grased." 

Capt.  Nathaniel  Wade  wrote  to  his  mother  a  graphic  ac- 
count of  the  severe  experiences  of  the  Long  Island  campaign, 
under  date  of  Sept.  5"*,  1776. 

On  tuesday  the  26*^  Come  the  Second  turn  for  our  Reg*, 
to  take  Post  on  the  Platbush  Road  in  the  Wood,  there  ware 


THE  BEVOLUTIOXARY  WAK.  333 

Beside  Ours,  two  other  Parties,  one  on  the  Bedford  road 
one  on  the  Right  the  Road  'Next  the  River  .... 

Morning  coming  on  the  Enemy  Was  Seen  all  on 

a  Move,  when  we  Expected  them  up  the  Road  where  we 
ware  Posted.  But  being  informed  (as  1  suppose)  that  the 
Road  was  so  fortified  that  they  could  not  Pass  the  Way 
We  ware  Posted  Without  Great  Difficulty  we  had  a  brest 
work  of  trees  falen  a  Cross  the  Road  upon  a  Steep  Hill 
and  two  Brass  Six  Pounders ;  we  Perceived  their  Plan  was 
to  Surround  us  Kept  our  Post  till  the  fire  Got  a  Cross  the 
Road  in  the  Rear  Betwixt  us  and  our  Lines;  and  Not  a 
Sufficient  Number  to  make  a  Stand;  or  fight  the  Way 
through  the  Commanding  officer  Gave  orders  to  Retreat  and 
ascending  the  hill,  found  there  ware  a  Vast  Body  of  the 
Enemy  Betwixt  us  and  the  Lines;  and  no  other  Way  to 
Escape  but  Crossing  a  Piece  of  Marsh  and  through  a  Creek 
Breast  high,  Near  Which  was  a  Redout  Well  Manned  Els 
we  should  have  Been  all  Cut  of;  there  were  a  Continual 
fire  kept  up  the  Whole  of  our  Retreat,  wherever  we  thought 
to  get  any  advantageous  Post  in  the  Bushes  or  Elsewhere; 
they  Lay  in  ambush  for  us  in  Cornfield  and  Behind  Walls 
and  the  like  Places  ....  the  troops  Pretty  Much  fatigued 
By  Being  obliged  to  be  at  the  Lines  Continually  Night  and 
Day  and  Rain  almost  Constantly  that  it  was  hardly  Possi- 
ble to  keep  our  Guns  and  ammunition  fit  for  action. 

....  The  General  Seeing  the  Situation  that  the  Army 
had  Cut  of  our  Communication  By  Land  and  the  Shipping 
only  Waiting  for  a  Wind  to  Surround  us  on  the  other  and 
that  Would  Cut  of  all  Supply  from  any  Quarter :  therefore 
Saw  fitt  to  Remove  the  troops  and  Quit  the  Island  intirely 
Which  I  hope  Will  God  Grant  it  May  be  for  the  Best. 

The  Retreat  Was  Nobly  Effected  Without  the  Loss  of  a 
man,  though  our  Boats  Ware  so  few  that  it  Was  from  be- 
fore Sun  Down  till  after  Sun  Rise  Before  they  Ware  all 
Brought:  the  intention  of  Leaving  the  Island  was  unknown 
to  us  till  Nine  o'Clock  in  the  Evening  when  Every  Man 
was  ordered  to  turn  out  with  Gun  and  Pack  when  the  Col. 
Rec'd  orders  to  Strike  tents  and  Get  all  the  Bagage  to  the 
ferry  as  soon  as  Possible  at  one  o  Clock  We  Got  over  With 
our  Baggage 

From  the  Best  intelligence  I  can  Git  our  Loss  in  the 


334       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY- 

Skirmish  in  the  Wood  was  about  six  hundred  killed  taken 
and  missing:  and  from  information  By  Deserters  and  Some 
others  that  have  Made  their  Escape  that  the  Enemy  had 
upward  of  five  hundred  killed  and  wounded  ....  I  have 
the  imhappy  Xews  to  Send  that  Akelus  (Archelaus)   Pul- 
cepher  is  one  of  those  that  Missing  wither  kill  or  taken  un- 
certain.    Will"  Allen  of  My  Company  Wounded     I  have 
three  other  Died  Since  my  last.     Abraham  Hodgkin ;  Will" 
Goodhue  3*^  instant;  Thomas  Winter  of  the  feaver  and  flux 
Jfay  God  Comfort  there  friends  under  the  Heavy  tidings. 
....  May    the    Blessing   of   heaven    Ever    attend   our 
Cause  in  which  we  are  Ingaged  in  and  Crown  us  With 
Victorv  and   Success:   Dear  Mother  I  remain  your  Ever 
Dutiful  Son 

Nathaniel  Wade. 

The  Wade  papers  contain  Capt.  Nathaniel  Wade's  memo- 
randum : 

Jeremiah  Diskel  Ix)st  his  Gun  when  sick  on  Board  Ad". 
Hopkins  fleet 

Arkelus  Pulsepher  taken  in  the  flat-bush  fight 
Joseph  Pettengill  Gun  spilt  by  a  shot 

flatbush  fight  ) 

Left  at  port  Green) 

Thomas  Winters 

WilP  Allen 

Abraham  Hodgkins  V  ^^^  I^s*  there  Guns  in  the  Retreat  on 

John  Caldwell  /  Long  Island 

Ebenezer  Staniford 

Will™  Mansfield 

James  Brown's  Gun  Lost  in  the  Battle  on  York  Island 

Mikel  McGlathlen  Deserted  Carried  of  his  Gun 

Francis  Cogswell  taken  at  Mile  Square 

Isaac  Caldwell  Gun  taken  with  Gen^  Lee 

Elisha  Gould  and  Gun  Join'd  Capt.  Gerrishes  Comp"^ 

As  the  War  continued,  Tory  sentiments  were  met  with 
severe  measures.  Jonathan  Stickney  Jr.  of  Rowley  was  so 
unwise  that  he  used  very  uncomplimentary  language  regard- 


THE  REVOLUTIONAEY  WAR.  335 

ing  the  patriot  cause  and  its  leaders.  He  was  arrested 
and  sent  to  the  General  Court.  Its  decision  was  quick  and 
sharp,  as  the  Mittimus  which  was  issued  makes  evident 

To  the  Keeper  of  Ipswich  Jail. 

You  are  ordered  to  receive  into  your  custody  Jonathan 
Stickney  Jr.,  who  has  been  apprehended  by  the  Committee 
of  Inspection,  Correspondence  and  Safety  of  the  Town  of 
Rowley  and  sent  to  the  General  Court  for  having  in  the 
most  open  and  daring  manner  endeavored  according  to  the 
utmost  of  his  abilities  to  encourage  &  introduce  Discontent, 
Seilition,  and  a  Spirit  of  Disobedience  to  all  lawful  authority 
among  the  people  by  frequently  clamoring  in  the  most  im- 
pudent insulting  and  abusive  Language  against  the  American 
Congress,  the  General  Court  of  this  Colony  and  others  who 
have  been  exerting  themselves  to  save  the  Country  from 
Misery  &  Ruin  all  which  is  made  fully  to  appear.  You 
are  therefore  him  safely  to  keep  in  close  confinement  (in 
a  Room  bv  himself  &  that  he  be  not  allowed  the  use  of 
pens  Ink  nor  paper,  and  not  suffer  him  to  converse  with  any 
person  whatever  unless  in  your  hearing)  till  the  further 
order  of  the  General  Court  or  he  be  otherwise  discharged 
bv  due  course  of  Law. 

In  the  Name  and  l)v  the  order  of  the  Council  and  House 
of  Representatives 

John  Lowell,  Dep.  Sec.^*^ 

Council  Chambers 
April  18,  1776. 

The  Committee  of  Safety  of  Rowley  petitioned^^  the  Court 
on  June  5^,  1776,  that,  in  view  of  his  penitence  he  be  re- 
moved from  jail  to  his  father's  house,  under  such  restric- 
tions as  may  be  imposed. 

The  Summer  of  1776  was  brightened  by  one  luminous 
event,  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  on  July  4^,  the 
thought  of  which  had  been  indignantly  disclaimed  by  the 
votes  of  Ipswich  not  many  months  before,  and  by  Washing- 
ton himself  and  all  the  patriot  leaders,  but  which  had  been 

'Mass.  Archives  15*.   46. 
"^Mass.  Archives  181:  81 


/ 


i 


336       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

forced  upon  the  Colonies  by  the  trend  of  events-  On  June 
10*^,  1776,  the  men  of  Ipswich,  in  Town-meeting  assembled, 
instructed  thieir  Representatives, 

that  if  the  Continental  Congress  should  for  the  safety  of 
the  said  Colonies  Declare  them  Independent  of  the  King- 
dom of  Great  Britain,  they  ....  will  solemnly  engage 
with  their  lives  and  Fortunes  to  support  them  in  the  Measure. 

Apart  from  this  it  was  a  dark  and  troubled  time.  Calls 
for  fresh  troops  followed  close  upon  each  other.  The  Gren- 
eral  Court  had  ordered  that  5000  men  be  raised  immediatelv 
from  the  training  band  and  alann  lists  on  June  25^.  On 
July  11***  two  regiments  were  ordered  to  reinforce  the 
troops  for  Canada,  and  they  were  to  be  raised  by  a  draft 
of  every  twenty-fifth  man  in  the  training  band  and  alarm 
lists,  to  serve  until  Dec.  1,  1776.  Provision  for  enforcing 
this  draft  was  made  in  every  community.  The  Continental 
Army  was  in  such  critical  condition  in  New  York,  that  on 
Sept.  12,  1776,  a  draft  was  ordered  from  the  militia  of 
every  fifth  able  bodied  man  under  fifty  years  of  age,  under 
a  penalty  of  fine  and  imprisonment  for  a  period  not  ex- 
ceeding two  months. 

AVhile  the  defeated  and  discouraged  little  army  was  re- 
treating across  JTew  Jersey,  constantly  pressed  by  a  supe- 
rior force,  an  Act  was  passed,  requiring  that  one  quarter 
part  of  all  the  able-bodied  men  from  16  years  upward,  not 
in  actual  service,  should  be  held  in  readiness  to  march  at 
a  minute's  warning  to  serve  for  a  period  not  exceeding  three 
months.  An  Ipswich  company  of  67  men,  Ebenezer  Lord, 
Captain,  Moses  Treadwell,  1'*  Lieut.,  Richard  Sutton,  2"* 
Lieut,  was  joined  to  Col.  Timothy  Pickering's  Regiment  and 
ordered  to  march  to  Providence  and  Danbury,  Conn. 

The  food  question  became  acute  once  more,  with  the  ap- 
proach of  Winter,  as  the  lack  of  laborers  had  greatly  di- 
minished  the   staple   crops.     Francis   Cogswell   and   others 


THE  BEVOLUTIONAEY  WAB.  337 

petitioned^^  for  a  permit  to  send  the  sloop,  "Two  Brothers'* 
to  North  Carolina  for  a  cargo  of  provisions,  which  was 
granted  hy  the  House  on  Jan.  1,  1777,  provided  he  include 
in  the  cargo  no  articles  mentioned  in  the  Resolve  of  Dec. 
10,  1776.  The  Town  Committee  to  procure  grain,  Ephraim 
Kendall,  Isaac  Dodge  and  John  Choate,  reported  on  March 
3^  1777. 

for  the  charge  of  fitting  out  the  schooner  Betsey  &  7/16 
of  the  sloop,  Friendship,  50-  0-  0 

and  the  loss  of  the  schooner  Betsey  the  year  hefore, 

333-  06-  08 

Prices  naturally  advanced  though  extreme  measures  were 
adopted  to  prevent  needless  rise  in  prices  of  food  stuffs,  in 
the  pay  of  laboring  men  and  in  the  shipping  rates.  The 
Selectmen  and  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  and  Safety, 
acting  under  the  authority  of  the  General  Court,  issued  a 
schedule^*  of  prices  covering  all  articles  of  food,  clothing, 
wages  of  labor  of  every  kind,  entertainment  at  hotels,  ship- 
ping rates  etc. 

The  citizens  met  in  Town  meeting  on  April  14,  1777, 
and  the  Committee  appointed  to  draft  a  Vote  relative  to 
the  Act  of  General  Court  to  prevent  monopoly  and  oppres- 
sion, reported: 

Whereas  some  persons  from  an  inimical  Desposition  to 
the  Glorious  Cause  ....  are  doing  their  best  to  prevent 
the  regulation  of  prices  from  being  carried  out  .... 

Voted.  The  Inhabitants  of  this  Town  will  not  only 
strictly  adhere  to  &  observe  the  aforesaid  act  but  also  use 
our  utmost  endeavors  to  detect  and  bring  to  punishment 
those  unfriendly  selfish  persons  who  at  this  important  crisis 
shall  have  the  effrontery  to  counteract  the  good  wholesom 
laws  of  this  State. 

*^Mblsb.  Archives  181:  422. 

*■  The  original  broad -side  Is  in  the  possession  of  the  Ipswich  Histori- 
cal Society. 


338       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

This  was  carried  unanimously  and  the  Selectmen  were 
instructed  not  to  approbate  any  innholder  or  retailer  who 
did  not  strictly  adhere  to  the  regulating  Act  A  Committee 
of  seven  persons  was  chosen  on  June  9,  to  prosecute  all  per- 
sons guilty  of  any  breach  of  the  Act,  and  the  Representa- 
tives were  instructed  to  oppose  the  repeal  of  the  Act. 

The  regulation  of  prices  was  again  in  question  in  1779, 
and  in  mid  August,  a  Committee  was  chosen  to  meet  with 
Committees  of  other  towns  to  consider  proposals  of  the  late 
State  Convention  respecting  the  high  prices  of  several  arti- 
cles of  consumption.  A  Convention  met  in  Concord  in 
October,  to  regulate  prices,  John  Baker  and  Stephen  Choate 
being  the  Ipswich  delegates;  and  in  November,  a  Town 
Committee  was  chosen  to  regulate  the  prices  of  innholders, 
mechanics'  wages  &c.  according  to  the  recommendations  of 
this  Convention. 

All  expectation  of  a  speedy  termination  of  the  war  was 
now  given  up.  Enlistments  for  a  three  year  period  were 
ordered  by  the  Continental  Congress,  as  the  army  was  great- 
Iv  weakened  by  the  constant  loss  of  soldiers,  whose  brief 
terms  of  enliir-tment  had  expired,  and  the  coming  of  raw  re- 
cruits. Orders  for  fresh  levies  were  issued  in  January, 
March,  April,  May  and  August,  1777,  for  service  in  the 
defense  of  Boston,  in  Rhode  Island  and  in  the  Northern 
army.  The  raising  of  the  required  number  of  soldiers  was 
no  easy  matter,  and  the  expense  involved  in  the  wages  of 
the  volunteers  soon  grew  into  huge  proportions.  A  Com- 
mittee reported  on  Jan.  21,  1777,  that  67  men  had  been 
enrolled  in  the  coast  defense  in  the  field,  and  that  the  total 
outlay  had  been  £1737-5-0,  and  £1000  was  assessed  "to 
defray  the  Charge  of  men's  going  into  the  War.''  As  one 
of  the  vessels  that  went  to  Virginia  in  1776,  had  been  lost, 
the  loss  had  to  be  made  good  by  the  Town. 

To  encourage  enlistment  under  the  Act  of  General  Court, 
which  required  one  seventh  of  the  men  from  sixteen  years 


THE  BBVOLUTIONABY  WAE.  339 

old  and  upward  to  the  age  of  fifty,  the  Town  voted  in 
February,  1777,  to  pay  for  a  three  year  enlistment,  either 
a  single  paymlent  of  £18,  in  addition  to  Continental  and 
State  bounties,  or  a  progressive  sum  increasing  from  £6 
the  first  year  to  £10  the  third.  In  May,  the  sum  of 
£16  was  voted  as  a  bounty  to  hold  good  until  Jan.  10**, 
and  as  the  currency  was  now  much  debased,  the  Representa- 
tives were  instructed  to  petition  Congress  to  redeem  the 
State  money  ^vith  Continental  money.  The  sum  of  £1200 
was  appropriated  in  ^^ovember  to  hire  the  men  called  for, 
and  further  sums  for  firearms  and  ammunition. 

The  first  enthusiasm  for  the  War  had  long  since  spent 
itself,  and  there  was  less  and  less  willingness  to  enlist.  In 
May,  1777,  a  bounty  of  £18  over  and  above  the  Continental 
and  State  bounty  was  paid  to  18  men,  all  inhabitants  of 
Woolwich  and  a  draft  was  necessary  in  May  or  early  June 
to  fill  the  Ipswich  quota.  The  Treasurer's  accounts  of  this 
period  reveal  frequent  trips  of  the  Committee  to  Boston, 
to  New  Hampshire  and  elsewhere  to  secure  men. 

After  the  capture  of  Fort  Ticonderoga  by  the  British,  an 
order  was  issued  on  August  9,  1777,  requiring  that  one  sixth 
part  of  the  able-bodied  men  of  the  training  band  and  alarm 
lists,  not  already  engaged,  be  at  once  drafted  and  marched 
for  the  relief  of  the  iTorthern  army  under  Gen.  Gates. 

Major  Charles  Smith  of  Ipswich  commanded  a  regiment 
which  was  engaged  in  this  service,  and  Captain  Robert 
Perkins  was  in  command  of  a  company  of  Light  Horse 
Volunteers  attached  to  this  regiment.^*  Candlewood  was 
well  represented  with  Elisha  Brown,  Lieut.,  Nehemiah 
Brown,  Sergeant,  John  Brown,  Trumpeter,  as  well  as  the 
Captain.  From  Ipswich  Village,  came  Comet  John  Pear- 
son, Mark  Haskell  and  Nehemiah  Jewett. 

Capt.  David  Low  and  his  company  were  in  the  same 
regiment,  and  his  48  men  were  all  from  Ipswich.     John 

**Ma88.  Archives.    Muster  Rolls  22:  68. 


340       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAT   COLONY. 

Potter  was  the  drummer,  Jno.  Smith,  the  fifer,  Francis  Mer- 
rifield  and  Paul  Lancaster  were  the  Lieutenants.***  Capt* 
Robert  Dodge's  company  in  Col.  Samuel  Johnson's  regiment 
did  duty  in  the  campaign  under  General  Gates  and  the 
guard  service  at  Prospect  Hill  from  August  to  December. 
The  42  members  of  the  Company  were  chiefly  from  the 
Hamlet  and  Chebacco.  Moses  Lufkin  was  the  Drum 
Major. 2^  Capt.  Richard  Dodge  had  28  men  from  the  Ham- 
let in  his  company,  engaged  in  the  same  service.  ^^ 

Gen  Burgoyne  surrendered  his  army  after  two  severe 
defeats  at  Saratoga,  numbering  about  6000  men  and  those 
captured  at  Bennington  and  elsewhere,  raised  the  total  num- 
ber of  British  prisoners  in  the  hands  of  the  Americans  to 
about  10,000  or  about  a  third  of  the  entire  British  army 
in  America.  A  large  force  was  detached  to  accompany  the 
prisoners  to  Cambridge,  where  a  great  prison  camp  was  es- 
tablished and  to  guard  them  there.  Many  Ipswich  soldiers 
were  engaged  in  this  service. 

The  American  victory  at  Saratoga  has  been  pronounced 
by  a  competent  authority,^®  one  of  the  great  battles  that 
have  had  a  lasting  influence  on  the  world's  history.  Its 
immediate  effects  made  it  the  turning  point  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, as  it  broke  up  the  plans  of  the  British  and  secured 
the  alliance  with  France.  But  whatever  of  hope  and  cour- 
age were  inspired  by  it,  were  destroyed  by  the  terrible 
experiences  of  the  army  in  its  winter  camp  at  Valley  Foi^. 
Joseph  Hodgkins,  then  a  Captain  in  Col.  Timothy  Bige- 
low's  Battalion,  wintered  there.  His  letters  to  his  wife 
brought  the  dreadful  truth  home  to  all  the  people  of  Ipswich. 
Under  date  of  Feb.  22,  1778,  he  wrote: 

I  must  Just  inform  you  that  what  our  Soldiers  have  Suf- 

*Mass.  Archives.     Rolls  20:  225. 

*•  Mass.  Archives.     Rolls  18:  146. 

*TMass.   Archives.     Rolls   18:    151. 

*•  The  Fifteen  Decisive  Battles  of  the  World  by  Sir  Edward  S.  Creasy. 


THE  REVOLUTIONABY  WAB.  341 

f  ered  this  winter  is  Beyond  Expression  as  one  half  has  Ben 
bare  foot  &  all  most  Naked  all  winter  the  other  half  Very 
Badly  on  it  for  Clothes  of  all  sorts  ....  and  to  Come 
Pleat  our  messery  Very  Shorte  on  it  for  Provision  not 
Ijong  Since  our  Brigade  Drue  a  half  Days  Lownce  of  Meet 
in  Eiffht  Dav.  But  these  Defilties  the  men  Bor  with  a 
D^ree  of  fortitude  Becoming  Soldiers. 

But  I  must  say  one  worde  to  the  People  at  home  who  I 
fear  have  Lost  all  Bowles  of  Compassion  if  they  Ever  had 
any  ....  for  the  Country  Towns  have  Provided  Clothing 
for  there  men  and  Brought  them  to  Camp.  But  as  there 
has  Ben  none  from  the  Seeport  Towns  I  fear  they  have 
lost  all  there  Publick  Spirit  I  would  Beg  of  them  to  Rouse 
from  there  Stupidity  and  Put  on  Som  humanity  and  stir 
themselves  Befor  it  is  too  Late  I  would  not  have  them 
thing  hard  of  maintaining  there  Soldiers  for  what  the 
Soldier  has  Suffered  the  past  year  Desarved  a  Penshon 
Dureing  Life. 

These  heart-rending  tales  were  enough  to  damp  the  ardor 
of  the  most  devoted  friends  of  the  cause,  and  it  is  not  strange 
that  the  renewed  calls  for  troops  in  the  summer  of  1778 
were  responded  to  very  slowly.  The  wonder  is  that  any 
volunteers  could  he  found.  Still  the  large  bounties  proved 
attractive.  In  February,  1778,  the  Town  Committee 
hired  two  men  from  Passamaquoddy,  one  from  Fox  Island 
and  seventeen  Frenchmen,  ^Mately  from  France,"  lured 
probably  by  the  prospect  of  the  high  wages  paid  to  recruits. 
They  received  a  bounty  of  £60  each. 

On  April  20,  1778,  2000  more  men  were  summoned  into 
the  field  for  duty  on  the  Hudson  River,  and  it  was  ordered 
that  everj'  town,  which  failed  of  sending  its  full  quota, 
should  be  fined  £100  for  every  man  deficient.  Each  town 
was  allowed  £30  for  every  man  enlisted  before  May  20*^. 

Twentv-one  men  were  enlisted  for  nine  months  under  this 
Resolve. 

Rhode  Island  was  threatened  in  June,  and  again  the  call 
was  made  for  a  short  enlistment.     Ipswich  sent  50  men 


342     IPSWICH,  iisr  the  Massachusetts  bay  colony. 

and  the  I'own  Treasurer  reported  in  August  that  he  had 
paid  them  £33  each  for  their  six  weeks  in  the  field,  a  total 
of  £1650.  Jonathan  IngersoU  testified  that  on  July  1"*, 
while  in  command  of  the  sloop-of-war  "Packet,"  he  had 
been  chased  ashore  at  Nova  Scotia  by  the  British.  He  com- 
pelled three  men  to  bring  his  crew  and  himpelf  in  a  boat 
to  Ipswich  and  on  his  arrival,  he  made  request  that  they 
should  not  be  detained  as  prisoners. 

The  cost  of  the  struggle  was  already  appalling.  The 
Town  Treasurer  balanced  his  accounts  and  drew  up 

A  Schedule  of  the  Debts  arising  within  the  Town  of  Ips- 
wich for  the  year  1778,  Exclusive  of  the  charge  of  the  Poor 
and  Soldiers  Families. 

Continental  men  for  3  years  &  the  War  £1434-  0-  0 

Nine  months  men  3129-  2-  0 

Six  months  Providence  men  508-  1-  0 

Cloathing  for  Continental  Soldier  536-12-  6 

Mileage  for  6  mos.  Providence  men  49-12-  0 

Mileage  6  weeks  Khode  Island  109-  8-  0 

Guards  at  Winter  Hill,  3  mos.  315-  0-  0 


6131-15-  6 
Clothing  now  Eng.  by  Selectmen  620 


6751-15-  6 
The  total  War  Debt  was  12396-  4-  2 

The  year  1779  brought  a  lull  in  active  military  opera- 
tions, but  in  May  there  was  a  call  for  1500  men,  in  June 
another  call  for  800  men  to  serve  until  Jan.  1,  1780,  which 
was  followed  immediately  by  another  for  2000  men,  in 
consequence  of  a  requisition  made  by  the  Continental  Con- 
gress. In  October,  2000  men  were  called  on  a  3  months 
term  and  guards  for  the  sea-coast  defence  were  enlisted  at 
Christmas.  The  one  grand  event  of  the  year  was  the  vic- 
tory of  John  Paul  Jones  in  the  "Bon  Homme  Richard" 
over  the  British  frigate  "Serapis,"  and  the  Town  was  proud 


THE  EEVOLUTIONABY  WAR.  343 

of    the  two  Ipswich  sailors,   Jonathan  Wells  and  Francis 
Perkins,  who  belonged  to  the  famous  ship. 

The  Treasury  accounts  of  the  United  States  contain  the 
item. 

Ipswich,  Sept.  1'*,  1787. 
Hon*^**  Nathan  Dane  Esq^ 

Sir.  Please  to  pay  to  John  Story,  Esq.  or  order,  what 
money  you  have  or  shall  receive  for  Prize  money  due  to 
Jona^an  Wells  &  Francis  Perkins  both  of  Ipswich  as 
belonging  to  the  Continental  Ship  Bonum  Richard,  John 
Paul  Jones  Esq^  Commander,  from  the  time  she  first  sailed 
from  Le  Orient  in  France  till  she  sunk  at  sea — ^whose  receipt 
shall  be  good  for  what  shall  be  received. 

I  am  your  Honors  most  Obd*  &  most  humble  Servant 

Will"*  Story  Jun^  Attorney  to  said 
Jon*  Wells  &  Eliz*  Perkins  Mother 
to  said  Francis  Perkins. 
Treasury  Department,  Auditor's  Office 

Oct.  3*  1791 
I  hereby  certify  that  it  appears  by  the  records  of  the  late 
Marine  Department  now  deposited  in  this  office.  That  on  the 
6^  of  Nov'  1787,  John  Story  received  from  Benj"  Walker 
Esq'  the  Commis'  for  Marine  Account,  fifty  two  Dollars  and 
sixty  ninetieths — being  Jonathan  Well's  Share  of  the  prizes 
Captured  by  the  Cont*  Ship  Bonne  Kich** — rec^  by  said 
Story  in  consequence  of  a  power  of  Attorney  from  said  Wells 
imto  Nathan  Dane  Esq.  &  transferred  by  said  Dane  unto  the 
said  John  Story. 

Doyle  Sweeny. 

Jonathan  Wells  enlisted  first  in  Capt.  Abraham  Dodge's 
company  on  May  3,  1775,  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Bun- 
ker Hill  on  June  17*^  and  was  discharged  after  12  weeks 
6  days  service.  As  he  received  coat-money  Dec.  21,  1775,  he 
was  again  in  the  army.     He  enlisted  again  January  1**,  1776. 

He  was  a  seaman  in  the  brigantine  five  months  and 

fourteen  days  in   1777,  being  discharged  July   31.^®     He 

*Mas8.  Soldiers  and  Sailors  In  the  Revolution. 


344      IPSWIOH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

was  in  the  privateer  "Fair  Play"  in  December,  1777,  in  the 
"Black  Prince"  in  July,  1778  and  in  the  "Gen.  Wadsworth' ' 
in  February,  1781, 

It  is  a  family  tradition  that  Mr.  Wells  was  wounded 
during  his  first  enlistment.     While  at  home,  recovering  from 
his  wound,  he  went  one  day  to  the  Meeting  House  Green, 
where  recruits  were  being  enrolled,  and  was  so  fired  with 
enthusiasm,  that  he  re-enlisted  and  marched  away  with  his 
arm  in  a  sling.     Entering  the  navy,  he  passed  from  ship 
to   ship,   without  being  allowed   an   opportunity  to   return 
home  and  see  his  family.     He  used  to  say  that  he  thought 
he  had  seen  war  before  he  became  a  seaman  in  the  navy, 
but  his  land  service  was  not  to  be  compared  with  the  fight 
between   the   "Bon   Homme  Richard"   and   the   "Serapis.'' 
He  stood  at  his  gun  when  nine  men  and  a  boy  lay  dead 
around   him.     He   always   expressed  great  admiration   for 
John  Paul  Jones,  telling  how  small  a  man  he  was,  and  of 
his  brilliant  ability  and  dauntless  courage.     On  his  return 
home  after  this  battle,  his  house  was  besieged  for  days  with 
friends  and  neighbors,  who  desired  to  hear  from  his  o^vn 
lips  the  story  of  the  great  sea-fight.     His  wife  picked  the 
powder  from  his  face  with  a  fine  cambric  needle. 

A  popular  song,  which  was  inspired  by  this  battle  has 
been  remembered  bv  a  descendants^*  of  the  brave  soldier  and 
sailor. 

An  American  frigate 

A  frigate  of  fame, 

With  gims  mounted  forty 

And  Richard  by  name. 

Went  to  cruise  in  the  Channel 

Of  old  Eng  .  .  land 

A  valiant  Commander 

Paul  Jones  was  the  man. 

**  Mrs.  Lora  A.  Littlefleld  of  Brookline,  who  has  communicated  the 
interestinjT  family  traditions.  Her  ^rand -mother  was  srrand -daughter  of 
Capt.  Wells,  as  he  wa.*'.  familiarly  called. 


THE  BEVOLUTIONABY  WAR.  345 

We  had  not  sailed  long 
Before  we  espied 
A  large  forty-four 
And  a  twenty  likewise. 
The  Lion  bore  down, 
While  the  Richard  did  rake, 
And  caused  the  poor  heart 
Of  Percy  to  quake. 

We  fought  them  eight  glasses, 
Eight  glasses  so  hot, 
Seventy  bold  seamen 
Lay  dead  on  the  spot 
And  ninety  brave  seamen 
Lay  bleeding  in  gore, 
While  Percy's  cannon 
Most  wretchedly  did  roar. 

A  gunner  in  fright 
To  Paul  Jones  then  came 
We  take  water  quite  fast 
Our  side  is  in  flames. 
Brave  Jones  made  reply 
Li  the  height  of  his  pride 
"If  we  can't  do  no  better,  boys, 
We'll  sink  along  side." 

"Stand  firm  at  your  quarters 
Your  duty  don't  shun, 
The  first  one  that  quits  them 
Through  his  body  I'll  run!" 
The  shot  flew  so  hot : 
They  couldn't  stand  it  long ; 
And  the  undaunted  Union 
Of  Great  Britain  came  down. 

Thomas  Knowlton  and  Nathaniel  Farley  Jr.  are  said  to 
have  had  part  in  the  expedition  to  the  Penobscot,  which 
sailed  from  Boston,  July  19,  1779.  On  the  British  side 
Dr.  John  Calef,  now  openly  an  enemy  of  the  patriot  cause, 


846       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLOirr. 

was  actively  engaged  as  a  surgeon.  His  "Siege  of  Penob- 
scot (Castine)  by  the  Rebels'*  and  his  Journal,  have  pre- 
served a  valuable  record  of  this  campaign. 

The  year  1780  (^ened  with  a  depressing  report  of  the 
Town  Treasurer.     The  Town  debt  had  advanced  by  leaps 
and  bounds,  the  excessive  figures  revealing  the  extreme  de- 
preciation of  the  Continental  currency.     The  charges  for 
10  Continental  soldiers  for  9  months  were  about  £8000; 
for  11  men  at  Rhode  Island  for  6  months,  about  £5700; 
for  men  on  guard  at  and  about  Boston,  £445 ;  for  33  men 
sent  to  the  Hudson  River  in  October,  £4330.     The  charge 
for  the  poor  was  £6000,  and  the  notes  given  by  the  Treas- 
urer amounted  to  £14,000,  making  a  grand  total  deficiency 
of  £38,475  for  the  year  1779.     The  General  Court  directed 
the  Selectmen  of  the  towns  in  May,  1780,  to  report  the 
monthly  average  price  of  beef,  Indian  com,  sheeps*  wool 
and  sole-leather,  for  several  months  in  1780  and  in  1781, 
for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  value  of  the  securities 
given  by  the  State  to  Continental  ofiicers  and  soldiers  to 
make  good  their  established  pay  and  wages.     By  the  end 
of  the  year,  the  old  Emission  nxoney  had  depreciated  to 
such  an  extent  that  on  Dec.  25,  the  Tow^n  voted  £1850  of 
the  last  Emission  or  £74,200  of  the  old  to  purchase  beef. 

The  Southern  States  were  the  scene  of  the  war  for  the 
most  part  as  the  summer  advanced,  but  there  was  a  call 
for  3,©  64  men  on  June  5,  1780  for  6  months,  with  the 
severe  condition  that  £150  should  be  imposed  upon  any 
person  drafted,  who  neglected  to  hire  an  able-bodied  man, 
the  fine  to  be  paid  within  twenty-four  hours  after  being 
drafted.  The  Town's  quota  was  60  men.  On  Gen.  Wash- 
ington's call  for  more  troops,  it  was  ordered  on  June  22"^*, 
that  4,726  men  should  be  enlisted  for  three  months  from 
their  arrival  at  Claverack  on  the  Hudson.  The  Town  sent 
52  men  at  an  expense  of  £1170  each,  its  quota  again  being 
sixty.     The  proportion  of  supplies  for  the  army  allotted  to 


QBN.  WASHINGTON'S  ORDER  TO  COL,  WADE 


THE  EEVOLUTIONABY  WAB.  347 

Ipswich  included  106  shirts,  as  many  pairs  of  shoes  and 
stockings,  33  blankets,  and  31,800  pounds  of  beef.  The 
Town  paid  £19,080  in  Continental  money  in  lieu  of  half 
the  allotment  of  beef. 

CoL  Nathaniel  Wade's  regiment,  which  included  many 
Ipswich  men,  was  stationed  at  West  Point.  Gen.  Benedict 
Arnold,  the  commander  of  the  post,  had  made  overtures 
to  the  British  oificers  to  surrender  it  to  them.  Upon  the 
arrest  of  Major  Andre,  who  acted  as  agent  in  the  secret 
communications,  Arnold  fled  precipitately  to  the  British 
ship,  "Vulture,'^  lyiiig  in  the  Hudson.  A  family  tradition 
has  always  affirmed  that  Stephen  Pearson  of  the  Village 
was  one  of  the  crew  which  rowed  the  traitor's  boat.  In- 
deed the  whole  boat's  crew  may  have  been  detached  from 
Col.  Wade's  command. 

Washington,  Knox  and  La  Fayette  were  at  West  Point. 
The  defection  of  Arnold  was  a  crushing  blow.  There  was 
great  uncertainty  as  to  the  extent  of  the  conspiracy  and 
the  preparations  made  by  the  enemy  for  an  immediate  at- 
tack. Aides  and  orderlies  Were  dispatched  in  every  direc- 
tion with  orders  that  arrangements  might  be  made  for  any 
emergency.  Col.  Lamb,  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  forti- 
fications at  the  time,  had  been  detached  on  other  service. 
Col.  Wade  was  directed  to  assume  command.'^  The  origi- 
nal order  is  a  cherished  heirloom  in  the  Wade  family. 

Head-Quarters,  Robinson's  House. 

25  Sept.  1780 
Sir. 

General  Arnold  is  gone  to  the  enemy.  I  just  now  re- 
ceived a  line  from  him,  inclosing  one  to  Mrs.  Arnold,  dated 
on  board  the  Vulture.  From  this  circumstance,  and  Col. 
Lamb's  being  detached  on  some  business,  the  command  of 
the  garrison  for  the  present  devolves  on  you.  I  request  you 
will  be  as  vigilant  as  possible,  and,  as  the  enemy  may  have 

»  Narrative  and  Critical  History.    Wlnsor,  VI:  460. 


348       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

it  in  contemplation  to  attempt  some  enterprize,  even  to- 
night, against  these  posts,  I  wish  you  to  make,  immediately 
after  the  receipt  of  this,  the  best  disposition  you  can  of 
your  force,  so  as  to  have  a  proportion  of  men  in  each  work 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river.  You  will  see  or  hear  fTom 
me  further  to-morrow. 

I  am  Sir,  your  mo.  obt,  servt. 

Geo.  Washington. 

This  letter  was  followed  by  another  on  the  following  day: 

Sir: 

Under  the  present  situation  of  affairs,  I  think  it  neces- 
sary that  the  respective  works  at  West  Point  and  its  de- 
pendencies be  supplied  with  provisions  and  water.  You  will 
therefore  be  pleased  to  have  a  proper  quantity  distributed 
to  each  of  them  without  any  loss  of  time. 

I  am,  sir,  your  most  ob'dt  serv'nt 

Go :  Washington 
Head  Qr.  26  Septr.  1780. 

Colonel  Wade. 

Prof.  Daniel  Treadwell,  in  his  Reminiscences'^  of  Col. 
Wade,  narrates  some  interesting  incidents.  A  few  days 
before  the  capture  of  Major  Andre,  Col.  Wade  dined  by 
invitation  with  Gen.  Arnold  at  Robinson's  house,  where  he 
had  his  headquarters,  some  three  miles  below  West  Point, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Hudson.  On  taking  leave  of  his 
host,  one  of  the  General's  Aides-de-Camp  walked  to  the  bank 
of  the  river  with  Col.  Wade.  As  thev  neared  the  river,  he 
said  in  a  very  impressive  tone.  "Col.  Wade  there  is  some- 
thing going  on  here  that  I  do  not  understand  and  cannot 
find  out.  I  say  this  to  put  you  on  your  guard  at  the  Fort. 
I  fear  there  is  something  brewing  about  us,  and  all  I  can 
say  is,  look  out  for  [it]."  He  then  turned  about  suddenly, 
evidently  wishing  to  avoid  any  inquiry  or  explanation. 
Col.  Wade  always  believed  that  the  suspicion  of  the  Major 
had  been  aroused  by  the  secret  communications,  which  were 

■»  Antiquarian  Papers,  Vol.  II:  No.  XIX. 


THE  BEVOLUTIONARY  WAR.  349 

carried  on,  and  that  he  took  this  method  to  rouse  the  vigi- 
lance of  a  principal  officer  of  the  garrison,  without  involving 
timself  by  making  charges  against  his  superior. 

When  La  Fayette  visited  Ipswich  in   1824,  he  greeted 
Col.  Wade  with  great  cordiality.     They  indulged  in  reminis- 
cences of  the  War,  and  when  Col.  Wade  exclaimed  "But  my 
dear  General,  do  you  remember  West  Point  V^  Lafayette  re- 
plied, "  'O  my  dear  friend,  I  do,'  and  when  Gen.  Washing- 
ton first  heard  of  the  defection  of  Arnold,  he  asked,  ^Who 
lias  the  immediate  command?'     On  being  told  that  it  was 
you,  he  said,  'Col.  Wade  is  a  true  man,  I  am  satisfied.'     Gen. 
Green  and  mj^self  immediately  repaired  to  the  Garrison. 
Do  you  not  recollect  seeing  me  riding  rapidly  in  from  the 
north-east  comer  when  we  took  the  Division  up  to  King's 
Ferry  ?"«» 

After  pointing  out  the  danger  and  folly  of  short-term  en- 
listments, the  General  Court  ordered  a  levy  of  4,240  men 
for  three  years  or  the  War,  in  December,  1780.  Inhabi- 
tants of  towns  were  now  directed  to  form  themselves  into 
classes  for  procuring  men,  each  class  to  hire  or  engage  one 
able-bodied  man  for  the  service.  This  method  proved  more 
successful  than  any  other  means  adopted.  In  February, 
1781,  Selectmen  were  instructed  to  class  the  inhabitants  into 
as  many  classes  as  they  were  deficient  in  the  number  as- 
signed. The  difficulty  of  procuring  recruits  is  painfully 
evident  in  Col.  Hutchinson's  letter  to  the  Ipswich  Commit- 
tee. TTiider  the  call  of  Dec.  2,  1780,  52  men  were  assigned 
to  Ipswich.  But  on  Oct.  30,  1781,  nearly  a  year  later.  Col. 
Hutchinson  notified  the  Committee  that  only  45  men  had 
been  procured.  Two  of  these  had  failed,  so  that  nine  men 
were  still  lacking. 

The  list  of  citizens  included  in  one  of  these  classes  has 
been  preserved.** 

"  From  the  Newhuryport  Union.    Antiquarian  Papers  Vol  11:  No.  XIX. 
»*  Family  papers  of  Hon.  John  Heard. 


350       IPSWICH,    IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COLONY. 

Class  No.  25. 

John  Heard            1-  8-  3-  5  Ebenezer  Cogswell  1-  0-  7-  7 

Capt  Abraham  Dodge  Stephen  Brown  Jr.  1      -10-  8 

1-  3-12-  0  Capt.  Joseph  Cummings 

"Guardain  to  John  Pitman"  1-  0 

1      -16  Capt.  Thomas  Cummings 

Asa  Baker               2      -18-  3  1-6 

Nath  Heard            1      -5-0  Lt.  John  Gk)odhue  1-  3-18-  0 

Dan^  Fuller             2      -14  Ephraim  Goodhue  1      -  6-  0 

Will"  Wise             1-  1-  3-  4  Aaron  Staniford     1      -  8-10 

To  Mr.  John  Heard 

The  persons  above  named  having  been  classed  agreeable 
to  Kesolves  of  the  General  Court  of  the  second  of  December 
and   twenty-sixth   of   February   last,   You    are   hereby  re- 
quired to  notify  a  meeting  of  said  class  at  some  convenient 
Place  as  soon  as  conveniently  may  be  in  Order  to  procure 
an  able  bodied  and  effective  man  to  serve  in  the  Continen- 
tal army  for  three  years  or  during  the  War  agreeable  to  sd. 
Resolves,  hereof  fail  not  and  make  Return  to  the  Command- 
ing Officers  of  Companies  and  Assessors  of  the  Town  of 
Ipswich  at  or  before  the  twenty-fifth  day  of  this  instant 
March. 

Barnabas  Dodge,  per  Order. 

The  class  was  duly  organized,  and  its  soldier  was  secured. 

Ipswich,  March  14,  1781. 
We,  the  subscribers,  do  hereby  obligate  ourselves  and  suc- 
cessors to  pay  to  Ammi  Burnham  Junior  the  sum  of  four 
pound  hard  money  monthly  from  the  date  hereof  in  con- 
sideration of  his  serving  as  a  soldier  in  Class  No.  25  for  the 
Term  of  3  years  ....  or  so  long  as  he  shall  serve. 
John  Heard.  Abraham  Dodge. 

In  the  mean  time,  upon  information  from  Gen.  Rocham- 
beau  that  Rhode  Island  was  in  peril  once  more,  the  Governor 
had  been  authorized  on  Feb.  28,  1781,  to  issue  orders  for 
1200  men  for  40  days,  and  another  call  on  June  30***,  re- 
quired  2700   men  for   3  months,   as  temporary  reinforce- 


THE  REVOLUTIONAJBY  WAB.  351 

ment  at  West  Point.  Ipswich  was  assigned  42  men,  and 
due  proportion  of  shirts,  shoes  and  stockings:  and  on  Nov. 
6^,  the  Town  was  credited  with  21  oxen  delivered  at  An- 
dover,  estimated  at  13,334  pounds  and  £20  specie  in  lieu 
of  1820  poimds,  the  balance  of  quota  due  June  22. 

But  the  end  was  now  near  at  hand.  Cornwallis  surren- 
dered on  October  19*^  1781.  A  levy  of  1500  men  for  3 
vears  or  the  end  of  the  War  was  made  in  March,  1782.  On 
July  6th,  small  detachments  of  artillery  were  stationed  at 
I*lum  Island,  Gloucester,  and  other  exposed  points  on  the 
sea-board.  A  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Paris  in  Sep- 
tember, 1783.  The  Town  voted  on  May  7,  with  great  en- 
thusiasm no  doubt,  that  the  Town  "will  give  the  Committee 
the  powder  taken  out  of  the  Town  Stock  &  used  in  the  late 
day  of  rejoicing." 

Eight  anxious,  bitter  years  had  passed  since  the  Lexing- 
ton alarm.  The  mien  of  Ijiswich  had  acquitted  themselves 
nobly  in  the  long  marches  and  the  dreadful  winter  camps 
as  well  as  on  the  battlefield.  Again  and  again,  they  had 
responded  to  the  endless  calls  for  reinforcements.  The  wives 
and  mothers,  with  hearts  heavy  with  fear  for  their  own  loved 
ones,  had  toiled  cheerfully  upon  the  yearly  supply  of  cloth- 
ing for  the  army.  Col.  Nathaniel  Wade  and  Col.  Joseph 
Hodgkins  were  in  the  field  during  the  whole  war,  and  won 
their  well-deserved  honors.  Major  Charles  Smith  and  the 
school-master,  Major  Thomas  Bumham,  rendered  valiant 
service.  So  did  the  veteran  Capt.  Gideon  Parker,  Capt. 
Robert  Perkins,  with  his  Light  Horse  troop,  Capt  Abraham 
Dodge,  Captain  Robert  Dodge  and  Capt.  David  Low. 

Col.  Michael  Farley  was  56  years  old  when  the  War  began, 
too  advanced  in  years  to  take  the  field.  But  no  man  ren- 
dered more  efiicient  aid  to  his  country.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  three  Provincial  Congresses  in  1774  and  1775,  and 
was  constantly  employed  in  committee  work  of  the  most 
important  character.       When   the   General   Court  was   re- 


352       IPSWIOH,   IN   THE    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

established  in  1775,  he  was  chosen  Representative  and  con- 
tinued a  member  nntil  1780.     He  was  chosen  High  Sheriff, 
and  advanced  in  military  rank  to  the  position  of  Second 
Major  Gteneral  of  the  Militia.     He  was  Town  Treasurer, 
and  conspicuously  active  in  all  Town  affairs.     His  sons, 
John  and  Jabez  entered  the  army.     Robert  was  not  quite 
fifteen  when  his  brothers,  Jabez  and  Michael,  marched  with 
Captain   Wade's   minute   men.       But  as   soon   as  he  had 
passed   his   sixteenth  birthday,   he  enlisted.      His  mother 
helped  him  put  on  his  equipments,  and  bade  him  "Behave 
like  a  man." 

A  supply  of  powder  was  kept  in  the  garret,  and  on  one 
occasion,  when  a  company  was  being  hurriedly  equipped, 
Mrs.  Farley  filled  every  man's  powder  horn  with  her  own 
hands. ^'^  Young  Robert  was  captured  by  the  British,  while 
engaged  in  privateering,  in  1780  and  imprisoned  on  the 
"Jersey,"  in  New  York  Harbor.  His  youth  and  his  engag- 
ing personality  so  commended  him  to  his  guards  that  he  was 
allowed  unusual  privilege,  even  being  permitted  to  ride 
horse  back  on  Long  Island,  and  he  was  plied  with  bribes 
to  join  the  British  army.  He  was  released  after  nine  months 
imprisonment,  so  changed  that  he  was  hardly  known  by  his 
friends. 

On  the  sea,  as  well  as  on  the  land,  Ipswich  men  gave  a 
good  account  of  themselves.  A  number  of  privateers  were 
owned  and  sailed  from  this  port.  The  commission,  dated 
1781,  signed  by  his  Excellency  Samuel  Huntington,  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  Congi'ess  at  Philadelphia,  authoriz- 
ing Richard  Lakeman  of  the  schooner,  "Diana,"  to  priva- 
teer in  destroying  British  commerce  is  still  preserved.'®  A 
cominission  was  granted  on  Dec.  18,  1781,  to  Ebenezer  Lake- 
man,  Captain  of  the  schooner,  "Delight,"  70  tons,  10  men, 

»  Felt.  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  184.  Col.  Farley  owned  and  occupied  the 
house  now  owned  by  Mr.  David  A.  Grady.  It  was  raised  on  the  day  Robert 
Farley  was  born  In  April,  1760. 

**  Owned  by  Miss  S.  E.  I^akeman,  a  lineal  descendant. 


THE    KEVOLUTIONAKY    WAB.  353 

4  carriage  guns,  for  a  letter  of  marque. '"^     Richard  Dum- 
mer  Jewett  sailed  from  Salem  on  Sunday,  June  18,  1781, 
on  board  the  "Porus,"  ship  of  war,  mounting  20  nine  poimd- 
ers,    commanded   by   John   Games   Esq.    of   Salem.       Mr. 
Jewett  was  Clerk,  and  his  memorandum  of  the  four  months 
cruise  is  of  great  interest.     His  list  of  the  large  crew  con- 
tains many  Ipswich  names.     Daniel  Newman  was  Sailing- 
Master.     Capt.  John  Dutch  was  one  of  the  numlerous  Prize 
Masters.      William    Wise    was    Gunner,    Robert    Farley, 
Steward,  Nath*  Lakeman,  Prize  Master  Mate,  Nath.  Jones 
and  William  Galloway,  Quartermasters,  Samuel  Lord,  Ser- 
geant of  Marines,  Abraham  Perkins,  Carpenter.     Among  the 
"privates"  were  William,  Stephen  and  Thomas  Hodgkins, 
Jonathan  Farley,  Moses  Caldwell,  Aaron  Goodhue,  James 
Fuller,  William  Walker,  John  Cheat,  John  Gallaway,  a  boy 
of  fifteen,  and  Nath*  Perkins,  two. years  younger. 

The  brig  "Maria"  was  captured  on  July  18"*,  and  the  brig 
"Swift"  laden  with  wine  and  brandy  on  the  26"*.  Young 
Jewetf  s  entry  for  Sunday,  July  8"*  is : 

We  ware  chased  by  the  ship*®  and  Thorn  and  they  came 
within  2  Leagues  of  us,  when  we  Saw  them;^  we  had  a  hard 
Time  to  get  clear. 

August  18*^,1781.  Spoke  with  the  Scourge  In  Latt.  42: 
48.  north 

Broth'  Jabez  Farlej^***  came  on  board  the  Poms. 

The  "Porus"  lost  a  considerable  number  of  men  including 
William  Wise,  the  gimner. 

The  most  comprehensive  and  minute  source  of  informa- 
tion regarding  the  privateer  vessels  and  their  crews,  that 
is  available,  is  the  old  account  book  of  Hon.  John  Heard. 
He  was  already  well  established  in  the  distillery  business  at 
the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution.     A  fleet  of  vessels, 

"Felt    History  of  Ipswich,  p.  315. 

**On  the  day  before,  a  British  50  Gun  ship  had  captured  the  "Thorn." 

**  Brother  of  Robert  Farley,  the  Steward,  cousins  of  Jonathan. 


354       IPSWICH,    IN    THF.    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

some  of  them  of  considerable  size,  sailed  from  Ipswich  with 
cargoes  of  fish  and  lumber  principally,  to  West  India  ports 
and  brought  back  cargoes  of  molasses.  Mr,  Heard  operated 
these  vessels  as  sole  owner,  or  in  partnership  with  Capt. 
Jonathan  Ingersoll  and  Captain  Ephraim  KendalL  A  num- 
ber of  these  vessels  were  fitted  as  privateers  by  Mr.  Heard. 
But  he  owned  shares  in  many  other  privateering  craft,  and 
many  Ipswich  sailors  belonged  in  the  crews  of  the  privateers, 
which  ritted  from  ^cwburyport,  Gloucester  and  Salem. 

These  sailors  contracted  with  the  owners  or  masters  of  the 
privateers,  that  in  case  of  a  prize  being  captured,  they  were 
to  receive  a  certain  portion  of  the  proceeds.  Their  next 
step  was  to  realize  in  advance  on  the  prospective  prize  money, 
to  which  in  case  of  good  fortune,  they  might  be  entitled. 
Mr.  Heard  played  the  role  of  a  prize  broker,  paying  the 
sailors  a  certain  cash  sum  for  their  shares.  He  recorded 
these  conveyances  carefully,  and  these  ancient  account  books 
thus  preserve  the  names  of  many  sailors  and  their  ships, 
and  the  ventures  made  by  the  thrifty  Ipswich  folk  in  vari- 
ous privateering  craft. 

The  first  mention  is  of  the  "Yankee  Xotion,"  in  May, 
1776,  when  William  Wise,  a  member  of  the  crew,  gave  a 
power  of  attorney  to  Mr.  Heard.  In  August,  James  Rich- 
ardson conveyed  half  his  share  in  the  "Fair  Lady,"  Capt. 
Jacob  Martin.  Joshua  Fisher,  an  Ipswich  surgeon,  having 
shipped  in  that  capacity  on  the  Brigantine,  "Fancy,"  Capt. 
John  Lee,  sold  a  share  in  the  prizes  that  might  be  taken  in 
the  cruise  to  Mr.  Heard  for  £60  in  May,  1777.  John  Smith 
sold  him  a  quarter  of  a  share  for  $38,  and  Samuel  Harris, 
a  third  of  a  share  for  $51.  Nathaniel  Heard  conveyed  an 
eighth  of  a  share.  In  December,  1777,  Mr.  Heard  bought 
for  £650  half  the  share  of  Nathaniel  Kinsman,  mariner,  in 
the  Brigantine  "Dillon,"  Capt.  Lefabre,  which  had  been  cap- 
tured by  the  "Fancy,''  and  condemned.  David  Ross  sold 
a  quarter  share  for  £300. 


THE    RKVOLUTIONARY   WAR.  355 

Jonathan  Galloway,  a  sailor  on  the  "Neptune,"  conveyed 
half  his  share  to  Mr.  Heard  on  Aug.  4,  1777,  and  John 
Holmes,  a  quarter,  on  the  same  date.  Abraham  Perkins, 
shipjoiner,  Nathaniel  Fuller  and  William  Wise,  each  con- 
veyed a  half  of  their  shares  in  the  schooner  "Warren"  in 
September.  In  December,  1777,  four  seaman  of  the  priva- 
teer "Fair  Play,"  Capt  Isaac  Somes,  sold  their  shares  in 
a  three  or  four  months  cruise,  Jonathan  Wells  and  Daniel 
Lakeman,  each  a  quarter,  and  William  Wise  an  eighth  to 
John  Heard ;  William  Wise,  a  quarter  to  Nathaniel  Heard, 
a  minor,  with  consent  of  his  father,  Robert  Cole  of  the 
same  vessel  sold  half  his  share  to  Mr.  Heard  in  June,  1778. 
Mr.  Heard  received  several  sacks  of  oats,  containing  four 
bushels  each,  from  some  prize  taken  by  the  "Fair  Play." 

He  bought  fractions  of  their  shares  of  many  sailors  in 
1778  and  1779.  William  Wise  sold  three  quarters  of  his 
share  in  the  "General  Arnold"  in  May;  Elisha  Gould,  a 
quarter,  in  the  same  ship  in  June;  Francis  Rust,  a  half 
share  in  January,  1779.  Jonathan  Galloway  sold  a  quar- 
ter share  to  Ephraim  Kendall;  Nathaniel  Mansfield  dis- 
posed of  a  quarter  share  in  April,  1778;  Mansfield  sold  a 
half  share  in  the  "Cruel  Usage,"  Capt.  John  Smith,  in  April, 
1778. 

In  the  "Black  Prince,"  Capt.  Elias  Smith,  in  June  and 
July,  1778,  Jonathan  Wells  conveyed  three  quarters  of  his 
share,  William  Smith,  John  Smith  Jr.  and  Thomas  Spiller, 
each  a  quarter  and  William  Smith  another  quarter  in  No- 
vember, Mr.  Heard's  interest  in  the  "Black  Prince" 
brought  some  return:  ll^  ?  Congo  Tea,  5  bottles  port-wine, 
5  bottles  porter,  5  lb.  candles,  2  qts.  peas,  2  quires  of  paper, 
28  lb.  shot,  5  lb.  bread,  7^,'2  l'^*  Biails,  4  lb.  soap,  9  sacks  of 
oats,  2  lb.  flour. 

In  the  brig  "Bennington,"  Capt.  William  Tuck,  Abraham 
Perkins  and  Daniel  Lakeman  conveyed  a  half  share,  and  Dan- 
iel Low,  a  quarter,  in  May  and  June,  1778.  William  Wise  sold 


356     IPSWICH,  in  the  Massachusetts  bay  coix)ny. 

a  half  share  in  the  ship  "Skyrocket"  in  June,  1778 ;  Daniel 
Low,  a  quarter  in  the  "Dallas" ;  James  Clinton  a  quarter  in 
the  Ipswich  privateer,  "Diana,"  Capt.  Richard  Lakeman, 
in  August,  1778. 

The  ship  "General  Stark,"  Capt  James  Pearson  of  Glou- 
cester was  very  popular  with  the  people  of  Ipswich.  Wil- 
liam Wise,  Moses  Harris,  David  Pulcifer,  William  Story 
Jr.  and  Daniel  Lakeman  all  had  shares.  Mr.  Heartl  in- 
vested largely  in  her  outfit  and  maintenance,  £180  in  1778, 
£305  in  1779,  £540  in  1780,  and  Kendall,  Heard  and  Story, 
£900  in  September,  1780.  A  prize  schooner  is  mentioned  in 
Jan.,  1779.  Mr.  Heard  furnished  a  tierce  of  pork  and  anoth- 
er of  beef  and  John  Harris  was  paid  £7-13-0  for  hauling  it 
to  Cape  Ann. 

W^illiam  Smith  disposed  of  half  a  share  in  the  "Hector," 
July  3'',  1779 ;  W^illiam  Galloway,  a  quarter  share  in  the 
"General  Lincoln,"  Capt.  John  Carnes,  in  September.  Wil- 
liam Smith  conveyed  a  half  share  in  the  "Harrison,"  Capt 
James  Jonson,  April  26,  1780,  and  three  quarters  share  in 
the  ship  "Pilgrim,"  Daniel  Lakeman  also  conveying  a  quar- 
ter in  July,  1780. 

The  brig  "John,"  owned  by  Mr.  Heard,  was  fitted  for 
privateering  in  the  fall  of  1779.  She  was  equipped  with 
wooden  guns,  and  had  painted  ports,  as  well  as  her  real 
armament.  His  account  books  contain  many  items  of  in- 
terest 

To  24  dollars  for  a  gun. 

To  1  gim  81^  Balls,— to  haling  to  y*  Stag. 

(i.  e.  Diamond  Stage) 
To  50  dollars  paid  Mr.  Choate  for  a  gun. 

To  painting  3  ports  of  guns  .             ...  0-24-  0 

To  Bumam  Bill  for  3  wooden  guns    .         .         .  9-0-0 

To  panting  3  gims  31/ 

To  1  gun  &  bayonet  55/ 

81"^  lb.  Bullets  18/ 


THE    BEVOLUTIONABY    WAB.  357 

To  haling  Load  to  Dimon  Stage  20/ 

To  Lakemans  bill  for  bringing  guns  £36 

Cash  for  guns  £269-11-  8 
To  24  dollars  for  a  wooden  gun. 

By  Isaac  Stanwood,  month's  pay  £40 

3  mens  advance  wages  in  brig  John. 

The  account  of  the  sloop,  "Success",  contains  the  item : 

1781.     To  blunderbuss  bought  at  Salem  for  sloop 

Success,  now  rigging  at  the  Neck,  2-14-  0 

and  in  the  same  year,  the  Schooner  "Delight"  was  credited 
"with  65  poimds  of  powder. 

Jonathan  Wells,  Ebenezer  Smith,  William  Longfellow,  Jos- 
eph Perkins,  Abraham  Perkins  and  William  Wise,  of  the 
privateer  sloop,  "General  Wadsworth,"  Capt.  Paul  Reed, 
gave  a  power  of  attorney  to  Mr.  Heard,  from  the  time  she 
sailed  from  Ncwburyport,  (dated  Feb.  12, 1781).  John  Den- 
nis, of  the  ship  "Grand  Turk,"  Joseph  Perkins,  shipwright  of 
the  ship  "Franklin,''  Thonxas  Bumham  of  the  brigantine 
'* Active,"  conveyed  to  Mr.  Heard  in  the  summer  of  1781. 
He  also  owned  an  eighth  of  the  brig  "Gloucester,"  bought 
shares  in  the  schooner  "Adoring,"  Capt.  Howell,  of  Abraham 
Perkins,  Capt.  Nath.  Fuller  and  William  Wise,  and  shares 
in  the  "General  Mercer"  of  William  Jackson  and  James 
Kent,  and  received  power  of  attorney  from  Jonathan  Gal- 
loway Jr. 

Many  of  the  Ipswich  men  gave  their  lives  for  their  coun- 
try. The  records  are  so  incomplete  that  it  is  impossible  to 
know  all  the  names  of  this  band  of  patriots,  but  some  not 
already  mentioned  have  been  preserved. 

Amos  Jewett  Jr.  died  at  Christmas,  1775,  in  his  twenty- 
first  year.  Willeby  Nason  and  John  Holladay  died  in  the 
camp  at  Prospect  Hill  in  the  winter  of  1775-6.  David 
Gk)odhue  died  of  fever  in  1776.  Abraham  Hodgkins  sick- 
ened and  died  in  August,  1777,  in  the  Long  Island  cam- 


358       IPSWICH,    IN    THE    MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COIX)NY. 

paign.  Jonathan  Galloway  was  on  board  a  privateer  which 
sunk  suddenly  off  Plum  Island  in  the  same  month.  Eben- 
ezer  Mansfield  died  in  1778.  In  1782,  a  cartel  from  Hali- 
fax put  into  Gloucester  and  landed  a  number  of  sick  pris- 
oners, brought  for  exchange  in  January,  Ishmael  Eives,  an 
Ipswich  soldier,  among  them.  In  the  same  year  Joseph 
Goodhue  died  on  a  prison  ship  at  St.  Lucia.  William 
Choate  Jr.  died  in  May,  1782,  and  Capt.  Moses  Harris,  on 
a  prison  ship  in  March,  1783. 

Moses  Sweet,  John  Sweet  and  William  Stone  were  re- 
ported*® in  the  list  of  prisoners  on  board  the  "Prince  of 
Wales,"  prison-ship  in  I^ew  York,  July  24,  1777.  They 
were  released  and  brought  from  New  York  in  the  schooner, 
"Speedwell,"  Aug.  3^  1777.  William  Stone,  then  a  sailor 
on  the  sloop-of-war,  "Wasp"  of  Newburyport,  was  killed  in 
the  fight  with  the  "Frolic." 

The  Chebacco  parish  had  distinguished  itself  by  its  en- 
thusiastic loyalty.      Rev.  John  Cleaveland  had  served  as 
Chaplain  in  the  French  and  Indian  War  at  Capt  Breton 
and  at  Lake  Gfeorge.     When  the  Revolutionary  war  began, 
it  was  the  common  remark  that  "he  preached  all  the  young 
men  among  his  people  into  the  army  and  then  went  him- 
self, taking  his  four  sons  with  him."     He  served  as  Chap- 
lain.    Two  of  his  sons  were  surgeons  and  after  the  war  were 
conspicuous  as  physicians  and  citizens,  interested  in  all  pub- 
lic affairs.     One  of  them  became  a  useful  and  successful 
clergyman.     Ebenezer  died  on  March   30,   1780,  aged  26 
yrs.  "on  board  the  C'Ontinental  ship  Eustis,  Lemuel  Bishop, 
Capt.  dyed  of  the  jail  fever,  having  been  captivated  in  his 
voyage  to  the  west  indies,  first  by  the  British  and  then  by 
the  french  in  a  dutch  ship ;  and  put  into  Jail  at  Guadeloop : 
he  sailed  from  Salem  on  his  sd.  voyage  with  Capt  Jaoobsi 
the  last  of  October,  1779."^^     Jesse  Story  fell  at  Bunker 
Hill.     In  1776,  Thomas  Emerson  Cole,  Jonathan  Cogswell 

*•  Independent  Chronicle,  Boston,  July  24,  1777. 
**  Town  Records. 


THK    KEVOLUTTONARY    WAR.  359 

3*",  William  Jones,  died  of  disease,  Joseph  Marshall  Jr. 
was  killed  by  a  cannon  ball  at  Lake  Champlain,  and  Joseph 
Lufkin  was  struck  by  a  tree  he  was  felling  and  died  from 
his  injuries.  Jeremiah  White  died  at  Albany,  and  Joseph 
Biimham  was  fatally  wounded  at  Stillwater  in  1777. 
James  Rust,  a  prisoner  at  Halifax,  Stephen  Kent  and  John 
Andrews  at  Albany,  Abraham  Jones,  Isaac  Jones,  Israel 
Andrews,  N^athaniel  Emerson  and  Abijah  Story,  a  black 
man,  all  died  in  the  vear  1778.  Lieut.  Samuel  Burnham 
died  of  consumption,  caused  by  exposure,  in  1782.  Felt, 
the  historian,  says  that  they  were  all  Chebacco  men. 

Manassph  Cutler,  the  minister  of  the  Hamlet  parish,  then 
a  young  man  of  thirty-one  years,  addressed  the  minute  men 
before  they  marched  to  Lexington,  and  then  rode  on  horse- 
back with  his  neighbor,  Mr.  Willard  of  Beverly,  afterwards 
President  of  Harvard  College,  as  far  as  Cambridge,  where 
he  came  in  sight  of  the  British  soldiers  retreating  to  Boston. 
He  was  commissioned  as  Chaplain  in  the  regiment  of  Col. 
Ebenezer  Francis  in  Sept.  1776,  and  served  6  months,  and 
the  same  period  subsequently  in  Col.  Titcomb's  Regiment 
at  Long  Island  and  elsewhere.  Dr.  Elisha  Whitney,  the 
physician  of  the  Parish  was  Captain  of  a  company  of  min- 
ute men  and  re-enlisted  in  the  army.  He  was  taken  pris- 
oner, and  in  Dec,  1777,  Gen.  Michael  Farley  petitioned  the 
Council,  that  Dr.  Whitney  then  a  prisoner  at  Halifax,  might 
be  exchanged  for  Dr.  McCullough,  a  British  surgeon,  bil- 
leted at  Ipswich.     The  exchange  was  effected. 

While  these  brave  men  Avere  in  the  field,  the  Committee 
of  Correspondence  and  Safety,  Daniel  Noyes,  the  school- 
master and  post-master,  Dummer  Jewett,  an  important  mem- 
ber of  the  Provincial  Congress  and  a  conspicuous  citizen, 
John  Baker,  Capt.  Jonathan  Cogswell,  John  Heard,  John 
Patch  and  many  others  were  engaged  with  momentous  is- 
sues at  home.  The  raising  of  soldiers,  the  apportionments 
of  beef  and  clothing,  the  care  of  soldiers'  families,  borrowing 


360       IPSWICH^   IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   0OIX)NY. 

money  from  citizens,  the  sti'uggle  with  the  epidemic  of  small 
pox,  the  consideration  of  the  heat  form  of  government  for 
the  State  and  the  Nation,  required  anxious  thought  and  long 
and  patient  self-sacriticing  devotion. 

["Massachusetts  Soldiers  and  Sailors  in  the  Revolutionary  War,"  in 
seventeen  large  volumes,  compiled  by  the  State  from  every  known  source 
of  information,  contain  such  minute  and  exhaustive  record  of  individual 
service  that  the  printing  of  company  rolls  etc.  in  this  chapter  seemed 
needless.  These  books  are  deposited  in  all  Public  Libraries,  and  the 
Library  of  every  incorporated  Historical  Society  in  the  Commonwealth.! 


CHAPTER  XV. 

After  the  Revolution. 

The  immediate  cost  of  the  Revolutionary  War  in  life  and 
permanent  disability  from  wounds  and  in  the  vast  expense 
of  eight  years  of  warfare  was  a  great  price  for  the  liberty 
that  was  gained  at  last.  But  the  true  significance  of  the 
mighty  struggle  was  yet  to  be  realized.  An  oppressive 
volume  of  debt  was  every  where  in  evidence.  Massachusetts 
owed  £250,000  to  the  Revolutionarv  soldiers,  and  her  share 
of  the  Federal  war  debt  was  £1,500,000.  Every  town  was 
deeply  involved  and  every  man  owed  more  or  less. 

Before  the  war,  Ipswich  had  enjoyed  a  flourishing  trade 
in  fish  with  the  West  Indies,  but  her  vessels  had  been  driven 
from  the  sea  and  now,  there  was  no  market  for  the  products 
of  the  fisheries.  The  British  government  refused  to  allow 
the  importation  of  American  fish  into  the  West  Indies  un- 
der any  flag,  imposed  a  prohibitive  duty  on  whale  oil,  and 
forbade  any  but  English  ships  bringing  American  goods  to 
British  ports.  There  was  a  great  scarcity  of  specie  and 
the  paper  currency  was  sadly  depreciated. 

An  Import  and  Excise  law  was  enacted  in  1783  to  pro- 
vide funds  for  the  State  Treasury.  It  required  that  a 
stamp  should  be  aflixed  to  newspapers  and  there  was  fre- 
quent allusions  to  it,  as  the  "Stamp-Act."  The  editor  of 
the  Salem  Gazette  lamented  a  fresh  imposition  in  his  issue 
of  August  2,  1785 : 

This  day  the  act  imposing  a  duty  on  advertisements  takes 
place.  No  printer  can  now  advertise  even  in  his  own  paper 
any  books  or  pieces  of  Piety  or  Devotion,  not  excepting  the 

(361) 


362       IPSWICH,   IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COUOlSfY. 

Holy  Bible,  without  paying  a  heavy  tax  for  it.  How  this 
accords  with  his  Excellency's  late  Proclamation  ....  let 
the  framer  of  the  act  determine.  Were  it  not  for  the  tax 
upon  advertising  good  Books,  the  Printer  hereof  would  in- 
form the  publick  that  he  has  just  published  "Extracts  from 
Dr.  Priestly's  Catechism"  which  he  sells  at  five  coppers 
single  and  two  shillings  the  dozen. 

The  -Tender  Act/'  so  called,  of  1782  provided  that  exe- 
cutions issued  for  private  demands  might  be  satisfied  by 
neat  cattle  and  other  articles  particularly  enumerated.  It 
was  the  first  signal  for  hostilities  between  creditors  and 
debtors,  and  led  to  hostile  criticism  of  the  law  and  at  length 
to  bolder  attack  upon  the  Courts  themselves.*  Imprison- 
ment for  debt  was  also  legal. 

The  popular  unrest  assumed  a  violent  phase  when  dele- 
gates from  fifty  towns  in  Hampshire  County  met  in  Con- 
vention at  Hatfield  on  Auan^st  22,  1786.  In  a  lenffthv  de- 
liverance,  it  formulated  the  sources  of  the  popular  discon- 
tent: defects  in  the  form  of  government,  excessive  salaries 
to  public  officials,  the  existence  of  the  Courts  of  Common 
Pleas  and  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace,  unjust  methods 
of  taxation,  the  lack  of  paper  money,  etc. ;  and  recommended 
that  the  towns  in  the  County  petition  the  Governor  to  call 
the  General  Court  together  immediately,  that  these  griev- 
ances might  be  redressed.  Middlesex  County  held  a  Con- 
vention on  the  following  day.  On  the  last  Tuesday  of  Au- 
gust, some  1500  insurgents,  fully  armed,  assembled  at 
Northampton,  took  possession  of  the  Court  House  and  forci- 
bly prevented  the  sitting  of  the  Courts.  During  the  next 
week,  300  insurgents  interposed  a  line  of  bayonets  to  the 
entrance  of  the  Judges  at  Worcester  and  compelled  an 
adjournment  of  the  Court.  Daniel  Shays,  who  had  been  a 
Captain  in  the  War,  came  to  the  front  and  the  uprising 
that  soon  became  general  in  the  western  Counties  has  since 

*  The  History  of   the  Insurrections   in   Massachusetts,   Geo.  R.   Mlnot, 
1788.  p.  14. 


1 


AFTER    THK    REVOLUTION.  363 

been  known  as  "Shays  Eebellion."  Governor  Bowdoin  was 
obliged  eventually  to  summon  the  militia.  In  January, 
1787,  an  army  of  4400  men,  rank  and  file,  was  ordered  to 
rendezvous  on  Jan.  19***  near  Boston  for  30  days  service. 
Essex  County  furnished  500  men,  including  25  from  Ips- 
wich. Col.  Nathaniel  Wade  commanded  one  of  the  regi- 
ments and  Robert  Farley  served  as  Aide-de-Camp  to  the 
Commander,  General  Benjamin  Lincoln.  A  march  was 
made  to  Worcester  and  Springfield  in  weather  of  great  se- 
verity. After  a  short  but  severe  campaign,  the  insurgent 
forces  were  scattered,  at  the  cost  of  only  a  few  lives  and 
law  and  order  again  prevailed. 

Among  the  devices  to  promote  prosperity  that  found  place 
in  this  period  of  gloom,  the  lottery  was  easily  foremost. 
As  early  as  1760,  Dummer  Jewett  advertised  tickets  in  the 
Newbury  lottery  for  sale  at  his  store,  and  in  November, 
1782,  a  lottery  to  repair  the  Parker  River  Bridge  was  au- 
thorized bv  General  Court.  Six  thousand  tickets  were  of- 
fered  for  sale  at  $2  each,  and  after  a  reservation  of  $1800 
for  the  bridge,  the  balance  of  the  $12,000  was  to  be  divided 
among  the  ticket  holders,  a  single  prize  of  $500  heading  the 
list,  1685  tickets  drawing  $4  each,  and  4135  blanks.^  Tickets 
could  be  bought  in  Ipswich  of  the  Postmaster,  Daniel 
Noyes  Esq.,  Dea.  William  Story  and  Nathaniel  Dodge.  A 
second  series  of  tickets,  3000  in  number  for  the  same  object, 
was  announced  in  the  following  April. 

A  lottery  for  the  distribution  of  public  lands  in  Maine 
was  announced  in  Dec,  1786,^  mth  2720  tickets  at  £60 
each  in  securities.  No  blanks  were  guaranteed,  the  low- 
est prize  would  be  160  acres,  and  the  highest,  a  township 
of  21,760  acres.  In  1790,  the  General  Court  devised  an 
original  method  "to  ease  taxes  and  promote  public  credit," 
and  ordered  a  State  lottery,  which  should  be  drawn  in  the 

*  Salem  Gazette,  Nov.  7,  1782. 

•  Salem  Mercury,  Dec.  23,  1786. 


364       IPSWICH,    IN    THK   MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

chamber  of  the  House  of  Kepresentatives,  and  secured  $2000 
to  the  State  and  $13,000  to  the  lucky  holders  of  five  thou- 
sand tickets. 

Marblehead  had  suifered  greatly  in  the  Eevolution,  and  re- 
sort was  made  again  and  again  to  the  lottery  to  recoup  her 
losses.  In  March,  1790,  8000  tickets  were  advertised  at  50 
cents  each,  and  in  April,  the  lottery  craze  must  have  risen  to 
fever  heat,  when  the  highest  prize  in  the  State  lottery, 
$1500,  fell  to  some  Marblehead  women. 

About  30  were  joint  possessors  of  that  fortunate  number 
and  five  others.  The  highest  share  in  them  did  not  ex- 
ceed one  dollar,  and  the  lowest  was  nine  pence,  expressive 
of  the  different  abilities  of  the  concerned,  by  which  circum- 
stance the  property  of  the  prize  is  most  agreeably  divided: 
it  has  excited  a  smile  in  the  cheek  of  poverty  nor  diminished 
the  pleasure  of  those  in  easy  circumstances.  A  blimt  per- 
son burst  out,  "Well,  I  believe  that  God  had  a  hand  in  that."* 

The  first  prize  in  the  Marblehead  lottery  fell  to  a  worthy 
and  industrious  mechanic,  who  had  a  large  family.  It  was 
stated  in  May,  that  the  lottery  tickets  sold  in  Salem  within 
about  sixteen  months  past  had  paid  in  prizes  upward  of 
$14,000.  Three  thousand  tickets  in  the  Marblehead  lot- 
tery were  sold  in  Boston  in  a  single  week.  A  monthly  State 
lottery  was  ordered  by  the  General  Court,  although  Gov. 
Hancock  urged  its  discontinuance,  as  it  tended  to  with- 
draw the  people's  attention  from  industry,  and  was  most 
in  favor  with  the  indigent  and  embarrassed. 

Harvard  College  lent  its  sanction,  however,  again  and 
again,  and  funds  for  an  Orrery  were  thus  secured,  and  for 
Stoughton  Hall  in  1305.  The  lottery  to  repair  the  road 
from  Manchester  to  Gloucester  in  1796  with  its  first  prize 
of  $1000,  and  only  $2  for  the  ticket  that  would  draw  it, 
made  an  adroit  appeal  to  Ipswich  people.     "The  necessity 

«  Salem  Gazette,  April  13,  1790. 


AFTER   THE    REVOLUTION.  365 

of  good  roads  from  Gloucester  to  Salem  and  Ipswich  is  so 
well  known  that  any  observation  is  unnecessary."^ 

Ipswich  shared  in  the  exciting  game  no  doubt,  and  the 
tempting  lottery  tickets  were  purchased  with  money  that 
should  have  been  used  for  far  wiser  and  necessary  ends. 
But  the  more  sober  minded  folk  were  now  engrossed  in  an 
undertaking  of  profounder  significance  to  the  whole  nation, 
than  the  most  far  seeing  could  imagine. 

Congress  had  granted  to  the  officers  of  the  Revolution- 
ary War,  bounty  lands  in  the  little  known  region,  north- 
west of  the  Ohio  River.  Qen.  Benjamin  Tupper  explored 
the  country  and  was  amazed  by  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  the 
mild  climate,  and  the  general  fitness  of  the  whole  region 
for  settlement.  He  formed  the  plan  at  once  of  leading  a 
band  of  pioneers  thither  to  make  their  new  homes  and  rch 
turned  to  Massachusetts  filled  with  enthusiasm.  He  soon 
won  Gen.  Rufus  Putnam  to  his  aid.  They  planned  a  land 
company,  to  be  known  as  the  Ohio  Company,  the  members 
of  which  must  be  citizens  of  Massachusetts,  and  invited  all 
officers  and  soldiers  of  the  War  to  cast  in  their  lot  with 
them,  and  make  a  new  settlement.  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler, 
minister  of  the  Hamlet  parish,  had  cherished  the  plan  of 
removing  to  this  new  country  for  several  years,  that  he 
might  provide  more  satisfactorily  for  the  needs  of  his  grow- 
ing family,  *and  in  1783,  a  move  had  been  made  by  some 
of  the  officers  to  locate  their  lands  in  a  single  compact  set- 
tlement.* 

Nothinff  came  of  this  earlier  scheme,  but  Mr.  Cutler  still 
looked  with  longing  to  the  Ohio  country,  and  when  the  new 
company  invited  his  co-operation,  he  gave  ready  adherence. 
On  the  first  of  March,  1786,  delegates  from  eight  counties 
met  in  Boston  and  drafted  a  plan  of  action,  which  was 
adopted  at  once.     It  involved  the  raising  of  a  fund  not  to 

•  Salem  Gazette,  March  1,  1796. 

•  Pelt.    History  of  Ipswich,  p.  296. 


366     IPSWICH,  in  the  massachusktts  bay  colony. 

exceed  one  million  dollars,  to  be  divided  into  a  thousand 
shares  of  a  thousand  dollars  each,  in  the  Continental  land 
certificates,  and  the  purchase  and  settlement  of  land  in  the 
Western  territory.  A  year  later  the  subscriptions  had  sur- 
passed all  expectations.  The  agents  met  on  March  8^, 
1787,  chose  Rufns  Putnam,  Samuel  Parsons  and  Manasseh 
Cutler,  directors,  and  authorized  Mr.  Cutler  to  go  before 
Congress  and  purchase  the  land. 

The  Memorial  of  the  Ohio  Company  had  already  been 
before  Congress  for  several  months  and  there  was  a  general 
disposition  to  grant  its  petition,  and  open  up  the  country 
to  settlers,  but  there  was  no  quorum  and  no  vote  had  been 
taken.  Mr.  Cutler  rode  into  New  York  on  the  night  of 
July  6***,  "with  a  portmanteau  full  of  letters  to  Congress- 
men and  citizens  of  note."  lie  began  at  once  a  series  of 
interviews  with  those  friendly  to  the  project  and  pushed 
the  scheme  with  great  enthusiasm  and  adroitness.  He  dis- 
covered that  a  stubborn  minority  was  determined  to  oppose 
the  measure.  Pressure  was  brought  to  bear  upon  these, 
promises  were  made  to  influential  leaders  in  Congress,  but 
the  Ordinance  still  hung  fire. 

Mr.  Cutler  now  assumed  an  air  of  complete  discourage- 
ment, gave  out  that  he  was  tired  of  the  whole  business  and 
would  make  his  purchase  of  some  of  the  States  or  even  of 
the  Indian  tribes,  and  even  announced  the  day  of  his  de- 
parture. The  ruse  succeeded.  Even  the  enemies  of  the 
measure  were  unwilling  to  lose  the  opportunity  of  entering 
into  a  contract  that  promised  so  much  for  the  country,  and 
on  the  27*^  of  July  an  Ordinance  was  passed,  conceding  all 
he  asked.  It  granted  nearly  five  million  acres  of  land  at 
two  thirds  of  a  dollar  an  acre,  one  third  of  a  dollar  being 
allowed  for  bad  land,  cost  of  surveying,  etc.  But  as  this 
was  to  be  paid  in  IJnite<l  States  certificates  of  debt,  which 
were  worth  only  twelve  cents  on  a  dollar,  the  actual  price 
of  the  land  was  about  eight  or  nine  cents  an  acre.     One  mil- 


AKTER    TIIi:    REVOLUTION.  367 

lion  and  a  half  acres  were  bought  for  the  Ohio  Company, 
the  remaining  three  and  a  half  million  acres  were  for  a 
private  land  speculation,  in  which  some  of  the  members  of 
Congress  were  deeply  interested.*^ 

Mr.  Cutler  returned  at  once  and  began  active  prepara- 
tions for  the  settlement. 

Carpenters  and  surveyors,  boat  builders  and  blacksmiths, 
farmers  and  laborers  were  enlisted.  He  had  a  large  wagon 
built  and  covered  with  black  canvass,  which  had  on  its  sides, 
in  white  letters, — "Ohio,  for  Marietta  on  the  Muskingum." 
His  son,  Jervis,  was  included  in  the  company,  which  agreed 
to  accompany  the  wagon  and  begin  the  settlement.  On  a 
December  morning,  1787,  the  emigrants  gathered  at  Dr. 
Cutler's  house,  armed  and  equipped  for  their  dangerous  en- 
terprize,  and  having  fired  a  volley  as  a  salute,  they  began 
their  march. ^ 

The  Winter  was  spent  on  the  banks  of  the  Youghiogeny, 
the  Indian  name  of  the  Ohio,  near  Pittsburg.  When  the 
ice  broke  up,  their  boat  proceeded  down  the  Ohio  to  its 
confluence  with  the  Muskingum,  where  they  began  building 
the  town,  which  thev  named  Marietta.  Mr.  Cutler  wrote  a 
pamphlet  in  praise  of  the  new  territory,  which  was  widely 
circulated  in  the  Spring  of  1788.  Prospective  settlers  were 
offered  farms  at  a  few  shillings  an  acre  with  free  transpor- 
tation, and  a  second  company  was  sent  out. 

Mr.  Cutler,  himself,  set  out  from  the  Hamlet  in  July,  in  his 
sulky,  arrived  on  Aug.  19*^*  and  preached  on  the  following  Sun- 
day. The  new  toTvn  prospered  wonderfully.  Thousands  of 
young  and  vigorous  settlers  cleared  the  forests  and  built  their 
homes.  Emigration  to  the  new  West  became  the  rage  of  the 
time,  and  that  vast  movement  of  population  was  begun,  which 
was  destined  in  a  few  generations,  to  cover  the  prairies, 
to  reclaim  the  deserts,  to  roll  over  the  mountains  and  reach 
the  shores  of  the  Pacific.     One  article  of  the  Ordinance, 

»  McMasfer.    History  of  the  People  of  the  United  States,  I:  513,  note. 
•  Pelt.    History  of  Ipswich,  p.  297. 


368       IPSWICH^    IN    THE    MASSAOHTJSETTS    BAY    COLONY. 

under  which  the  contract  was  made  with  the  Ohio  Company, 
the  greatest  that  had  been  made  up  to  that  time,  prohibited 
human  slavery,  although  fugitive  slaves  from  other  states 
must  be  given  up.  This  restrictionj  coupled  with  economic 
reasons  which  were  unfavorable  to  the  growth  of  the  prod- 
ucts, which  were  raised  by  slave  labor,  barred  the  exten- 
sion of  slavery  into  this  grand  domain,  and  thus  curbed  the 
slave  power,  which  might  have  dominated  the  whole  land 
in  due  time,  had  it  been  allowed  a  foothold  in  the  great 
Northwest.  Ipswich  may  well  be  proud  of  the  part  she  had 
in  this  splendid  achievement. 

Emigration  to  the  West,  while  it  opened  the  way  to  pros- 
perity for  many,  was  not  a  complete  solvent  for  the  troubles 
of  the  time.  Constructive  measures  to  establish  new  in- 
dustries were  of  more  importance  than  the  agreements  to 
discourage  the  importation  of  foreign  goods.  The  mer- 
chants of  Boston  met  in  April,  1785,  and  pledged  them- 
selves to  buy  nothing  more  from  the  agents  of  British  mer- 
chants, and  the  mechanics  and  artisans  adopted  similar 
resolutions.  Associations  were  formed,  the  members  of  which 
pledged  themselves  to  wear  only  home-made  clothes,  and 
encourage  economy,  frugality  and  industry.  The  women  of 
Hartford  bound  themselves  for  eight  months  to  buy  no 
gauze,  ribbons,  laces,  feathers,  beaver  hats,  silks,  muslins, 
chintzes,  except  for  weddings  or  fimerals. 

But  the  women  of  Ipswich  contributed  their  own  skilful 
handiwork  to  take  the  place  of  foreign-made  finery.  Tench 
Coxe,  who  has  been  called  the  father  of  American  cotton 
industries,  in  an  address  to  the  Pennsylvania  Society  for 
the  Encouragement  of  Agriculture  in  1788,  told  his  hearers 
that  Massachusetts  had  made  such  quantities  of  linen,  that 
the  price  had  gone  down  from  Ifew  York  to  Georgia,  that 
in  Lynn  150,000^  pair  of  stuff  and  silk  shoes  were  made, 

»  The  Salem  Mercury,  Aug.  12.  1788,  says  that  it  is  computed  that  170.000 
pair  of  woman's  shoes  were  made  annually. 


Al^TEB   THE    REYOLUTION.  369 

and  "how  with  a  population  of  four  thousand,  five  hundred, 
Ipswich  had  in  a  year  produced  42,000  yards  of  silk  lace 
and  edgings.  He  then  delighted  the  women  of  his  audi- 
ence by  showing  them  36  specimens  of  Ipswich  Trim- 
mings."^^ 

As  early  as  1692,  a  writer  observed,  of  this  Ipswich  in- 
dustry, "Silk  and  thread  lace  of  an  elegant  and  lasting  tex- 
ture are  manufactured  in  large  quantities  by  women  and 
children  and  sold  for  use  and  exportation."  It  seems  to 
have  been  a  singularly  skilful  local  industry,  which  was 
handed  down  from  mothers  to  daughters,  and  it  continued 
to  furnish  profitable  home  employment  until  the  advent  of 
machine  made  lace  in  the  19***  century.  The  lace  was 
made  on  pillows,  following  a  pattern  pricked  on  a  strip  of 
parchment,  with  thread  or  silk  wound  on  light  bobbins. 

Political  questions  of  the  highest  moment  engaged  the 
minds  of  all.  At  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  the  thirteen 
states  were  in  danger  of  drifting  widely  apart.  Each  had 
its  system  of  taxation,  its  currency,  its  restrictions  on  trade, 
and  its  petty  variances  with  its  neighbors.  The  Federal 
Congress,  which  had  been  vested  with  authority  by  common 
consent,  because  of  the  common  peril,  ceased  to  be  recog- 
nized as  necessary  and  useful.  There  was  no  agreement  as 
to  what  the  form  of  government  of  the  new  nation  should  be. 
At  last  a  Convention  of  fifty-five  delegates  assembled  in 
Philadelphia,  in  October,  1787,  and  after  a  four  months 
session,  adopted  a  Constitution  which  was  sent  to  the  dif- 
ferent states  to  be  approved  or  rejected.  Two  political 
parties  were  formed  at  once.  The  Federalists  urged  the 
adoption  of  the  Constitution,  as  securing  a  strong  Federal 
government;  the  Anti-Federalists  opposed  it,  on  the  ground 
that  it  gave  the  national  government  too  much  power,  and 
threatened  the  liberties  of  the  people.  The  State  Conven- 
tions were  characterized  by  hot  debates  and  scenes  of  vio- 

>*  McMaater.    History  of  the  People  of  the  United  States,  I:  299. 


370       IPSWICH,   IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

lence.    In  January,  1788,  the  Massachusetts  Convention  as- 
sembled.    Hon.  Michael  Farley,  John  Choate,  Esq..  Daniel 
Noyes,Esq.and  Col.  Jonathan  Cogswell  were  the  Ipswich  dele- 
gates.   The  Constitution  had  been  read  in  Town  meeting  on 
Nov.  20***,  1787,  paragraph  by  paragraph,  and  the  delegates 
had  been  chosen  on  Dec.  3**.     After  long  debate,  the  question 
of  ratification  was  put  on  the  sixth  of  February,  and   it 
was  carried  by  a  vote  of  187  to  167,  the  Ipswich  del^ates 
all  voting  Yes.     The  crowd  awaiting  the  announcement  of 
the  vote  went  wild  with  joy.     The  church  bells  were  rung; 
cannon  fired  and  bon  fires  burned  all  night  in  the  streets. 
Presumably,  the  vote  of  the  delegates  from  Ipswich  reflected 
the  sentiment  of  the  commimity,  and  the  result  of  the  Con- 
vention was  received  with  great  satisfaction. 

Gren.  George  Washington  was  elected  the  first  President 
of  the  United  States  by  the  vote  of  both  parties,  with  John 
Adams  of  Massachusetts,  Vice-President  The  President 
took  his  oath  of  office  on  April  30,  1789  and  the  new  Con- 
stitution went  into  operation.  In  the  Fall  of  that  year,  he 
made  a  tour  through  Ifew  England.     In  his  Diary,  he  noted: 

Friday,  October  30♦^  1789. 

From  this  place  (Beverly)  with  escorts  of  Horse,  I  passed 
on  to  Ipswich,  about  ten  miles ;  at  the  entrance  of  which  I 
was  met  and  welcomed  by  the  Selectmen  and  received  by  a 
Eegm't  of  Militia. 

At  this  place  I  \\as  met  by  Mr.  Dalton  and  some  oHier 
Gentlemen  from  Newburyport;  partook  of  a  cold  collation 
and  proceeded  on  to  the  last  mentioned  place,  where  I  was 
received  with  much  respect  and  parade  about  four  o'clock. 

Mr.  Felt,  writing  in  1834,  while  many  still  remembered 
the  particulars  of  his  visit,  remarks : 

George  Washington  ....  is  escorted  into  town,  receives 
a  short  address;  dines  at  the  inn,  then  kept  by  Mrs.  Ho- 


AFTER    THE    BEVOLUTION.  371 

mans;^^  reviews  a  regiment,  mustered  to  honor  him;  is 
visited  by  many,  stays  three  hours  and  leaves  for  Newbury, 
through  lines  of  a  multitude  comprising  both  sexes  of  all 
ages,  who  had  assembled  to  give  him,  with  deep  emotions  of 
gratitude,  a  welcome  and  a  parting  look. 

Rev.  Augustine  Caldwell  writes  :^^ 

Wo  have  heard  again  and  again  of  Washington,  standing 
upon  the  gieat  stone  step  of  entrance,  and  with  Col.  John 
Heard  and  Col.  ]!^athaniel  Wade  at  his  side,  he  heard  the 
Ipswich  welcome;  lifted  his  hat  and  graciously  acknowl- 
edged it;  and  when  at  that  moment  a  little  Kebekah  was 
brought  to  him  and  introduced  as  the  daughter  of  his  late 
friend  and  officer.  Col.  Dodge,  he  laid  his  hand  upon  the 
head  of  the  child  and  kissed  her  in  memory  of  his  friend, 
her  father — an  incident  never  forgotten  by  the  crowd. 

With  the  outbreak  of  the  French  Revolution  in  1792,  and 
the  French  War  with  England  and  the  Continental  nations, 
came  international  difficulties  for  the  United  States,  that 
threatened  the  most  serious  results.  This  country  was 
grateful  to  France  for  the  great  help  she  had  rendered  in 
the  darkest  days  of  the  Revolutionary  struggle.  The  new 
republic  had  opened  her  ports  to  the  privateers  of  France  by 
a  solemn  treaty,  and  denied  this  privilege  to  her  foes.  En- 
voys from  France  urged  an  alliance  between  the  United 
States  and  France,  but  Washington  was  determined  that  the 
policy  of  neutrality  should  be  enforced,  and  strict  neutrality 
was  nxaintained. 

A  brisk  trade  with  the  West  India  Islands  under  the 
French  flag  sprang  up.  England  refused  to  recognize  this 
trade  as  neutral  and  began  to  seize  and  condemn  American 
vessels,  carrying  cargoes  of  food  products  to  French  ports. 
American  sailors  were  roughly  treated  and  thrown  into 
prison.      American    vessels    were    condemned    by    British 

^  The  Homans  Inn,  remodelled  by  Dea.  SSenaa  Cushin^,  Is  now  the  resi- 
dence of  Dr.  William  "S.  Tucker. 
"  In  a  paper  entitled  "Our  Honored  Seminary." 


372     ipswicn^  in  the  Massachusetts  bay  colony. 

prize  courts  and  sold.  French  privateers  assailed  American 
shipping  as  well.  The  situation  was  delicate  and  perplex- 
ing. The  country  was  bound  to  defend  her  honor,  but  war 
with  Great  Britain  would  be  attended  with  disastrous  con- 
sequences. British  garrisons  occupied  Detroit  and  the  St. 
Lawrence,  a  British  fleet  would  find  the  Atlantic  coast  de- 
fenceless. Salem  and  Gloucester  and  the  other  active  ports 
were  in  sad  plight 

A  Salem  newspaper^'  of  the  period  tells  the  tale : 

General  gloom  and  anxiety  in  Town.  Every  day  brings 
fresh  intelligence  of  insults  to  our  flag,  abuse  to  our  seamen, 
and  destruction  to  our  commerce.  Our  merchants  have  sus- 
pended their  business.  Our  sailors  are  wandering  about  for 
want  of  employment,  and  our  laborers  will  soon  be  starved 
into  idleness. 

On  Saturday  last  a  general  meeting  of  the  inhabitants 
was  called  and  a  memorial  to  Congress  adopted,  reciting 
injuries  to  shipping  and  suggesting  an  embargo  on  British 
shipping  and  a  seizure  of  British  property  as  security  for 
indemnity  for  losses. 

So  inevitable  is  our  involvement  in  war  that  privateers 
have  already  been  contracted  for  in  this  town  and  are  now 
actually  building. 

At  Gloucester  a  procession  of  one  or  two  hundred  sailors 
paraded  and  declared  themselves  ready  to  act  in  defence  of 
their  countrv. 

c 

Beside  the  troubles  with  England  and  France,  the  dep- 
redations of  the  Algerine  pirates  on  American  shipping 
had  reached  an  acute  stage.  Ipswich  had  especial  interest 
in  this  quarter,  as  one  Ipswich  sailor  at  least,  Thomas  Mann- 
ing/^ was  held  as  a  slave. 

He  was  one  of  the  crew  of  the  schooner,  "Jay  Calder"  of 
Gloucester.  He  told  the  story  of  his  capture  in  a  letter  to 
his  parents  at  Ipswich,  dated 

»  The  Salem  Gazette,  March  18,  1794. 

"  Probably  the  son  of  John  Mtfhning,  Jr.  and  Mary  (Proctor),  baptised 
May  7.  1775. 


AFTER   THK   BEVOLUTION.  3Y3 

Algiers,  9  Dec,  1793. 

On  the  10***  October,  5  days  out  from  Malaga,  we  were 
attacked  by  an  x\lgerine  cruiser,  who  made  a  prize  of  us, 
and  brought  us  into  this  place,  where  we  remain  in  the  most 
wretched  state  of  slavery.  We  are  forced  to  continual  hard 
labor,  Sundays  not  excepted;  our  daily  allowance  is  two 
loaves  of  brea(J,  weighing  about  %  lb.  as  black  as  one's  hat. 
We  have  scarcely  clothes  sufficient  to  cover  our  nakedness. 
After  working  all  day,  we  are  driven  together  into  a  jail, 
to  lie  on  the  cold  stones,  and  again  at  break  of  day  are 
turned  to  our  labor.  We  live  in  hope  that  the  U.  S.  will 
bc^fore  long  do  something  for  our  relief.  14  sail  of  Ameri- 
can prizes  are  already  arrived  here  and  there  are  upwards 
of  100  prisoners.^® 

Congress  took  action,  passing  a  bill  on  March  4"*,  1794, 
providing  for  the  fortification  of  harbors.  Shortly  after,  it 
was  decided  that  ships  should  be  built  to  be  sent  against 
the  Algerines.  On  the  26"*  of  March,  Washington  proclaimed 
an  Embargo  on  all  ships  and  vessels  in  ports  of  the  United 
States,  bound  to  any  foreign  port,  except  vessels  under  the 
immediate  direction  of  the  President  of  the  United  States. 
"This  will  cut  off  supplies  to  our  enemies  from  this  coun- 
try, and  if  they  can  subsist  without  them,  they  must  be 
more  abstemious  than  Englishmen  are  generally  willing  to 
be.''i« 

War  with  Great  Britain  seemed  inevitable  and  prepara- 
tions for  it  were  pressed  with  great  enthusiasm.  A  hundred 
influential  Vermont  men  calling  themselves  Green  Mountain 
Boys,  petitioned  the  President  to  permit  them  to  invade 
Canada.  Within  five  days,  they  declared  they  would 
march  with  20,000  men  to  besiege  Quebec  and  in  case  of 
failure,  they  promised  to  ask  no  indemnification.  If  success- 
ful, they  asked  only  the  military  stores,  all  other  property 
would  be  resigned  to  the  United  States.  ^''^     Salem  authorized 

»  The  Salem  Gazette,  April  15,  1794. 
»•  The  Salem  Gazette,  April  1,  1794. 
"  Salem  Gazette,  Extra,  April  3.  1794. 


374      IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

a  quit-claim  to  the  Government  of  the  old  fort  and  such 
other  land  as  was  necessary  for  defenca^®  Portsmouth, 
Gloucester  and  Boston  were  to  be  fortified.  A  Committee 
of  merchants,  who  had  suffered  depredation  on  their  property 
by  subjects  of  Great  Britain  and  other  belligerent  powers 
from  Boston,  Charlestown,  Salem,  Marblehead,  Beverly, 
Newburyport,  Gloucester,  Manchester,  Ipswich  and  Danvers, 
met  in  Salem  and  drew  up  a  Memorial  to  Congress,  looking 
for  indemnification.^* 

Congress  ordered  that  80,000  of  the  militia  should  be  or- 
ganized and  made  ready  to  march  at  a  moment's  notice,  the 
Massachusetts    quota    being    11,885. ^^      Marblehead    and 
Gloucester  ceded  land  to  the  United  States  for  purposes  of 
defence,  and  a  contract  was  made  for  building  about  300 
feet  of  wall  in  dry  stones  at  Fort  William  in  Salem,  erect- 
ing a  brick  building,  and  sinking  and  stoning  a  magazine.^^ 
Happily,  by  the  effort  of  John  Jay,  a  treaty  of  Amity,  Com- 
merce and  Navigation  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United 
States  was  signed  on  Nov.  19*^,  1794,  but  it  was  not  until 
early  in  March  that  a  copy  of  the  Treaty  reached  the  Presi- 
dent, though  it  was  dispatched  at  once  by  a  sailing  packet. 
Popular  excitement  still  ran  high,  however,  and  there  was 
still   a   strong  sentiment   for   war.       Sufferers   by    British 
spoliation  in  Salem,  Danvers,  Beverly  and  Ipswich  were 
invited  to  meet  at  the  Court  House  in  Salem  on  Nov.  26***, 
1795,  and  determine  upon  a  MemoriaP^  to  be  presented  to 
Congress.     Notice  to  claimants  to  specify  the  vessel,  ton- 
nage, age,  where  built,  etc.,  was  published  by  the  Committee 
at  Philadelphia,  on  Juno  V\  1796.28 

Opposition  to  the  Treaty  was  very  violent  in  some  por- 
tions of  the  country.     From  Salem,  Beverly,  Newburyport, 

"Salem  Gazette,  April  22,  1794. 
»  The  Salem  Gazette,  April  29,  1794. 
••  The  Salem  Gazette,  June  3d,  1794. 
»  The  Salem  Gazette,  Sept.  2,  1794. 
«  The  Salem  Gazette,  Nov.  24.  1795. 
»  The  Salem  Gazette,  June  10,  1796. 


AFIEB   THE   KEVOLUTION.  375 

and  Marblehead,  and  many  other  Massachusetts  towns,  Me- 
morials were  sent  to  Congress,  bearing  hundreds  of  names, 
praying  that  the  Treaty  might  be  carried  into  effect** 
Meetings  were  called  to  sign  the  petitions.  The  ministers 
were  urged  to  stop  their  congregations  and  urge  them  to 
sign  the  Memorial, 

British  indignities  continued.  The  schooner,  "Sally,** 
Captain  Smith  of  Ipswich,  arrived  in  port,  42  days  from 
Surinam,  via  Antigua,  25  days,  and  reported  that  she  had 
been  taken  by  the  English  frigate,  "Concord,"  and  carried 
into  Antigua.  "After  examination  of  her  papers,  she  was 
treated  politely  and  permitted  to  depart  without  any  ex- 
pense.*'*' On  April  2,  1798,  a  Town  meeting  was  held  to 
see  whether  the  Town  would  petition  Congress  not  to  au- 
thorize the  arming;  of  merchantmen  and  to  pray  that  the 
Stamp  Act  may  be  rejected.  "After  some  conversation,** 
the  meeting  dissolved  without  taking  any  action.  Evidently 
Ipswich  was  not  in  sympathy  with  the  aggressive  attitude 
of  her  neighbors. 

The  French  government  was  exasperated  by  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  Treatv  of  1794  between  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  States,  and  became  more  and  more  hostile.  To  re- 
store friendly  relations,  John  Adams,  the  successor  of  Wash- 
ington in  the  Presidency,  had  sent  a  Conmiission  to  France, 
but  it  was  received  with  discourtesy  and  ordered  to  leave 
the  country.^*  The  President  was  authorized  to  raise  a 
provisional  army  of  10,000  and  accept  the  service  of  the 
volimteer  corps,  and  steps  were  taken  to  secure  the  building 
of  a  navy. 

The  people  did  not  wait  for  the  National  Government 
A  number  of  the  citizens  of  Newburyport  agreed  to  build 
and  equip  a  ship  of  355  tons,  to  be  armed  with  20  six-pound 
cannon,  and  to  offer  her  to  the  United  States.     They  voted 

«•  McKaster.     History  of  the  People  of  the  United  States,  II:  282. 

*•  The  Salem  Gazette.  March  20,  1798. 

*•  Channing.    Students'  History  of  the  United  States,  305. 


376      IPSWICH,   IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY   COLONY. 

also  to  accept  no  other  compensation  than  six  per  cent,  per 
annum  on  the  cost  and  eventual  reimbursement  at  ihe  con- 
venience of  government.^''  They  announced  their  action 
in  a  communication  to  Congress,  on  June  1,  1798. 

On  the  same  day,  the  Salem  Gazette  announced  that  Capt 
Gfeorge  Crowninshield  and  Son  of  Salem  had  offered  to  the 
Government  the  loan  of  the  ship,  "America,"  700  tons.  A 
subscription  was  opened  in  Boston  for  building  an  armed 
ship,  and  in  one  hour  $75,000  was  subscribed  by  34  gen- 
tlemen, $10,000  of  which  was  given  by  W".  Phillips  Esq.^® 
Patriotic  subscriptions  were  begun  in  Salem.  The  cockade 
was  becoming  imiversal  ''as  a  badge  by  which  the  friends 
of  Government  and  of  their  country  mean  to  distinguish 
themselves,"^^'  and  the  hope  was  expressed  that  no  man  who 
would  not  be  suspected  of  Jacobinism  would  appear  without 
one.'^  On  Thursday,  August  9***,  the  commissioned  offi- 
cers of  the  Ipswich  regiment,  commanded  by  Col.  Joseph 
Hodgkins,  met  at  the  house  of  Major  Swasey  to  choose  a 
Major. 

Col.  Hodgkins,  thinking  that  the  time  was  now  come  when 
the  characters  of  men  should  be  known,  especially  in  the 
military  line,  informed  his  corps  of  officers  that  he  should 
wear  his  cockade  and  regimental  imiform  on  Sabbath  days 
and  all  other  public  occasions  and  recommending  it  to  others 
to  do  the  same,  which  proposition  was  immediately  complied 
with.«^ 

Qen.  Washington  accepted  his  appointment  as  Lieut. 
General,  in  a  letter  dated  July  13,  1798.  The  building  of 
a  navy  went  on  rapidly.  The  Newburyport  ship,  the  "Mer- 
rimjack,"  was  launched  on  Oct,  12"*,  having  been  built  in 
74  working  days  and  only  14  days  more  were  needed  to 

"  History  of  Newburyport,  John  J.  Currier,  p.  111. 
*■  The  Salem  Gazette,  June  29,  1798. 
»  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  17.  1798. 
••  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  20,  1798. 
•^  The  Salem  Gazette,  August  14,  1798. 


AFTER   THE    REVOLUTION.  377 

make  her  ready  for  sea.*-  Subscriptions  for  the  Salem  frig- 
ate, the  "Essex/'  were  completed  in  October.  She  was 
built  on  Winter  Island,  launched  on  Sept.  30,  1799,  and 
sailed  on  Dec.  24^**,  Capt,  Preble  in  command.  Seventy- 
four  French  prizes  were  captured  before  a  Convention  of 
peace  was  adopted  in  September,  1800. 

Ipswich  was  not  large  enough  or  rich  enough  to  share 
with  its  more  prosperous  neighbors  in  the  patriotic  task  of 
building  and  equipping  a  ship  for  the  new  navy,  and  the 
quiet  life  of  the  community  may  have  been  lacking  in  zealous 
ardor  for  another  war.  But  Col.  Hodgkins  and  his  friends 
dressed  in  full  regimentals  for  the  Sabbath  day,  cockade  in 
hat,  and  sword  by  the  side,  bore  witness  that  the  old  pas- 
sion for  defending  the  honor  of  the  nation  was  still  alive, 
and  many  others  shared  his  enthusiasm.  The  newspapers 
of  the  day,  the  Columbian  Centinel  and  the  Essex  Gazette, 
known  later  as  the  Salem  Gazette,  came  into  some  of  the 
Ipswich  families  every  week.  There  were  business  trips  to 
the  busy  towns  near  by.  There  were  Town  meetings,  at 
which  there  was  profound  discussion  of  neutrality  toward 
the  French,  the  new  Constitution,  the  arming  of  merchant- 
men, the  indemnity  for  vessels  and  cargoes  taken  by  British 
and  French  ships.  In  the  taverns  and  between  meetings  on 
the  Sabbath  day,  the  farmers  and  shop  keepers  and  fisher- 
men talked  politics  and  defended  staunchly  Federalism  and 
anti-Federalism.  The  good  wives  took  counsel  together  as 
to  their  sons  away  from  home  on  their  voyages,  exposed  to 
the  awful  danger  of  sharing  Algerine  slavery  with  Thomas 
Manning,  or  enrolled  in  the  militia  and  ready  to  march  when 
the  war  drum  beat.  Of  course  the  men  and  women  both 
refused  to  buy  the  imported  cloths  and  food  stuffs,  wore 
homjB  made  fabrics,  and  ate  plainer  fare  for  the  honor  of 
their  coimtry. 

But  apart  from  the  large  affairs  of  the  Commonwealth 
and  the  Nation,  the  life  of  our  quiet  town  in  these  closing 

"  The  Salem  Gazette,  Oct.  16,  1798. 


378      IPSWICH,   IN   THE   MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COLONT. 

years  of  this  eventful  18***  century  had  much  of  interest. 
There  were  revolutions  impending  in  the  home  life  that  were 
of  infinite  account  to  the  busy  and  patient  wives  and  mothers. 
The  advertisement*'  of  Samuel  Blyth  of  Salem,  calling  atten- 
tion to  "a  few  of  Willard's  much  improved  Patent  Boasting 
Jacks  with  Improvements  together  with  all  the  apparatus/' 
makes  it  evident  that  new  methods  of  cooking  the  family  roast, 
which  saved  much  time  and  trouble  were  already  in  the  mar- 
ket. A  sheet  iron  stove  with  fifteen  feet  of  funnel  was  ad- 
vertised in  1788,®*  an  ominous  forerunner  of  the  coming  of  the 
east  iron  cook-stove,  and  the  passing  of  the  glory  and  the  in- 
convenience of  the  primitive  open  fire. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin  was  applying  his  practical  phil- 
osophy to  the  cure  of  smoky  chimnies.  He  had  seen  new 
houses,  in  which  the  chimnies  were  so  smoky,  unless  a  door 
or  window  were  left  open,  that  the  owner  was  ready  to  sell, 
in  utter  discouragement.'^  He  suggested  many  devices  to 
secure  a  draught,  but  recommended  giving  up  the  huge 
chimney,  with  yawning  throat  large  enough  to  allow  room 
for  the  grimy  chimney-sweep  to  climb  up  with  his  brooms 
and  brushes  and  fire  places  large  enough  for  a  four  foot 
stick,  and  substituting  in  the  lower  rooms  of  the  dwelling, 
a  fire  place  about  30  inches  square  and  18  inches  deep,  and 
the  burning  of  two  foot  billets,  and  yet  smaller  ones  in 
the  upper  rooms. 

Joseph  Hovey  of  Salem  announced'^  in  May,  1783,  that 

he  has  made  and  ready  for  sale,  paper  hangings,  an  ele- 
gant arched  patten^  suitable  for  entries,  staircases  and  large 
rooms,  very  neat  papers  (much  approved  of)  for  covering 
furniture  from  the  dust  and  fiies,  and  for  many  other  uses. 
Papering  rooms  will  be  in  the  end  four  times  as  cheap  as 
white-washing. 

"  The  Salem  Gazette,  March  1,  1785. 
■«  The  Salem  Mercury,  Oct.  21,  1788. 
»  The  Salem  Mercury,  Nov.  4,  1786. 
••  The  Salem  Gazette,  May  29,  1783. 


AFTER   TUB   BKVOLUTIOK.  379 

In  1768,  a  gentleman  in  Boston  deposited  $100  with  the 
Selectmen,  to  be  nsed  as  premiums  for  raising  of  mulberry- 
trees  in  this  Province.  To  the  person  who  should  raise 
the  larfinest  number  of  said  trees  in  the  Fall  of  1771,  a  first 
prize  of  $40,  a  second  of  $30  would  be  paid  ....  in  the 
hope  that  raw-silk  might  become  "no  inconsiderable  Branch 
of  Export  from  this  Province."*'^  Loammi  Baldwin  of 
Wobum,  the  originator  of  the  apple  that  bears  his  name, 
took  the  first  premium.  He  advertised  in  April,  1772, 
mulberry  trees,  for  3^,  fit  to  transplant  into  a  sort  of  espa- 
lier hedge.  He  bad  raised  silk  worms  for  two  or  three  years 
and  made  a  machine  to  wind  the  silk.  He  had  sent  some 
to  the  Society  for  Encouraging  Arts,  Sciences  and  Commerce 
in  Great  Britain,  which  had  examined  it  and  found  it  equal 
to  the  Italian  silk.  The  trees  were  easily  propagated,  and 
some  of  his  had  grown  above  nine  feet  in  the  proceeding 
Summer.'®  There  is  no  evidence  that  at  this  early  period, 
Ipswich  became  interested  in  silk  culture,  but  early  in  the 
19***  century,  many  mulberry  trees  were  planted,  and  an 
experiment  in  silk  culture  was  undertaken. 

Caterpillars  despoiled  the  orchards  but  it  was  found  that 
a  few  drops  of  train  oil  dropped  from  a  loose  mop  in  a 
nest  would  kill  the  tenants.'^  Canker  worms  as  well  were 
very  abundant  and  caused  great  damage.  An  item  in  the 
Essex  Gazette  of  July  17,  1770,  describes  their  inroads  in 
Salem  and  this  vicinity. 

The  Canker-worms,  which  have  ravaged  the  Fields  and 
devoured  the  Grass  in  great  Quantities  in  New  Hampshire 
and  Rhode  Island  as  well  as  this  Province,  have  appeared 
in  this  and  the  neighboring  Towns  in  great  Multitudes,  so 
that  some  People,  to  prevent  as  far  as  possible  being  in- 
fested with  them,  have  been  obliged  to  dig  Trenches  round 
their  Buildings,  Cornfields,  etc.     These  Insects  travel  from 

"  The  Essex  Gazette,  April  21,  1772. 
••  The  Essex  Gazette,  April  28,  1772. 
••  The  Essex  Gazette.  May  22,  1770. 


380       IPSWICH^    IN    THK    MASSACHUSETTS    BAY    COIX)NY. 

Field  to  Field,  passing  Koads  and  crawling  over  Fences, 
Walls,  and  Houses,  eating  and  destroying  the  Grass  as  they 
came  across  it 

Ipswich  farmers  were  equal  to  the  emergency.  Indeed, 
they  were  more  enterprizing  than  the  men  of  today.  They 
had  learned,  perhaps,  from  the  neutral  French,  who  had 
dwelt  here,  their  great  success  in  diking  the  Acadian  salt 
marshes,  and  securing  great  crops  of  English  hay  from 
thousands  of  acres,  thus  reclaimed.  The  Ipswich  marshes 
were  an  inviting  field  for  experiment.  The  Ar^lla  farmers 
united  in  an  interesting  petition  to  the  General  Court : 

The  Petition^^  of  a  number  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
Town  of  Ipswich  humbly  sheweth : 

That  your  petitioners,  being  proprietors  of  a  body  or 
quantity  of  Salt  marsh  ....  in  Ipswich,  above  Boardman's 
Bridge,  so  called,  thinking  it  will  be  beneficial  to  the  in- 
terest of  said  proprietors  that  said  body  of  Marsh  be  so 
diked  as  to  prevent  the  salt  water's  overflowing  the  same, 
[proposed  to  improve  a  section  of  marsh,]  beginning  at 
the  eastern  most  side  of  the  Creek,  running  north  east 
over  the  marsh  of  Thomas  Caldwell,  ....  by  land  of  Ste- 
phen Choate,  Esq.  to  a  former  dike,  thence  northeast  by 
said  Choate  to  Ilovey's  Island,  east  by  Hovey's  Island 
to  land  of  Captain  Adam  Smith  .  .  .  .  b v  land  of  Joshua 
Giddings  and  over  the  creek  to  first.  [They  therefore,] 
pray  for  incorporation  as  Proprietors  of  the  Argilla  In- 
closure  for  the  purpose  of  authorizing  said  Proprietors  to 
begin,  finish  and  maintain  said  dike  upon  the  principles  of 
tlustice  and  Equity. 

Thomas  Bumham  Majer  Woodbery 

William  Dodge  Joshua  Giddinge 

Bimslev  Smith  Joshua  Smith 

Adam  Smith  Asa  Smith 

Nathaniel  Wells  John  Choate 

John  Baker  Nehemiah  Brown 

David  Andrews  Ipswich,  Jan.  30,  1798. 

«  The  Salem  Gazette.  Feb.  12.  1798. 


AFTSK   THE    EEVOLUTION.  381 

A  Charter  of  Incorporation  was  granted  by  the  Legisla- 
ture, June  15,  1709.  The  large  dike  which  still  remains, 
was  built  probably  about  this  time. 

While  the  incorporation  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Argilla 
Inclosure  spoke  well  for  the  thrift  and  progressiveness  of 
the  land  owners,  another  enterprize  of  a  very  different  char- 
acter revealed  the  intellectual  strength  and  soberness  of 
mind  of  a  larger  group  of  citizens.  A  Religious  Library  was 
proposed,  and  subscription  papers  were  circulated  to  pro- 
vide the  necessary  funds.  Liberal  response  was  made,  an 
association  was  formed,  styled,  "The  Religious  Library  in 
Ipswich,"  and  a  library  was  gathered  which  evidently  proved 
popular  and  useful.  The  original  record  book  and  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  library  are  in  possession  of  the  Ips- 
wich Historical  Society. 

The  Library  seems  to  have  maintained  itself  until  1830, 
and  perhaps  later,  and  the  old  books  in  their  worn  bind- 
ings, often  lacking  a  cover,  bear  their  own  witness,  that  they 
were  read  eagerly  and  often.  To  modem  readers,  they 
would  be  unspeakably  dull.  Here  are  ponderous  volumes  of 
sermons,  systems  of  Divinity,  guides  to  a  religious  life,  some 
of  them  bearing  the  name  of  Nathaniel  Rogers  or  John 
Rogers  on  the  fly  leaf,  and  dating  back  to  the  early  years 
of  the  17th  century,  and  once  a  part  of  the  ancient  minis- 
terial libraries.  The  very  names  suggest  a  wondrously 
pious  temper  that  was  not  satisfied  with  the  long  services 
of  public  worship  on  Sabbath  days  and  lecture  days  and  dili- 
gent home  reading  of  the  Scriptures,  and  craved  the  stimulus 
of  religious  l)ooks.  Baxter's  "Saints  Rest"  and  his  "Call  to 
the  Unconverted,"  Bunyan's  "Holy  War"  and  the  immor- 
tal "Pilgrim's  Progress,"  David  Brainard's  melancholy 
"Journal,"  Dickinson  "On  the  Five  Points,"  Doddridge's 
"Family  Expositor"  and  his  "Rise  and  Progress"  in  2 
volumes,  Jonathan  Edwards's  "On  Original  Sin"  and  his 
"History   of   Redemption    and   the   Religious    Affections," 


882       IPSWICH,    IN    THE   MASSACHUSETTS  BAY   COLONY. 

Webb's  "Directions  for  Conversion"  are  suggestive  of  keen 
appetites  for  theological  controversy  as  well  as  earnest  de- 
sires for  growth  in  grace.  Fox's  "Book  of  Martyrs"  with  its 
dreadful  pictured  of  their  sufferings,  and  "Pilgrim's  Progress" 
are  the  only  ones  that  would  have  made  any  appeal  to  a 
child.  There  are  a  few  standard  works,  Milton's  "Paradise 
Lost"  and  "Paradise  Kegained,"  and  Young's  "Night 
Thoughts." 

Still,  this  sombre  Religious  Library  blended  well  with  the 
spirit  of  the  times,  when  College  Commencements  and  the 
whole  curi'iculum  were  severely  religious  and  the  Sabbath 
(}ayn,  retained  much  of  its  Puritan  propriety.  The  people  of 
j^oxbury,  on  a  July  Sunday  in  1785,  f^actually  prohibited 
the  Boston  folk  crossing  the  line,  without  giving  such  an  ac- 
count of  their  business  as  appeared  to  them  satisfactory,"*^ 
and  a  person  passing  along  the  Topsfield  road  on  the  Lord's 
Day,  for  some  necessary  reason  "  in  the  space  of  eight  miles 
after  five  in  the  afternoon,  did  not  see  one  person  abroad 
or  a  single  persoti  of  either  sex  gazing  through  the  win- 

d0W8."*2 

For  lighter  minds  there  were  lighter  things,  and  even  the 
most  sedate  needed  to  relax  at  times.  The  singing  schools, 
taught  by  Daniel  and  Joseph  Dana,  sons  of  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Dana,  the  husking  bees  and  apple  parings,  and  the  demure 
delights  of  the  spinning  bee,  were  much  in  vogue,  and  af- 
forded vounff  men  and  maidens  innocent  diversion. 

Holidays  were  few  and  far  between.  Fast  Day  and 
Thanksgiving  Day  and  half  a  day  perhaps  on  the  Fourth 
of  July  broke  the  monotony  of  toil,  but  no  sports  or  games 
or  worldly  diversions  were  permissible  on  the  solemn  day  of 
Fasting  and  Prayer.  Thanksgiving  Day  was  not  wholly  free 
from  religious  duties  though  "turkey-shoots"  and  other  di- 
versions, distinctly  worldly  and  mildly  illegal,  were  winked 

«  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  19,  1785. 
<»  The  Salem  Gazette,  May  24,  1796. 


AFTEE    THE   EEVOLUTION.  383 

at  by  the  authorities.  But  the  ^'training  days"  were  given 
over  to  uproarious  delights.  Every  man  of  military  age 
was  obliged  to  turn  out  fully  armfed  and  equipped,  for 
parade  and  drill  on  die  Meeting  House  Green  and  the  South 
Common,  while  the  young  women,  who  lined  the  borders  of 
the  drill  ground,  gazed  admiringly  upon  the  budding  heroes. 
The  Fall  training  in  October,  1788,  was  fully  reported** 
by  some  local  correspondent. 

On  Wednesday  last,  Col.  Wade's  Regiment  wes  reviewed 
at  Ipswich  by  the  Hon.  Major  General  Titcomb.  After  the 
review,  a  well  planned  representation  of  the  storming  of 
a  fort  was  exhibited  with  much  spirit  and  propriety.  The 
fort  was  situated  on  a  hill  near  the  meeting-house  and  de- 
fended by  a  party  of  infantry  and  Capt  Brown's  horse. 
The  assailants  came  up  in  two  columns  from  different  quar- 
ters when  the  fort  was  summoned,  the  commander  of  which 
resolutely  refused  to  surrender.  The  battle  then  began. 
Each  body  of  the  assailants  was  opposed  by  a  party  of  horse ; 
the  former  were  repulsed  when  three  cheers  resounded 
from  the  fort ;  they  however,  returned  to  the  attack,  displayed 
upon  the  hill,  surrounded  the  fort  and  carried  the  work  in  an 
instant.  This  performance  gave  great  pleasure  to  many 
military  characters,  who  were  spectators.  After  this  was 
finished,  the  line  was  formed  and  the  troops  went  through 
the  firing  with  a  regularity  and  precision,  which  could  not 
have  been  expected.  The  men  were  well  dressed,  well- 
armed,  and  paid  that  strict  attention  to  command,  which 
in  a  great  measure  made  up  for  their  want  of  experience 
and  gained  them  the  approbation  of  their  fellow  citizens. 

As  the  Topsfield  and  W^enham  militia  were  combined  with 
the  Ipswich  companies  to  form  Col.  Wade's  regiment,  there 
were  large  delegations  from  these  towns  of  soldiery  and  citi- 
zens. The  streets  were  filled  ^vith  good  natured  crowds. 
Rows  of  tents  provided  for  the  needs  of  the  hungry  and 
thirsty  multitude.       Catch-penny  fakir  shows  offered  their 

«  The  Salem  Mercury,  October  21,  1788. 


384       IPSWICH,    IX    THE    MASSACHUSETTS   BAY    COLONY. 

cheap  wares  and  enticing  games.  The  officers  banqueted, 
drank  their  toasts  and  made  their  patriotic  speeches  at  the 
inns.  Many  of  the  town's  folk  kept  open  house  for  their 
friends.  With  the  martial  music,  the  dress  parades,  the 
waving  flags,  the  mimic  battle,  the  volleys  of  musketry,  and 
the  revelry  and  license,  permissible  on  these  great  days,  the 
sleepy  town  scarcely  knew  itself. 

Many  Ipswich  families  had  relatives  in  Salem,  and  an  oc- 
casional visit  opened  thrilling  delights  to  the  Ipswich  youths. 
Mr.  John  White  advertised  that  he  would  teach  minuet  danc- 
ing in  the  genteelest  manner  in  the  Assembly  room,**  and 
Mr.  Outein,  a  French  dancing  master,  taught  his  art  in 
1798.*^ 

Theatrical  entertainments  of  a  very  modest  character  be- 
gan to  be  popular  in  Salem  about  1793.  The  celebrated 
tragedy  written  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Young,  entitled,  "The 
Moor's  Revenge  or  Spanish  Insult  Repaid,"  was  announced 
on  Nov.  5***,  to  be  followed  by  a  humorous  entertainment  in 
two  acts,  called,  "The  Wrangling  Lovers  or  Like  Master, 
Like  Man."  The  tickets  were  half  a  dollar.  "Doors  to  be 
opened  at  5.30,  begin  promptly  at  6.30."*® 

The  same  company  made  a  more  stirring  announcement  on 
December  10"*.'*'^ 

[By  particular  Desire].  At  Washington  Hall,  will  be 
presented  a  Comedy  (altered)  from  Shakespeare  by  Sir 
William  Davenant  called  The  Tempest  or  The  Inchanted 
Island. 

In  Act  the  first,  a  shipwreck  and  a  shower  of  fire.  To 
conclude  with  the  Prospect  of  a  (calm)  Sea  and  Neptune 
and  Amphitrite  in  a  Sea-Chariot,  followed  by  a  Musical 
entertainment,  Padlock,  by  Isaac  Bickerstaff  Esq.  On 
account  of  the  length  of  the  entertainment,  the  door  will  be 
opened  at  5,  performance  will  begin  at  6. 

**  The  Salem  Gazette,  April  16,  1784. 
«  The  Salem  Gazette.  Jan.  9.  1798. 
*•  Salem  Gazette,  Nov.  5,  1793. 
"  Salem  Gazette.  Dec.  10,  1793. 


AFTER    THE    REVOLUTION.  385 

In  1790,  a  company  of  players  petitioned  the  authorities 
in  Boston  for  permission  to  open  a  theatre  under  proper 
regulation,  but  their  request  was  flatly  refused.  The  next 
year,  thirty-eight  gentlemen  signed  a  petition  to  the  Select- 
men praying  them  to  take  the  sense  of  the  Town  in  Town- 
meeting.  A  great  gathering  assembled  in  Faneuil  Hall  and 
debated  the  matter.  The  question,  Theatre  or  No  Theatre, 
was  put  to  vote  and  carried  in  the  affirmative  by  a  vote  of 
3  to  1.*^ 

*•  McMaster.  History  of  tho  People  of  the  United  States.  I:  93,  94.  95. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

The  Poor  and  the  Stkangek  Within  the  Gates. 

In  the  first  year  of  their  settlement,  the  men  of  Ipswich 
passed  a  very  significant  vote : 

That  theire  shall  noe  forriner  amongst  us  come  into  our 
meetinge  unless  he  will  subject  himself  unto  the  like  orders 
and  penalties  that  we  the  freemen  of  the  Towne  have  es- 
tablished for  our  own  peace  and  comfort  in  our  meeting. 

They  affirmed  by  this  vote  their  exclusive  right  to  all  the 
privileges  of  citizenship  in  the  new  community  they  had 
established,  and  gave  formal  notice  that  no  stranger  coming 
among  them  could  have  place  or  standing  except  by  con- 
fonning  to  the  regulations  they  had  made.  They  proceeded 
to  divide  the  land  among  themselves,  giving  to  every  man  a 
house  lot,  tillage  lots,  and  rights  in  the  common  land  and 
large  farms  to  the  more  favored.  But  when  one  Humphrey 
Griffin  appeared,  they  felt  no  delicacy  in  refusing  to  do 
anything  for  his  comfort  or  convenience. 

The  Towne  doth  refuse  to  receive  Humphry  Griffin  as  an 
Inhabitant  to  provide  for  him  as  Inhabitants  formerly  re- 
ceived the  town  being  full. 

But  Griffin  was  not  expelled,  nor  was  he  refused  the  lib- 
erty of  purchasing  land  and  of  dwelling  among  them^  and 
no  one  questioned  his  right  to  remain,  even  when  in  later 
years  his  tippling  habit  had  brought  him  under  the  censure 
of  the  law.  In  contrast  to  his  reception,  was  the  welcome 
extended  to  another  in  1647. 

(386) 


THE  POOB  AJSTD  THE  STRANGER  WITHIN  THE  GATES.      387 

Rob't  Gray  hath  free  liberty  to  come  to  towne  and  to 
dwell  amongst  us. 

This  jealous  guarding  of  their  community  against  the 
intrusion  of  strangers  was  due  not  to  Pharisaic  self-right- 
eousness^ nor  to  Puritanic  narrowness  and  intolerance,  but 
had  its  origin  in  the  ancient  and  inalienable  right  of  a  com- 
mxmity  to  control  its  membership.  Francis  Palgrave,  in  his 
"Rise  and  Progress  of  the  English  Commonwealth,"^  re- 
marks: 

The  earliest  notices  respecting  the  Teutonic  Townships 
are  to  be  collected  from  the  laws  of  the  Salic  Franks.  A 
"Villa"  was  entirely  the  property  of  the  inhabitants  and  no 
stranger  could  settle  within  its  boundaries  unless  with  the 
consent  of  the  whole  incorporation.  Any  one  individual 
Townsman  could  forbid  the  entrance  of  the  new  colonist 
upon  the  common  fields  of  the  Sept.  If,  after  thrice  warn- 
ings had  been  given  and  thirty  nights  had  elapsed,  the  in- 
truder continued  contumacious,  he  was  summoned  to  the 
^Mallum'  or  Court;  and  in  default  of  appearance,  the 
"Gravio"  (Mayor)  proceeded  to  the  spot  and  by  force  ex- 
pelled the  occupant  from  the  purpresture  which  he  had  made. 
But  it  is  important  to  remark  that  the  freedom  of  the  com- 
munitv  might  be  legally  acquired  by  an  uncontradicted  resi- 
dence,- for  if  the  stranger  remained  in  the  Township,  without 
challenge,  during  twelve  months  he  was  from  thenceforth 
allowed  to  dwell  in  peace  and  security,  like  the  other  neigh- 
bors of  the  commimity. 

It  is  an  interesting  survival  of  this  communal  idea,  which 
was  the  basis  of  English  civic  life,  that  the  Puritan  settlers 
thus  "challenged"  each  new  comer.  No  doubt  they  exer- 
cised this  right  in  securing  the  moral  and  religious  charac- 
ter of  the  colony,  by  excluding  any  who  were  alien  and  im- 
sympathetic  in  their  creed,  but  they  had  an  economic  pur- 
pose as  well.     The  intrusion  of  idle  and  shiftless  strangers 

^Quoted  by  Joslah  H.  Benton  In  his  **Wamlng  Out  In  New  England," 
(p.  6.)  a  valuable  study  of  early  colonial  civic  life. 


388         IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

meant  not  only  moral  degeneracy  but  poverty,  and  an  even- 
tual burden  upon  the  community. 

But  after  the  year  1637,  it  was  not  left  to  the  towns  to 
decide  their  own  course  toward  strangers.  On  May  16"*, 
1637,  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  Bay  passed  the 
order : 

It  is  ordered  that  no  towne  or  pson  shall  receive  any 
stranger  .resorting  hither  w***  intent  to  reside  in  this  juris- 
diction, nor  shall  alow  any  lot  or  habitation  to  any,  or  inter^ 
taine  any  such  above  three  weekes,  except  sudi  pson  shall  have 
alowance  under  the  hands  of  some  one  of  the  counsell,  or 
of  two  other  of  the  magistrates,  upon  paine  that  ev'y  towne 
that  shall  give  or  sell  any  lot  or  habitation  to  any  such,  not 
so  allowed,  shall  forfet  lOOs.  for  every  offence  &  ev'y  pson 
receiving  any  such  for  longer  time  than  is  heare  expressed 
(or  than  shalbe  alowed  in  some  special  cases,  as  before  or  in 
case  of  intertainment  of  friends  resorting  from  some  other 
parts  of  this  country  for  a  convenient  tim^)  shall  forfet 
for  ev'^y  offence  40s;  and  for  ev'y  month  after  such  pson 
shall  there  continew  20s;  provided,  that  if  any  inhabitant 
shall  not  consent  to  the  intertainment  of  any  such  person, 
&  shall  give  notice  thereof  to  any  of  the  magistrates  w*^in 
one  month  after,  such  inhabitant  shall  not  bee  lyable  to  any 
part  of  this  penalty. 

This  was  followed  by  another  order  in  1638  that  the  con- 
stables in  each  town  should  inform  the  Court  of  Assistants 
whether  any  new  comer  was  admitted  without  license. 
While  the  stranger  was  thus  looked  upon  with  suspicion, 
the  poor  and  needy  among  the  inhabitants  found  that  Ips- 
wich did  not  lack  kindly  feelings.  There  were  clay  pits  and 
thatch  banks,  which  were  set  apart  for  public  use,  and  the 
poorest  man  had  liberty  to  provide  himself  with  the  daub- 
ing for  his  chimney  and  the  crevices  between  the  logs  of  his 
humble  dwelling,  and  the  thatch  for  his  roof.  Allowances 
for  his  fuel  were  made  in  the  great  Common  lands,  and  there 
was  a  "poor  mans  field"  in  1641.     When  Alexander  Knight, 


THE  POOR  AND  THE  STBANGEE  WITHIN  THE  GATES.   389 

a  poor  man,  and  "his  wife  near  her  time,"  asked  for  relief 
in  1657,  John  Cogswell  was  ordered  to  admit  them  to  a 
vacant  house,  and  it  was  voted  that  a  "house  be  built  for 
them,  sixteen  feet  long,  twelve  feet  wide  and  seven  or  eight 
feet  stud,  with  a  thatched  roof,"  for  which  an  appropriation 
of  £6  was  made. 

The  General  Court  passed  another  order  respecting  the 
settlement  of  i)oor  strangers  in  May,  1659. 

For  the  avoyding  of  all  future  inconvenjenjes  referring 
to  the  setling  of  poore  people  that  may  neede  releife  from 
the  place  where  they  dwell,  itt  is  ordered  by  this  Court  and 
the  authoritye  thereof,  that  where  any  person  w***  his  family, 
or  in  case  he  hath  no  family,  shall  be  resident  in  any  towne 
or  peculjar  of  this  jurisdiccon  for  more  then  three  moneths 
w%ut  notice  given  to  such  person  or  persons  by  the  con- 
stable, or  one  of  the  selectmen  of  the  sajd  place,  or  theire 
order,  that  the  towne  is  not  willing  that  they  should  remajne 
as  an  inhabitant  amongst  them  and  in  case,  after  such  no- 
tice given,  such  persoii  or  persons  shall  notw^^standing  re- 
majne in  the  sajd  place,  if  the  selectmen  of  the  sajd  place 
shall  not  by  way  of  complaint,  petition  the  next  County 
Court  of  that  sliiere  for  releife  in  the  sajd  case  &  the  same 
prosecuted  to  effect,  every  such  person  or  persons  (as  the 
case  may  require)  shall  be  provided  for  &  releived,  in  case 
of  necessity,  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  sajd  place  where  he 
or  she  is  so  found. 

Acting  under  this  law,  the  Selectmen  made  complaint 
to  the  Ipswich  Court  in  March,  1661,  that  they  had  notified 
Daniel  Grazier  and  John  Morrill,  Irishmen,  that  they  were 
not  willing  to  have  them  as  inhabitants,  and  they  had  not 
removed.  The  matter  was  referred  to  the  next  Court. 
Their  nationality  was  not  the  constraining  cause.  Grazier 
had  just  been  before  the  Court  for  non-performance  of  con- 
tract with  Richard  Dummer.  In  16()4,  he  was  sued  for  debt 
and  in  1667,  he  gave  bond  that  he  would  remove  and  never 
come  within  ten  miles  of  the  town,  and  that  he  would  ap- 


390        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSAOHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

pear  at  Ipswich  Court  to  be  examined  for  all  his  misde- 
meanors. John  Morrill  seems  to  have  been  an  associate  and 
a  man  of  the  same  color. 

Again  in  1668,  fear  was  expressed  lest  the  number  of  in- 
habitants be  increased  to  the  prejudice  of  the  Commoners 
and  trespassing  was  forbidden.  In  1673,  the  Town  adopted 
decisive  measures  to  free  itself  from  the  incumbrance. 

Ordered  the  Constable  give  notice  unto  William  Nelson 
and  Abner  Ordway  and  an  Irish  or  Guernsey  man  that 
married  Eachell,  Qr.  Masr.  Perkin's  mayd  that  the  Town 
will  not  allow  them  to  inhabit  here  in  this  Town  but  that 
they  depart  the  Town  unless  they  give  security  to  save  the 
Town  harmless  from  any  charge  the  Town  may  be  put  unto 
by  receiving  of  them. 

Nelson  had  been  fined  for  drunkenness  in  1661,  and  Ord- 
way was  convicted  of  theft  at  the  same  Court,  and  sentenced 
to  sit  an  hour  in  the  stocks  and  pay  costs.  In  1662,  Ordway 
was  sued  for  debt.  Nelson  was  found  guilty  of  stealing 
six  pieces  of  beef  from  Thomas  Bishop  in  1664.  Ordway 
had  been  in  Court  in  1667  on  two  charges.  It  was  only 
in  justice  to  itself  that  the  Town  sought  to  rid  itself  of 
this  pair  of  ne'er-do-wells. 

Edward  Nealand,  frequently  styled  "Irishman,"  in  deeds 
of  conveyance,  and  others  of  the  same  nationality,  Edmund 
Dear,  William  Danford,  Philip  Welch,  and  John  King,  suf- 
fered nothing  from  this  cause.  Now  and  then,  a  poor  In- 
dian was  an  object  of  public  charity.  Ned,  or  Ned  Acocket, 
a  servant  of  Sergeant  Brewer,  was  too  fond  of  the  "fire- 
water" introduced  by  the  white  men,  but  the  Town  granted 
him  two  or  three  acres  of  land  to  plant  during  his  life  in 
some  convenient  place,  provided  he  would  fence  it  sufficient- 
ly with  a  stone  wall,  in  the  year  1670.  In  1678,  some 
items  of  expense  were  recorded : 


THB  POOK  AND  THE  STBANGEB  WITHIN  THE  GATES.   391 

8.    d. 
Three  men  for   finding  the  Indian  aqua  7-  6. 

for  carrying  old  sqna  to  the  wigwam  3-  6. 

for  carrying  another  sqna  to  the  wigwam 

In  1686,  the  Selectmen  of  Ipswich  petitioned  the  Court 
for  leave  to 

putt  out  such  children  as  are  in  their  Towne  that  are  like 
to  suflfer  for  want  in  their  families  where  they  are  or  be- 
come a  Town  charge  unto  such  persons  as  they  may  Judg 
Careful  &  honest  &  like  to  bring  them  up  as  tie  Law  pro- 
videth  that  the  Towne  and  pHies  may  not  be  both  exposed 
to  sufferings. 

The  Selectmen  were  authorized  so  to  do  and  to  make  the 
proper  Indentures. 

In  one  case,  a  poor  man  bound  himself  for  life. 

This  Indenture^  made  May  y"  third  in  the  year  of  ou' 
Lord,  1700,  between  Peter  Frost  of  Ipswich,  Laborer,  on  y^ 
one  part  and  William  Cogswell  Jun'  of  Chebacco  in  Ips** 
Gent,  on  y*  other  part. 

Witnesseth  that  the  said  Frost  with  consent  of  y*  over- 
seers of  y*  Poor  of  Ipswich  under  whose  protection  and  care 
y®  said  Frost  now  is,  hath  with  free  and  full  consent  Let 
himself  considering  his  own  weakness  &  inability  to  guide 
himself  and  affaires  to  the  said  Mr.  William  Cogswell  his 
heirs  exec"  Admin"  him  y®  sd  Cogswell  his  heirs  Exec" 
Administrators  faithfully  to  serve  &  all  his  Lawfull  com- 
mands to  obey,  during  the  whole  term  of  his  naturall  Life 
commencing  from  y®  date  hereof.  In  consideration  whereof 
the  said  Cogswell  doth  hereby  covenant  &  engage  the  sd 
Peter  Frost  to  keep  &  maintaine  &  at  all  times  to  provide 
all  sutable  for  him  in  sickness  &  in  health,  both  Meat  Drink 
Clothing  Washing  &  Lodging  &  all  things  necessary  and 
convenient  for  such  an  apprentice  during  the  whole  time 
of  his  Life,  and  when  Providence  shall  so  dispose  that  y*  s* 

*  Town  Records. 


392         IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Frost  shall  Decease  the  s*  Cogswell  shall  be  at  the  charge 
of  a  decent  Buriall. 

For  the  true  and  faithfull  performance  hereof,  I  the  sd 
Cogswell  do  bind  myself  my  heirs  Executors  &  administra- 
tors in  y®  Bond  of  one  hundred  pounds  money  to  y*  Overseers 
of  y®  Poor  of  Ipswich  as  above  s*  to  be  recovered  against  me, 
my  heirs,  Executors,  Administrators  etc  upon  my  failure 
hereof. 

In  witness  Wee  have  hereunto  interchangeably  sett  to 
our  hands  &  aealls  the  day  &  date  above  written. 

William  Cogswell,  (seal) 
Signed  sealed  &  d'd 

in  presence  of 
Daniell  Rogers 
Jacob  Perkins  Jun. 
Jacob  Foster  Jun. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  new  century,  the  Town  set  itself 
resolutely  to  the  task  of  guarding  itself  against  undesir- 
able prospective  citizens.  The  Town  Order  adopted  March 
7,  1699-1700,  seems  almost  inquisitional. 

Whereas  sundry  persons  for  their  p'ticular  advantage  are 
ready  to  entertaine  into  their  houses  or  to  Lett  out  Lands 
or  tenements  to  such  p'sons  as  are  no  ways  desirable  and 
may  prove  burdensome  in  severall  respects  to  this  Town, 
for  the  preventing  whereof  it  is  ordered  that  not  any  per- 
son inhabiting  in  this  Town  or  the  bounds  thereof  shall 
suffer  any  stranger  comeing  from  other  Towns  to  continue 
or  live  more  than  one  week  in  his  own  Dwelling  house  or 
any  tenement  of  his  or  whereof  he  hath  y®  disposal  under  y* 
penalty  of  Twenty  shillings  for  every  week  he  shall  suffer 
any  such  person  to  continue  or  abide  in  any  of  his  posses- 
sions to  be  distrained  by  the  Constable  by  order  of  y®  Select- 
men of  such  delinquent  unless  such  person  do  give  satis- 
faction and  security  of  their  honesty  and  ability  to  the  Se- 
lectmen or  the  Major  part  of  them  at  a  full  meeting  obtaine 
their  License  to  be  Entered  in  y®  Town  book  for  y®  enter- 
taining of  such  p'sons. 

Provided  always  this  order  shall  not  restraine  any  of  y* 


THE  POOR  AND  THK  STRAI^GEB  WITHIN  THE  GATES.      393 

Inhabitants  from  entertaining  any  of  their  friends  or  Rela- 
tions y*  come  to  visitt  them  at  their  own  Dwelling  Houses 
or  household  servants  that  are  single  persons. 

This  order  was  soon  put  in  force.  John  Wainwright, 
one  of  the  most  prominent  citizens  and  merchants  of  the 
Town,  leased  his  farm,  now  included  in  the  Town  Farm,  to 
Samuel  Cars  of  Hampton,  and  on  May  27,  1700,  he  gave 
his  bond  of  £200,  silver  money,  to  the  Town  that  if 

either  he  y®  sd  Cars  or  his  wife  or  any  of  his  children 
fall  soe  into  decay  that  y®  sd  Town  of  Ipswich  shall  be  ne- 
cessitated to  relieve  them,  then  the  above  sd  obligation  to 
abide  .... 

A  Scotch  woman,  Mrs.  Dent,  became  a  public  charge, 
and  in  May,  1700,  the  Town  voted : 

That  the  Towoi  will  be  at  the  charge  of  fifteen  or  twenty 
Pounds  to  transport  Glood'^''  Dent  to  Scotland,  her  native 
place  and  that  the  Representative  have  the  manageing  thereof. 

This  thrifty  scheme  of  avoiding  the  expense  of  continued 
maintenance  failed  to  work  out,  and  on  Oct.  23,  1701,  the 
Selectmen  were  instructed 

to  take  care  y*  some  convenient  building  be  erected  on  y* 
Town  Common  for  y®  entertainment  of  the  widow  Dent  or 
any  of  the  Poor  of  the  Town. 

The  poor  woman  seems  to  have  needed  "entertainment" 
for  many  years  as  the  Town  Records  note  the  death  of  the 
widow  Margaret  Dent  on  April  29,  1728. 

The  relatives  of  indigent  persons  who  had  received  help 
from  the  Town  began  to  be  looked  after.  Thomas  Lufkin 
filed  a  bond  of  £200  with  the  Town  in  March,  1714-15, 
"to  maintain  my  honored  father,  John  Downing  &  his  wife." 
John  Brown,  a  notorious  tippler  and  disturber  of  the  peace. 


394        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MAS8ACHUSKTTS  BAY  COLONY. 

called  "the  glazier"  or  "the  drummer,"  to  distinguish  him 
from  the  highly  respectable  "farmer  John  Brown"  of  Can- 
dlewood,  after  many  years  of  dissolute  living,  became  a 
Town  charge.  The  Overseers  of  the  Poor  held  his  relatives 
responsible,  and  finally  complained  to  the  Quarter  Sessions' 
Court,  which  ordered  in  March,  1717, 

Whereas  ye  Belations  of  Glacyer  Brown  of  Ipswich  do 
n^lect  to  discharge  y*  Disbursements  on  him  in  his  sick- 
ness &  when  he  wanted  support  ....  said  relations  are 
summoned  to  appear  at  Newbury  Court 

In  one  case  in  1721,  the  Court  ordered  a  grandson  to  help 
support  his  grandmother.  Abraham  Jewett  of  Rowley  had 
opened  his  house  to  his  mother,  and  Dea.  Nathaniel  Knowl- 
ton  of  Ipswich,  who  had  married  his  sister,  Deborah,  had 
made  his  offer  to  help  in  her  support.  As  the  grandson 
acknowledged  no  obligation,  Abraham  petitioned  the  Court, 

in  behalf  of  his  aged  mother,  Ann  Jewet,  an  ancient 
woman,  who  wants  subsistence  &  is  resident  at  his  house, 
&  whereas  Deacon  Knowlton  of  Ipswich,  who  married  one 
of  her  daughters  offered  to  pay  £3  per  annum  towards  her 
maintenance 

Ordered  y*  Francis  Palmer  Jun.  Grandson  to  y*  sd  Anne 
Jewet  shall  be  assest  &  pay  to  y®  sd  Jewet,  his  grandmother, 
£3  per  annum,  i.  e.  to  say  15s.  per  mo.  in  bills  of  credit  till 
further  order. 

In  the  year  1726,  active  measures  were  taken  to  relieve 
the  Town  of  responsibility  for  undesirable  residents.  On 
Jan.  1,  1729,  the  Court  approved  the  action  of  the  Select- 
men in  "warning  out"  a  half  dozen  families.  On  April 
10,  1738,  the  Court  allowed  sixteen  of  the  twenty  cases  pre- 
sented by  the  Selectmen,  and  on  March  31,  1767,  the  Court 
approved  the  warning  out  of  38  from  Ipswich,  including 
families  with  three  and  four  children,  some  of  them  evi- 


THE  POOE  AND  THE  STEANOEE  WITHIN  THE  GATES.   395 

dently  of  foreign  birth,  but  many  bearing  names  of  great 
respectability  and  honor.  Some  of  these  poor  folk  were  cast 
upon  a  neighboring  Town  only  to  be  hurled  back,  and  this 
game  of  shuttlecock  was  played  until  appeal  was  made  to 
the  Court  to  fix  the  legal  residence.  It  is  certain  that  this 
was  not  equivalent  to  expulsion  from  the  Town.  Timothy 
Souther  was  warned  out  in  1763,  and  may  have  left  the 
Town  as  he  was  warned  out  again  in  1792,  but  he  bought 
the  old  house  known  as  the  Souther  house,  recently  torn 
down,  in  1794.  A  little  study  of  the  circumstances  at- 
tending this  "warning  out^"  as  revealed  by  the  Court  and 
Town  Records,  reveals  the  reasonableness  of  the  act  in  many 
cases,  though  instances  remain  which  cannot  be  explained. 

In  some  cases,  the  parties  concerned  had  been  married 
in  Ipswich  many  years  before  but  one  or  both  of  the  couple 
were  not  legal  residents.  Zebulon  Lane,  his  wife  Hannah, 
and  children,  Zebulon,  Hannah,  Anne  and  Benjamin  were 
warned  out  in  March,  1767.  Lane  then  of  Gloucester,  mar- 
ried Hannah  Cogswell  of  Ipswich  in  1749.  There  is  no 
record  of  the  birth  of  the  children,  and  it  is  likely  that  they 
were  bom  elsewhere,  and  that  the  family  may  have  returned 
to  Ipswich.  The  same  was  probably  true  in  the  case  of 
Samuel  Pickard,  his  wife  Mary  and  four  children,  who 
were  warned  out  at  the  same  time.  He  was  a  Rowley  man 
by  birth  and  residence ;  his  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Daniel 
Dresser  of  the  Village;  they  were  married  at  Rowley  in 
1752,  and  their  children  mav  have  been  bom  there. 

John  Rogers  of  Reading  married  Abigail  Lamson  in  1762, 
and  he,  his  wife  and  three  children  were  warned  out  in 
March,  1767.  Rice  Knowlton  of  Wenham,  but  resident  in 
Ipswich,  married  Elizabeth  Smith  of  Marblehead  in  1750. 
They  were  warned  out  in  1764.  Peter  Smith,  then  a  resi- 
dent of  Ipswich,  married  Sarah  Appleton,  March  29,  1753. 
Sarah,  wife  of  Peter  Smith  with  her  children,  Anna,  John, 
Daniel  and  William,  were  among  those  warned  out  in  March, 


396      IPSWICH^  in  the  m^vssachusetts  bay  colony. 

1764.  There  is  no  record  of  the  birth  of  the  children  in 
Ipswich.  As  he  was  not  included  in  the  vote  of  exclusion, 
he  may  not  have  been  living,  and  the  widow  and  her  family 
may  have  returned  to  her  old  home.  The  case  of  John  Ely, 
wife  and  child,  warned  out  in  1767  is  peculiar  in  that  there 
is  no  record  of  his  residence  elsewhere,  his  wife,  Sarah  Day, 
was  an  Ipswich  woman,  and  their  daughter,  Sarah,  was  bap- 
tized in  1750. 

Retire  Bacon,  then  a  resident  of  Boxford,  was  warned  out 
on  Aug.  15,  1764,  with  his  seven  children.  He  was  not  of 
Ipswich  birth  apparently,  and  the  Town  may  have  had  just 
fear  of  possible  expense,  but  Margaret  Bumham  had  courage 
and  philanthropic  devotion  enough  to  marry  him  on  August 
27***,  1764.  This  auspicious  change  in  his  domestic  affairs 
may  have  made  it  possible  for  him  to  delay  his  going,  as 
he  sold  his  land  in  1767. 

Provision  for  general  relief  of  the  poor  under  special  ex- 
igencies was  made  from  time  to  time.  It  was  voted  on  Dec 
20, 1716 

That  six  pounds  in  money  be  drawn  out  of  y®  hundred 
pounds  by  y®  Overseers  of  y®  Poor  for  y®  procuring  of  Indian 
com  for  sd  Poor. 

The  Selectmen  were  impowered  and  directed  by  the  vote 
of  March  18,  1741-2, 

to  purchase  100  bushels  of  corn  at  the  cheapest  Rate  for 
the  use  of  the  Town  to  be  distributed  to  such  persons  in 
such  Way  and  manner  as  they  shall  think  prudent  and  most 
for  the  advantage  of  the  Town. 

In  the  following  year,  they  wore  instructed  to  lay  in  a 
stock  of  com  and  wood. 

The  To^vn  voted  on  Feb.  3,  1717,  that 

an  Alms  House  or  convenient  House  for  ve  Poor  be  built 


THE  POOR  ANP  THE  STRANGER  WITHIN  THE  GATES.      397 

To  be  a  logg  house  of  about  40  feet  long,  about  16  foot  wide, 
about  6  foot  high  w***  a  Slatt  roof  as  may  be  sutable. 

It  was  voted  in  1719  that  it  should  be  set  "in  y®  lane 
towards  Pindars,"  i.  e.  Loney's  Lane,  and  it  was  built  there, 
adjoining  the  Town  Pound.  Apparently  it  was  not  an  at- 
tractive place  of  residence  for  the  poor,  or  there  were  few 
to  be  housed,  and  the  spacious  log  house  was  available  for 
other  uses.  So  William  Stone,  who  by  reason  of  sickness 
was  no  longer  able  to  support  himself  by  fishing,  asked  leave 
to  use  a  room  there  to  teach  reading  and  writing  to  the  youth, 
and  this  was  granted  in  the  year  1722.  Again  in  1731, 
Henry  Spillar,  needing  relief,  received  liberty  to  use  a  room 
at  the  southerly  end  for  "his  teaching  and  instructing  youth 
in  reading,  Avriting  and  cyphering."  The  Town  granted 
him  a  further  favor  of  £12  for  his  school-keeping  in  1733. 
He  may  have  been  obliged  to  remove  from  the  alms-house, 
as  William  Eobbins  made  his  plea  for  help  in  March,  1731-2, 
having  lost  his  finger  and  being  unable  to  pay  the  Doctor 
and  support  his  family.  The  Town  instructed  the  Over- 
seers of  the  Poor  to  assist  him,  and  a  week  later  gave  fur- 
ther instructions  that  the  alms-house  be  cleared  as  soon  as 
possible  for  the  reception  of  those  who  are  supported  at  the 
Town's  charge. 

Evidently  some  poor  families  were  maintained  in  their 
own  homes,  and  when  the  Overseer  of  the  Poor,  Capt  Thomas 
Wade,  reported  his  expenditures  at  the  March  meeting  in 
1734,  opposition  to  a  continuance  of  this  policy  was  made. 
A  Committee  was  appointed  to  consider  the  question  of  the 
best  method  of  procedure,  which  reported  on  March  20*^, 
recommending  that  the  poor  be  provided  for  in  a  suitable 
and  convenient  home,  that  the  Overseer  be  directed  "to  em- 
ploy such  as  are  capable  of  labor  in  such  business  as  they 
are  able  to  perform,''  and  that  inquiry  be  made  into  the 
circumstances  of  "such  persons  within  the  Town,  who  may 


898        IPSWIOH,  IN  THE  MASSAOHUSBTTS  BAT  OOLOmT. 

be  thought  and  judged  to  irdsimprove  their  time  and  estate," 
and  that  the  Overseer  '^take  such  care  of  them  as  the  Law 
directs." 

The  old  aknshouse  was  reported  to  be  rotten  and  unfit  for 
occupancy  in  1770,  but  no  definite  action  seems  to  have  been 
taken  until  1784,  when  the  Town  voted  to  sell  it.  The 
Committee  appointed  to  investigate  the  building  or  provid- 
ing a  new  "work-house,"  reported  that  the  lower  pest  house 
would  answer  for  present  needs  provided  it  were  moved 
and  placed  near  the  County  House.  They  were  instructed 
to  remove  it  if  practicable. 

Whatever  course  was  adopted  proved  to  be  but  a  tempo- 
rary make-shift.  The  purchase  of  the  John  Harris  house, 
still  standing  on  the  comer  of  High  and  Manning  Streets, 
was  soon  proposed  but  the  plan  met  with  considerable  op- 
position. The  expense  involved  in  the  relief  of  the  poor 
was  felt  to  be  a  heavy  burden.  The  final  petition  of  the 
Hamlet  Parish  to  be  set  off  as  a  separate  Town  in  1792,  was 
vigorously  opposed  because  the  decline  of  the  fishing  indus- 
try had  deprived  many  families  of  their  means  of  support, 
and  had  compelled  an  increasing  number  of  the  inhabitants 
to  ask  relief  from  the  Town.  The  separation  was  accom- 
plished and  the  Hamlet  was  incorporated  as  the  Town  of 
Hamilton  on  June  21,  1793.  As  the  people  of  the  Hamlet 
were  all  farmers  and  well-to-do,  and  the  great  bulk  of  the 
needy  and  helpless  families  were  found  in  the  old  Town  and 
at  Chebacco,  the  burden  of  taxation  for  the  support  of  the 
poor  was  greatly  increased,  though  Hamilton  paid  $950  into 
the  Ipswich  treasury,  when  it  became  a  separate  Town. 

The  exigency  was  so  great  that  an  appeal  for  relief  was 
made  to  the  General  Court  in  May,  1794. 

The  Petition  recited: 

This  placo  has  for  many  years  past  been  on  the  decline, 
arising  partly  from  other  Towns  in  the  Vicinity  being  more 


THE  POOK  AND  THE  STKANGEK  WITHIN  THE  GATES.   399 

Commodious  for  Trade  since  the  County  has  become  settled 
and  partly  from  the  great  Increase  of  paupers,  which  has 
becom  a  Heavy  burden  to  your  Petitioner  as  the  Town  of 
Ipswich  is  an  ancient  Corporation.  The  present  Inhabitants 
are  obliged  to  support  many  Poor  persons  who  have  passed 
many  of  their  Useful  Days  and  expended  all  their  Property 
in  other  Towns,  but  having  gained  no  legal  settlement  else- 
where, return  to  us  for  Maintenance  &  support — ^which  in- 
crease of  expense  has  caused  a  Valuable  part  lately  to  Sepa- 
rate from  us  and  thrown  on  us  an  additional  burthen. 

«         *         «         «         * 

And  as  the  Instruction  of  the  rising  Generation  in  a  free 
Government  is  of  Great  importance  burdens  which  we  labour 
under  are  so  great  it  is  become  almost  beyond  the  ability 
of  your  Petitioners  to  support  their  Poor  and  give  that  aid 
and  encouragement  to  the  promotion  of  Learning  which  is 
Necessary. 

We  Therefore  Humbly  pray  your  Hon"  to  take  our  Case 
into  your  Consideration  and  to  grant  us  a  Township  or  such 
other  Quantity  of  unlocated  Lands  in  said  Commonwealth 
as  shall  enable  us  to  aiford  a  Necessary  &  decent  support  to 
our  Schools  &  which  will  be  applied  solely  to  that  purpose. 

This  petition  failed  apparently  to  commend  itself  to  the 
General  Court. 

Dr.  John  Manning  now  came  forward  in  April  1795,  with 
a  proposition  to  undertake  the  maintenance  of  the  poor  un- 
der certain  conditions  for  a  fixed  rate.  If  the  Town  would 
grant  him  the  use  of  the  pest  house,  Mr.  John  Harris's 
house  and  land,  or  any  other  equivalent,  and  pay  him  £400 
per  annum,  he  would  provide  the  proper  subjects  of  the 
Town's  support,  their  food,  clothing,  "and  every  kind  of  at- 
tendance in  sickness  &  in  health,"  He  believed  that  a  sav- 
ing of  £100  a  year  might  thus  be  accomplished. 

After  these  proposals  had  been  read,  Mr,  John  Heard, 
Maj'  Joseph  Swasey,  Col.  Jon'  Cogswell,  Capt.  Dan*  Rog- 
ers and  Asa  Andrews  Esq.  were  chosen  a  Committee  to  treat 
with  Dr.  Manning.      This   Committee   reported  that  Mr. 


400         IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

Harris  would  sell  his  house  and  land,  and  that  Mr.  Paltiah 
Kinsman  would  bind  himself  to  purchase  the  property  at 
the  end  of  three  years  if  the  Town  wished  to  dispose  of  it. 

The  Town  voted  to  purchase  the  Harris  house  and  an 
agreement  was  made  with  Dr.  Manning  to  provide  food, 
clothing,  fuel,  washing,  medical  attendance  and  nursing, 
and  decent  burial,  and  settle  all  claims  against  other  Towns, 
for  three  years  at  the  rate  of  £400.  Upon  the  expiration 
of  this  contract,  there  seems  to  have  been  no  renewal  of  this 
method,  and  in  1799,  the  Selectmen  were  instructed  to  pro- 
vide for  the  poor  in  the  ensuing  year. 

Coincidently  with  the  increase  of  pauperism  and  the  en- 
larged burden  imposed  upon  the  tax-payers,  vigorous  resort 
was  made  to  the  "warning  out"  process  of  forestalling  any 
prospective  or  possible  expense  for  the  relief  of  the  families 
of  recent  arrivals. 

A  legal  summons  was  served  by  the  Constable  upon  desig- 
nated persons, 

who  have  lately  come  into  this  Town  for  the  purpose  of 
abiding  therein  not  having  obtained  the  Town's  consent 
therefor  that  they  depart  the  limits  thereof  with  their  Chil- 
dren and  those  under  there  care  within  fifteen  days. 

Though  it  was  well  understood  that  this  was  only  a  legal 
form  to  save  the  Town  from  expense  in  the  case  of  future 
poverty,  there  must  have  been  much  grotesqueness,  if  not 
positive  embarrassment,  attaching  to  the  visit  by  the  Con- 
stable to  Dr.  Parker  Clark,  who  had  come  to  Ipswich  from 
Newburyport  to  practise  his  profession,  and  Asa  Andrews 
Esq.,  lawyer  and  leading  citizen,  and  one  of  the  committee 
to  confer  with  Dr.  Manning,  both  of  whom  were  warned 
out  in  October,  1789,  and  Doctor  Samuel  Adams,  in  1792, 
in  company  with  Black  Nell,  the  widow  of  Fortune  EUery 
of  Gloucester,  and  Eunice  Wood,  Jonas  Kenney,  the  tinker 
from  Norwich,  and  a  multitude  of  humble  but  thoroughly 


THE  POOB  AND  THE  STKANGER  WITHIN  THE  GATES.   401 

respectable  laborers,  widows,  house  maids,  families  from 
Nova  Scotia  and  Scotland,  as  well  as  from  Rowley  and 
Topsfield  and  all  the  neighboring  Towns.  Between  Oct.  26, 
1789  and  Feb.  13,  1794,  no  less  than  120  heads  of  fami- 
lies and  unmarried  men  and  women  were  thus  warned. 

By  a  legislative  act  of  JFeb.  11,  1793,  all  laws  as  to  set- 
tlements were  repealed,  and  new  provision  for  securing  set- 
tlement made,  and  with  this  went  all  provision  for  warning 
out  of  Towns.^     It  lingered  in  Ipswich  a  year  longer. 

On  Christmas  day,  1817,  a  Committee  reported,  recom- 
mending the  purchase  of  the  farm  of  John  Lummus,  the 
erecting  of  necessary  buildings  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
Town  wards,  and  an  appropriation  of  not  less  than  $7500. 
On  New  Year's  day,  1818,  $10,500  was  appropriated  for 
this  purpose,  and  in  April,  the  Committee  was  authorized  to 
sell  the  "work-house"  on  High  Street  and  use  the  proceeds 
to  make  additions  to  the  buildings  then  on  the  farm.  This 
was  the  last  driop  of  bitterness  in  the  cup  of  the  people  of 
Chebacco.  Fifteen  vears  before  that  Parish  had  recited  its 
grievances  and  prayed  for  a  separation  from  the  Town  with- 
out success.  Now  they  were  in  grim  earnest,  and  on  April 
6,  1818,  two  hundred  and  six  men  of  Chebacco  petitioned 
the  Legislature  for  incorporation  as  a  Toi;\ti,  declaring  that 
they  refused  to  be  held  for  any  part  of  the  new  and  expensive 
establishment  for  the  relief  of  the  poor.  This  prayer  was 
granted,  and  the  Town  was  duly  incorporated  on  Feb.  5, 
1819,  making  a  cheerful  final  payment  to  the  mother  Town 
of  $3000  on  various  accounts  and  $2270  for  their  share  in 
public  property,  remaining  in  its  hands. 

A  new  house  was  reported  necessary  in  the  fall  of  1837, 
and  the  editor  of  the  Ipswich  Register  opened  its  columns 
to  the  free  discussion  of  the  Town  Farm,  which  was  alreadv 
a  vexing  problem.  "H"  began  the  battle  with  his  commu- 
nication on  Dec  8th,  assailing  the  extravagance  of  the  man- 

*  Warniner  Out  In  New  England.    Benton,  p.  52. 


402         IPSWICH^  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  OOLO^'Y. 

agement  and  advocating  the  sale  of  the  farm  and  the  pur- 
chase of  a  farm  of  30  to  60  acres  near  the  Town.  "Agricola'* 
replied  in  the  next  issue,  upholding  the  present  policy  and 
stating  the  interesting  fact  that  during  the  six  years  when 
a  capable  woman  was  on  the  farm,  300  yards  of  cloth  were 
woven  from  the  flax  and  wool  raised  on  the  place.  "Aga- 
wam"  supported  "Agricola"  and  in  January  "Shylock"  cried 
out  against  the  expediency  of  maintaining  at  a  loss  a  farm 
of  340  acres  to  support  35  to  40  poor.  "Luke,  the  Laborer," 
"Jonathan"  and  "A  Friend  to  the  Poor,"  took  up  their  cud- 
gels. The  value  of  the  diked  march  was  extolled,  the  econ- 
omy of  the  peat  fuel,  long  columns  of  figures  were  juggled 
with  ingeniously  to  prove  the  wisdom  or  the  foolishness  of 
every  measure.  For  three  months  the  Poor  Farm  was  in 
the  lime  light,  then  in  March,  1838,  the  Town  voted  to  build 
the  brick  house,  which  is  still  in  use. 


CHAPTER  XVIL 
The  New  Century.     W.uis  and  Rumors  of  Waks. 

The  nineteenth  century  opened  with  clouds  and  gloom. 
Gen.  George  Washington  died  on  Dec.  14*^  1799.  The 
whole  country  was  deeply  grieved.  Funeral  solemnities 
were  observed  at  Ipswich  on  January  7,  1800.  The  Salem 
Gazette  of  Jan.  21"*  described  the  service  in  the  style  which 
characterized  the  newspapers  of  the  day. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Frisbie  at  the  request  of  the  inhabitants 
pronounced  a  very  elegant  and  pathetic  eulogy  on  the  char- 
acter and  virtues  of  the  beloved  Patriot  and  Statesman:  in 
which  he  very  judiciously  and  feelingly  led  the  audience 
to  a  pleasing  remembrance  of  the  glorious  military  achieve- 
ments and  political  wisdom  of  the  illustrious  deceased. 

The  several  grades  of  citizens,  being  preceded  by  the  mili- 
tary officers  and  followed  by  the  Orator  and  Clergy,  moved 
from  the  Court  House  at  half  past  one  o'clock,  and  proceeded 
to  the  meeting  house  of  the  First  Parish,  where  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Dana  in  a  very  solemn  manner,  addressed  the  Throne 
of  Grace  and  the  Eulogy  was  pronounced.  A  plaintive  and 
suitable  Anthem  was  performed  by  the  choir  of  singers. 
The  desk  and  pillars  of  the  house  being  dressed  in  mourning 
and  the  audience  together  with  the  honest  tears  of  sorrow 
fully  demonstrated  the  feelings  of  an  affectionate  and  grate- 
ful people. 

The  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  militia  under  General 
Orders  wore  their  military  uniforms  every  Sunday  for  six 
months,  with  a  black  crape  band  on  the  left  forearm,  just 
above  the  cuff,  and  the  hilts  of  the  officers'  swords  were  cov- 
ered with  black. 

(408) 


404.        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

The  newspapers  containeu  disquieting  and  threatening  tid- 
ings of  foreign  complications.  French  privateers  were  prey- 
ing on  American  commerce.  The  pirates  of  Algiers  and 
Tripoli  continued  their  depredations  on  the  ships  of  all 
uationsj  and  the  United  States  and  the  European  Powers 
were  making  the  most  humiliating  concessions  to  secure  ex- 
emption from  attack.  In  December,  1800,  the  report  was 
published  that  the  U.  S.  Frigate,  "George  Washington," 
Capt.  Bainbridge  in  command,  had  been  compelled  by  the 
Dey  of  Algiers  to  take  on  board  a  cargo  of  black  slaves, 
lions,  tigers,  leopards,  ostriches,  etc.  and  with  the  Algerine 
standard  at  the  mast  head  instead  of  the  American  pennant, 
to  sail  for  Constantinople,  bearing  this  gift  to  the  Grand 
Seignor.  Furthermore,  this  service  was  considered  by  the 
Algerines,  a  distinguished  honor  to  our  Country.^ 

War  between  Great  Britain  and  France  was  renewed  in 
1803.  Each  of  these  nations  forbade  the  United  States  to 
trade  with  the  other.  British  men-of-war  were  constantly 
impressing  sailors  from  American  vessels,  claiming  them  as 
deserters  from  the  British  navy.  The  feeble  navy  of  the 
United  States  brought  the  Mediterranean  pirates  to  terms 
in  1806.  The  people  of  Ipswich  were  probably  gratified 
with  the  travelling  panorama,  60  feet  long  and  10  feet  high, 
which  was  exhibited  in  Salem. 

"The  Bombardment  of  the  City  of  Tripoli,  by  the  Ameri- 
can squadron  under  Commodore  Preble,  and  a  sublime  de- 
scription of  the  Burning  of  the  Philadelphia  frigate  in  the 
harbor  of  Tripoli  by  that  gallant  ofRcer,  Capt.  S.  Decatour."^ 

While  national  affairs  were  of  pressing  interest,  Ipswich 
was  engaged  at  this  period  in  an  important  public  enteiv 
prize.  The  Ipswich  Turnpike  was  incorporated  March  1, 
1803.  The  corporate  members  were  John  Heard,  Stephen 
Choate,  Asa  Andrews,  Joseph  Swasey,  all  of  Ipswich;  W" 

^The  Salem  Gazette,  Dec.  12,  1800. 
■  The  Salem  Register,  Jan.  19,  1800. 


THE  NEW  CENTTTBy.     WAES  AND  KUMORS  OF  WAKS.       405 

Gray,  Jr.,  Jacob  Ashton,  Israel  Thomdike,  Nathan  Dane, 
William  Bartlett  and  James  Prince.  The  road  began  at  the 
blacksmith's  shop  of  Nathaniel  Batchelder  in  Beverly,  ran 
hv  Nathan  Brown's  in  Hamilton,  over  the  old  road  to  the 
Stone  Bridge  in  Ipswich,  through  Rowley,  over  Parker  River 
Bridge  to  Newburyport,  four  rods  wide,  with  toll  gates.  ^* 
The  Newburyport  Turnpike  was  incorporated  a  week  later. 
War  with  England  seemed  unavoidable.  The  Jeffersonian 
party,  known  as  Anti-Federalists,  Democratic  Republi- 
cans or  simply  Republicans,  favored  active  measures  of  re- 
sistance or  retaliation.  Though  Ipswich  was  strongly  Fed- 
eralist, the  Jeffersonian  minority  was  active  and  vigorous, 
and  on  the  4"*  of  July,  1805,  they  celebrated  the  national 
anniversary  in  very  amusing  fashion. 

A  goodly  number  of  miequivocal  Democratic  Republicans, 
consisting  of  Farmers,  Mechanics,  Sea  Faring  brethren, 
Fishermen  etc.  met  at  Mr.  Nathaniel  Treadwell's,  formed 
a  procession,  proceeded  to  the  Jeffersonian  Academy,  where 
they  met  with  quite  a  number  of  others  of  both  sexes,  ac- 
companied with  citizen  Pottle,  who,  by  special  request  (after 
the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  read)  addressed  the 
Supreme  Being  ....  and  then  made  a  very  ingenious, 
pertinent  and  solemn  discourse  from  the  words,  "Happy 
art  thou,  O  Israel,  who  is  like  unto  thee,  O  People  saved  by 
the  Lord." 

After  the  sermon,  they  adjourned  to  the  hotel  for  dinner 
and  toasts.  The  usual  patriotic  sentiments  were  interspersed 
with  some  of  local  significance.  The  13^^  toast  was,  "The 
Venerable  Town  of  Ipswich.  May  it  be  purged  of  all  old 
Toryism  and  mock  Federalism";  the  1G"\  "May  more  Piety 
and  less  Politics  adorn  the  American  Clergy";  the  18*^  was 
"Citizen  Pottle.  May  his  Labours  of  Love  abide  on  our 
minds."      Notwithstanding  the  prolonged  series  of  toasts, 

*•  History  of  Essex  County,  Article  Ipswich,  by  M.  V.  B.  Parley.    Vol.  I: 
p.  674. 


406        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAT  COLONY. 

"Usual  good  order  and  decency  being  observed  the  day  was 
closed  agreeably."' 

"Elder  Pottle"  was  the  newly  arrived  preacher  of  the  lit- 
tle Baptist  flock,  which  was  worshipping  in  the  second  story 
of  Dr.  Manning's  woolen  factory,  then  unused.  Evidently 
he  was  an  ardent  advocate  of  Jeffersonian  simplicity,  and 
aped  the  French  democracy  with  his  title  of  "citizen."  As 
the  other  ministers  in  town  were  strong  Federalists,  the  sharp 
rap  on  their  knuckles  in  tho  16"*  toast,  and  the  loyal  lauda- 
tion of  "Citizen  Pottle"  in  the  18***,  aroused  the  suspicion 
that  the  whole  celebration  was  largely  in  the  nature  of  a 
spirited  demonstration  of  Baptist  enthusiasm,  availing  itself 
of  the  great  midsummer  holiday. 

In  July,  1807,  preparations  for  war  actually  began.  The 
Salem  Cadets  and  two  Light  Infantry  companies  volunteered 
their  services.*  In  December,  President  elefferson  pro- 
claimed an  Embargo,  which  had  been  voted  by  Congress,  for- 
bidding all  American  vessels  to  leave  United  States  ports 
for  foreign  countries  and  prohibiting  foreign  vessels  from 

sailing,  except  with  the  cargo  actually  on  board.''  The  great 
export  trade  of  the  neighboring  towns,  Newburyport  and 
Salem.  Avas  instantly  paralyzed.  In  the  Newbury  port  dis- 
trict alone,  there  were  registered  in  Sept,  1805,  41  ships, 
62  brigs,  2  scows,  2  barks  and  67  schooners®.  When  the 
Embargo  was  declared,  there  were  lying  in  Salem  harbor, 
37  ships,  2  barks,  19  brigs,  59  sloops  and  schooners  and  a 
great  fleet  was  abroad  in  every  ocean. 

Ipswich  suffered  largely  in  proportion  to  her  means.  The 
good  ship  "Eliza,"  Capt  Charles  Smith,  sailed  for  Leghorn 
in  1805,  and  in  1808,  commanded  by  Capt.  Treadwell,  was 
reported  at  Lisbon,  Cadiz,  Isle  of  May  and  London.  The 
brig  "Mary,"  Capt.  Glazier,  carried  her  cargoes  of  fish  and 

»  The  Salem  Hesister,  July  11,  1805. 

*  The  Salem  Register,  July  27,  1807. 

■  Channing.     Students'  History  of  the  United  States,  p.  348. 

*  The  Salem  Register,  Sept.  9,  1805. 


THE  NEW  CENTURY,      WABS  AND  BUMORS  OF  WABS.       407 

commodities  to  Guadaloupe,  St.  Croix  and  wherever  she 
could  find  a  market  The  brig  "Parrot,"  Capt  Lord,  was 
at  Port  Royal,  Martinique,  in  1805 ;  Capt.  Farley  in  the  brig 

"Susannah"  was  at  Leghorn  and  Galiopoli  in  1806.  The 
Ipswich  schooners  "Adventure,"  Capt.  Treadwell ;  "Dolphin," 
Capt  Farley;  "Friendship,"  Capt  Treadwell;  "Hannah," 
Captain  Groodhue  and  "William  Henry,"  Capt.  Daniel  Lord, 
sailed  from  the  wharves  where  they  loaded  to  Trinidad,  St 
Lucie,  Point  Petre  and  other  West  India  ports.  All  these 
vessels  either  lay  idly  in  the  home  port,  or  were  awaited 
anxiously  from  their  foreign  voyages  by  their  owners.  "No 
foreign  entrances  or  clearances"  said  the  Salem  Gazette  on 
Feb.  26,  1808.  "Commerce  is  now  (contrary  to  Mr.  Jef- 
ferson's maxim)  embarrassed  with  so  much  regulation  that 
it  cannot  move." 

At  this  jimcture,  the  Republican  Convention  of  Essex 
County  met  at  Ipswich  on  February  24***,  1808,  and  adopted 
the  platform: 

We  consider  the  Embargo  at  the  present  crisis  as  a  meas- 
ure best  calculated  to  preserve  our  property  from  plunder, 
our  seamen  from  impressment  and  our  nation  from  the  hor- 
rors of  War.'' 

The  Federalists  of  Ipswich  met  on  Friday  evening,  March 
25*^,  and  adopted  a  lengthy  Report  of  their  Committee. 
Their  forecaste  was  gloomy  indeed. 

National  ruin  not  far  distant,  when  our  beloved  country 
seems  destined  to  be  whirled  into  the  all-devouring  vortex 
of  unbounded  and  lawless  ambition  and  like  every  other 
republic  to  be  blotted  out  from  the  already  reduced  and  al- 
most annihilated  catalogue  of  free  and  independent  nations. 

They  nominated  Hon.  John  Heard  for  Senator.  A  Com- 
mittee of  eleven  was  then  chosen  to  "prepare  100  lists  each 

*  Thd  Salem  Gazette*  March  1.  1808. 


408         IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

of  votes  for  their  candidates  and  a  Committee  of  150  persons 
in  the  several  districts  (without  including  Chebacco)  to 
distribute  votes  and  engage  the  attention  of  the  people  to  the 
great  object  of  the  meeting."® 

This  vigorous  campaign  was  followed  by  a  Federalist 
Fourth  of  July  celebration.  Upwards  of  a  himdred  citizens, 
including  the  Reverend  Clergy  of  the  Town  and  Hon.  Judge 
Holten,  met  at  Major  Swasey's  tavern,  marched  to  the  meet- 
ing house  of  the  First  Parish,  where  Dr.  Dana  read  Wash- 
ington's Farewell  Address,  and  returned  to  banquet  at  Major 
Swasey's,  Hon.  Stephen  Choate  presiding,  John  Heard  and 
Jonathan  Cogswell  Jun.,  acting  as  Vice-Presidents. 

On  hearing  that  the  leader  of  the  Democratic  party  in 
the  Town,  in  order  to  make  a  mockery  of  federal  principles 
and  the  arrangements  of  the  Federalists  of  this  occasion, 
had  read  (or  attempted  to  read)  the  Farewell  Address  of 
Washington  to  the  pupils  of  the  "new  school,"  the  following 
toast  was  given  by  one  of  the  Company. 

"May  the  tomb  of  Washington  never  again  be  profaned 
by  a  hypocritical  tear,  nor  his  legacy  by  a  jacobin  reader." 
Harmony  and  good  order  prevailed  through  the  day  and  the 
closing  toast  of  Captain  Lakeman,  president  pro-tem,  added 
to  the  pleasantry  of  the  occasion.  "Happy  to  meet,  sorry 
to  part,  Happy  to  meet  again."® 

The  Clergy  judiciously  retired  after  twenty  toasts  had 
been  drunk. 

In  consequence  of  a  request  from  a  number  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  Town  and  a  communication  from  the  Town  of 
Boston,  a  Town  meeting  was  called  on  the  aftemoion  of 
Thursday,  August  18*^,  1808, 

to  see  if  the  Town  will  prefer  a  petition  to  the  President 
of  the  United  States  praying  that  he  would  suspend  the 
Acts  and  Laws  laying  an  embargo  upon  the  ships  and  ves- 

*  The  Salem  Gazette,  April  1st,  1808. 

*  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  22,  1808. 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.   WARS  AND  RUMORS  OF  WAR8.   409 

sels  of  the  United  States,  in  as  much  as  hostilities  between 
Great  Britain  and  Spain  have  ceased,  and  as  there  are  no 
[imperial]  decrees  or  British  Orders  of  Council  interdict- 
ing a  free  exercise  of  commerce  between  the  United  States 
of  America  &  Spain  and  Portugal  and  their  respective  Colo- 
nies. 

The  Town  voted  to  present  a  respectful  petition  of  this 
nature,  and  Major  Joseph  Swasey,  Hony®  Stephen  Choate, 
Capt.  Joseph  Farley,  CoP.  Jonathan  Cogswell,  Major  Tho- 
mas Bumham,  MT.  Nath\  Lord,  3**,  and  John  Heard  Esquire, 
the  Moderator  of  the  meeting,  were  chosen  a  Committee  to 
draft  the  Petition.     This  Committee  reported  the  foUomng: 

To  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

The  Petition  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Town  of  Ipswich 
....  legally  assembled  in  Town  Meeting  this  eighteenth 
day  of  August,  Anno  Domini,  1808. 

Humblv  Sheweth 

That  the  Inhabitants  of  this  Town  have  at  all  times 
from  its  earliest  settlement  manifested  a  respectful  regard 
to  the  laws  of  this  countrv'  and  practised  and  inculcated 
obedience  to  the  constituted  authorities. 

That  under  the  greatest  pressure  of  calamities,  whidi  the 
publick  good  has  been  thought  to  require,  they  have  re- 
mained peaceful  and  submissive,  and  that  no  regulation  of 
Government  however  burdensome,  has  ever  on  this  account 
been  violated  or  evaded  by  any  inhabitant  of  the  Town. 

That  the  laws  of  the  United  States  laying  an  embargo 
on  all  ships  and  vessels  in  the  Country  have  operated  in  a 
very  grievous  manner  on  all  classes  of  our  citizens;  that 
farmers,  merchants,  fishermen  &  Manufacturers  have  in 
their  turns  experienced  and  still  experience  their  ill  effects ; 
and  we  cannot  contemplate  their  further  continuance  with- 
out most  disquieting  apprehensions,  nor  will  we  believe  that 
the  regular  expression  of  the  wishes  of  a  free  people  can  be 
offensive  to  enlightened  and  patriotic  rulers. 

Therefore  your  petitioners  beg  leave  to  suggest  whether 
the  great  events  which  have  lately  taken  place  in  Europe 
will  not  afford  your  Excellency  an  opportunity  for  relea&- 


410        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

ing  the  people  of  this  once  prosperous  country  from  their 
present  embarissed  and  distressed  condition. 

And  your  petitioners  believe  that  a  renewal  of  Commer- 
cial intercourse  between  the  United  States  and  the  Kingdom 
of  Spain  and  Portugal  and  their  Colonies  would  be  pro- 
ductive of  great  advantage,  by  affording  to  us  an  opportu- 
nity of  disposing  of  great  quantities  of  our  surplus  produce 
and  more  particularly  the  Article  of  fish,  now  perishing  on 
our  hands. 

Wherefore  your  Petitioners,  agreeably  to  the  right  which 
they  enjoy  by  the  Constitution,  which  they,  at  all  times  and 
on  all  occasions  are  ready  and  determined  religiously  to  sup- 
port, would  respectfully  pray  that  the  evils,  which  they  en- 
dure in  consequence  of  the  Embargo,  may  be  removed  by  a 
suspention  in  whole  or  in  part  of  the  operation  of  the  law 
laying  the  same,  by  virtue  of  the  power  of  law  vested  in 
the  supreme  Executive ;  or  that  the  power  of  convening  Con- 
gress, given  by  the  Constitution  to  your  Excellency  may  be 
immediately  exercised  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  an  ob- 
ject so  important  to  the  dearest  interests  of  the  people. 

And  as  in  Duty  bound  will  ever  pray. 

In  behalf  of  the  Town  of  Ipswich. 

The  petition  was  twice  read,  and  the  Selectmen  were  in- 
structed to  sign  it  in  behalf  of  the  Town  and  transmit  it 
forthwith. 

The  reply  of  the  President  was  read  at  a  Town  meeting 
convened  on  November  7"*. 

To  the  inhabitants  of  the  To^vn  of  Ipswich  legally  as- 
sembled in  Town  Meeting. 

Your  representation  and  request  were  received  on  the  1** 
instant  and  have  been  considered  with  the  attention  due  to 
every  expression  of  the  sentiments  and  feelings  of  so  re- 
spectable a  body  of  citizens.  No  person  has  seen  with  more 
concern  than  myself  the  inconveniences  brought  on  our  coun- 
try in  general  by  the  circumstances  of  the  times  in  which 
we  happen  to  live,  times  to  which  the  history  of  nations  pre- 
sent no  parallel.  For  years  we  have  been  looking  as  specta- 
tors on  our  brethren  of  Europe,  affected  by  all  those  evils 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.     WAKS  AND  RUMOBS  OF  WABS.       411 

which  necessarily  follow  an  abandonment  of  the  moral  duty 
which  bind  men  &  nations  together;  connected  with  them 
in  friendship  and  commerce  we  have  happily  so  far  kept 
aloof  from  their  calamitous  conflicts  by  a  steady  observance 
of  justice  toward  all,  by  much  forbearance,  and  multiplied 
sacrifices.  At  length,  however,  all  regard  to  the  rights  of 
others  having  been  thrown  aside,  the  belligerent  Powers 
have  beset  the  highway  of  Commercial  intercourse  with 
edicts,  which  taken  together  expose  our  commerce  and  mari- 
ners under  almost  every  destination  a  prey  to  their  fleets 
and  armies.  Each  party,  indeed,  would  admit  our  Com- 
merce with  themselves  with  the  view  of  associating  us  in 
their  wars  against  the  other,  but  we  have  wished  war  with 
neither.  Under  these  circumstances  were  passed  tlie  laws 
of  which  you  complain,  by  those  delegated  to  exercise  the 
powers  of  legislation  for  you,  with  every  sympathy  of  a 
common  interest  in  exercising  them  faithfully.  In  review- 
ing these  measures,  therefore,  we  should  advert  to  the  dif- 
ficulties out  of  which  a  choice  was  of  necessity  to  be  made. 
To  have  submitted  our  rightful  commerce  to  prohibitions 
and  tributary  exactions  from  others,  would  have  been  to 
surrender  our  independence.  To  resist  by  arms  was  War 
without  consulting  the  state  of  things  or  the  choice  of  the 
nation.  The  alternative  proposed  by  the  Legislature  of  sus- 
pending a  commerce  placed  under  such  unexampled  diffi- 
culties, besides  saving  to  our  citizens  their  property 
and  our  mariners  to  their  country,  has  the  peculiar  advan- 
tage of  giving  time  to  the  belligerent  nations  to  revise  a  con- 
duct as  contrary  to  their  interests  as  it  is  to  our  rights. 

In  the  event  of  such  peace  or  suspension  of  hostilities 
between  the  belligerent  powers  of  Europe,  or  such  change 
in  their  measures  affecting  neutral  commerce,  as  may  ren- 
der that  of  the  United  States  sufficiently  safe  in  the  judg- 
ment of  the  President,  he  is  authorized  to  suspend  the  Em- 
bargo, but  no  peace  or  hostilities,  no  change  of  measures 
affecting  neutral  commerce  is  known  to  have  taken  place. 
The  Orders  of  England  and  the  Decrees  of  France  and 
Spain,  existing  at  the  date  of  these  laws,  are  still  unrepealed 
as  far  as  we  know.  In  Spain,  indeed,  a  contest  for  the 
Government  appears  to  have  arisen;  but  of  its  course  or 
prospects  we  have  no  information  on  which  Prudence  would 


412        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

undertake  a  hasty  change  in  our  policy,  even  were  the  au- 
thority of  the  Executive  competent  to  such  a  decision. 

You  desire  that  in  this  defect  of  power  Congress  may  be 
specially  convened.  It  is  impossible  to  examine  the  evi- 
dence or  the  character  of  the  facts  which  are  supposed  to 
dictate  such  a  call,  because  you  will  be  sensible  on  atten- 
tion to  dates,  that  the  legal  period  of  their  meeting  is  as 
early  as,  in  this  extensive  country,  they  could  be  fully  con- 
vened by  a  special  call. 

I  should  with  great  willingness  have  executed  the  wishes 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Town  of  Ipswich,  had  peace  or  a 
repeal  of  the  obnoxious  edicts  or  other  changes  produced 
the  case  in  which  alone  the  laws  have  given  me  that  author- 
ity, and  so  many  motives  of  justice  and  interest  lead  to  such 
changes  that  we  ought  continually  to  expect  them.  But 
while  these  edicts  remain,  the  Legislature  alone  can  pre- 
scribe the  course  to  be  pursued. 

Th,  Jefferson. 

Sept.  2,  1808. 

The  Vote  being  put  whether  the  Answer  of  the  President 
of  the  United  States  to  the  petition  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  Town  in  August  last  be  satisfactory  to  the  Town,  it 
passed  in  the  ?f  egative. 

The  President  ordered  the  Commander-in-chief  of  the 
Massachusetts  militia  to  detach  10,920  men,  to  be  organized, 
armed,  equipped  and  held  in  readiness  for  a  march  at  a  mo- 
ment's notice.  In  December,  1808,  a  company  of  the  stand- 
ing army  of  the  United  States  marched  into  Salem  and  took 
possession  of  Fort  Pickering.  ^^  The  Salem  Gazette  of  Dee. 
23^  remarked,  "Just  one  year  ago  yesterday,  since  President 
signed  the  Embargo."  "At  the  close  of  the  day,  minute 
guns  were  discharged  for  half  an  hour  at  the  North  Bridge 
(that  memorable  spot  where  the  march  of  a  British  regi- 
ment was  once  stopped  by  citizens)  in  sad  memorial  of  the 
decease  of  ComTuerce."  The  Salem  Register  pertly  declared 
that  the  salute  was  in  honor  of  the  Embargo,  and  that  six 
hearty  cheers  were  also  given. 

"  The  Salem  Gazette,  Dec.  9,  1808. 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.     WARS  AND  RUMOES  OF  WARS.       413 

Great  destitution  prevailed  among  the  poor  in  Salem.  A 
subscription  paper  was  circulated  in  January,  1809,  and  a 
soup  house  was  established.  It  was  announced  in  February 
that  1200  persons,  about  one  ninth  of  the  whole  population, 
were  depending  for  their  daily  subsistence  on  this  benefi- 
cent charity,  and  "if  we  add  those  who  live  upon  other  chari- 
ties, not  short  of  one  fifth  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  indus- 
trious, enterprizing  and  prudent  town  of  Salem  are  sup- 
ported by  alms.^^  The  pinch  of  poverty  must  have  been 
no  less  acute  in  Ipswich,  and  all  the  other  commercial  towns. 
Party  feeling  ran  high. 

Another  ToAvn  meeting  was  called, 

for  the  purpose  of  taking  into  consideration  the  present 
calamitous  state  of  the  publick  affairs  of  our  country,  and 
to  adopt  such  measures  and  pass  such  Votes  or  Resolutions  for 
obtaining  redress  of  our  Grievances  as  the  Town  may  think 
proper. 

The  meeting  convened  on  January  30***,  1809,  and  Major 
Thomas  Burnham  was  chosen  Moderator.  Strong  opposi- 
tion to  any  action  by  the  Town  was  evident  in  the  motion 
that  the  meeting  be  dissolved.  It  failed  to  pass,  but  an  ad- 
journment was  made  to  the  6"*  of  February,  without  further 
action. 

Reassembling,  the  Town  was  in  very  excited  mood.  A 
series  of  Resolves,  very  long  and  intensely  partisan,  and  a 
Memorial  were  read  by  Major  Swasey.  Dr.  John  Manning's 
motion  that  a  large  committee  be  appointed  to  consider  the 
Resolves  and  Memorial  failed  to  carry. 

The  vote  being  put  whether  the  Town  would  accept  the 
Resolves  and  Memorial,  it  passed  in  the  affirmative. 

The  Vote  being  put  whether  the  Town  should  adjourn 
this  meeting  that  those  that  were  of  a  different  opinion 
might  have  an  opportunity  to  enter  their  protest  against  the 
proceedings,  it  passed  in  the  iN'egative. 

"  The  Salem  Gazette,  Feb.  7,  1809. 


414        IPSWICil,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

The  first  Resolution  was  as  follows : 

Resolved,  as  the  sense  of  this  Town,  That  we  consider  the 
Embargo  system  generally,  and  the  Act  empowering  the  Em- 
bargo in  particular,  as  an  outrage  on  the  Constitution  of 
our  Country,  and  the  habits,  freedom  and  understandings 
of  the  citizens ;  and  that  it  is  the  duty  of  all  the  good  people 
of  these  United  States  to  enter  their  solemn  protest  against 
measures  so  destructive  to  their  liberty  and  happiness,  so 
repugnant  to  the  genius  and  spirit  of  their  government,  and 
so  ruinous  in  their  natural  consequences. 

At  great  length,  it  was  charged  that  the  motive  under- 
lying the  Embargo  was  to  co-operate  with  the  tyrant  of 
Europe  in  destroying  American  commerce,  that  even  bay  and 
river  craft  were  subject  to  the  arbitrary  will  of  the  Presi- 
dent and  Revenue  officers  ....  "in  fact  it  is  hard  to  decide 
whether  this  Act  was  intended  to  be  obeyed,  or  by  provok- 
ing the  citizens  to  a  revolt  to  furnish  a  pretext  for  the  erec- 
tion of  an  absolute  despotism  in  this  once  happy  country." 

A  Memorial  to  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  was 
appended,  praying  for  "direction  as  to  the  line  of  conduct 
to  be  adopted  by  the  citizens  in  this  calamitous  state  of 
things." 

And  we,  at  the  same  time,  pledge  ourselves,  our  lives,  our 
fortunes  and  our  sacred  honour  to  support  to  the  utmost 
such  constitutional  measures  for  the  common  safety  as  your 
Honors  in  your  wisdom  shall  adopt  and  recommend. 

•  The  Federalists  of  Ipswich  were  notified  in  very  vigorous 
fashion  on  Friday,  March  31'*,  1809. 

Your  meeting  stands  adjourned  to  this  evening  at  7  o'clock 
at  the  Grammar  School  house  ....  to  make  arrangements 
to  secure  the  whole  federal  strength  of  the  Town  in  effect- 
ing the  election  of  genuine  Whigs,  disciples  of  Washington, 
enemies  of  embargo,  non-intercourse,  foreign  war  and  civil 
dissension,  into  the  Councils  of  the  Commonwealth.     Your 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.   WARS  AND  RUMORS  OF  WARS.   415 

enemies  and  the  enemies  of  your  country's  freedom,  inde- 
pendence and  happiness,  are  alive  and  alert.  Your  diligence 
must  be  increased,  your  exertions  doubled,  your  labors  un- 
wearied, ....  for  your  cause  is  good.  It  is  the  cause  for 
which  Washington  fought,  your  heroes  bled,  your  country 
suffered:  it  is  the  cause  of  freedom,  of  independence,  of 
honor  and  happiness  .  .  .  .^^ 

Success  crowned  the  efforts  of  the  Federalists.  They 
elected  their  candidate  for  Governor,  Christopher  Gore,  and 
John  Heard  was  chosen  Senator.  In  November,  James 
Madison  was  elected  President  of  the  United  States.  The 
innumerable  appeals  for  the  repeal  of  the  Embargo  moved 
him  to  favorable  action  and  Congress  repealed  the  law  which 
was  so  obnoxious  to  New  England.  In  its  place  was  sub- 
stituted a  Non-Intercourse  law,  which  still  prohibited  com- 
merce with  France  and  Great  Britain,  though  it  permitted 
it  with  other  neutral  nations.  This  went  into  operation  on 
March  4,  1809,  the  day  of  Madison's  inauguration.^^  Trade 
instantly  revived.  From  every  port,  the  great  merchant 
fleets  sailed  forth.  Along  the  Ipswich  waterfront,  on 
wharves,  in  ware  houses,  aboard  the  long  idle  vessels,  mer- 
chants, laborers,  sailors  were  eagerly  active  in  hurrying 
away  their  craft  to  reap  their  share  of  the  advantages  of 
trade  with  the  long  closed  ports. 

The  brig  "Fleetwood,"  Capt.  Smith,  must  have  made  an 
early  departure.  She  was  reported  in  May,  sailing  from 
St.  Michael's  for  Cadiz,  and  arrived  at  New  York  in  August. 
In  the  following  July,  tmder  command  of  Capt.  Young,  she 
was  in  the  Mediterranean  but  her  voyage  resulted  disas- 
trously. Sailing  from  Cagliari,  she  was  captured  by  a 
French  ship  and  run  ashore  about  five  miles  from  Malaga, 
where  she  was  boarded  on  the  30^^  of  July  by  the  British 
frigate  "Resistance."       Capt.  Adams,  finding  the  ship  de- 

^  The  Salem  Gazette,  March  31,  1809. 

^  Channiner.     Student's  History  of  the  United  States,  p.  360. 


416         IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

serted,  attempted  to  get  her  off,  but  the  tide  had  fallen  so 
that  this  was  impossible  and  he  burnt  her  where  she  lay.^* 
The  ship  "Eliza"  of  Ipswich,  was  at  Torringen,  Jan.  12^, 
1810.     The  schooners  were  quickly  at  the  West  Indies. 

The  new  prosperity  was  of  short  duration.  Mr.  Ers- 
kine,  the  British  minister,  had  exceeded  his  instructions  in 
assuring  Mr.  Madison  that  the  British  ports  were  open  to 
American  shipping,  and  the  British  government  refused  to 
sustain  him.  American  seamen  on  the  high  seas  were  at 
the  mercv  of  the  British  men-of-war,  and  thousands  of  them 
were  taken  from  their  ships  and  forced  into  the  English 
navy.  War  was  demanded  by  a  strong  public  sentiment 
outside  of  Jfew  England,  and  on  the  17***  of  June,  1812, 
War  was  declared,  and  the  President  was  authorized  to  issue 
commissions  or  letters  of  marque  to  private  armed  vessels. 

Ship-owners  and  sailors  availed  themselves  eagerly  of  the 
privateering  privilege.  Joseph  Challis,  an  Ipswich  sailor, 
one  of  the  crew  of  the  private  armed  schooner  "Regulator," 
Captain  James  Mansfield,  sold  to  William  M.  Rogers  on 
July  6***,  1812,  for  $30  a  quarter  share  of  whatever  prizes, 
assigned  to  him  in  the  course  of  the  cruise  "on  which  she 
is  noAV  bound."  On  July  10***,  the  Gazette  announced  that 
six  small  armed  vessels  had  already  sailed  from  Salem,  that 
two  more  were  ready  for  sea  that  day,  and  that  on  the  eve- 
ning of  the  9^,  the  schooner  "Fame"  of  two  guns  and  thirty 
men  had  returned,  having  taken  an  English  ship  of  nearly 
300  tons  loaded  with  square  timber,  and  a  brig  of  200  tons 
loaded  with  tar.  A  few  days  later,  the  British  Government 
transport  "No.  50"  was  brought  into  Gloucester,  a  prize  to 
the  one  gun  privateer,  "Madison"  of  that  port,  with  a  valu- 
able cargo  of  gimpowder,  830  suits  of  uniform,  superfine 
cloth  for  oiRcers'  uniforms,  drums,  triimpets,  camp  equipage, 
oificers'  baggage,  destined  for  the  104^**  Regiment  of  British 
Infantry,  valued  at  $50,000.*^ 

"The  Saletti  Gazette,  Aug.  21,  1810. 
»  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  14,  1812. 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.   WABS  AND  RUMOBS  OF  WARS.   417 

Notwithstanding  the  alluring  prospect  of  golden  harvests 
easily  gained  from  the  seizure  of  English  merchantmen,  New 
England  was  bitterly  opposed  to  the  War.  Town  meetings 
were  called  at  once  in  Danvers,  Beverly  and  Ipswich.  The 
Ipswich  people  met  on  June  25"*,  and  adopted  a  lengthy 
communication  to  the  To^vn  of  Boston,  reaffirming  its  un- 
alterable opposition  to  the  Embargo  and  to  the  War. 

"Agreeably  to  the  recommendations  of  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, in  their  address  to  the  people  of  the  State,"  a 
County  Convention  met  at  Ipswich  on  July  21st,  1812. 
Sixty-two  delegates  attended,  including  the  Ipswich  delega- 
tion, Jonathan  Cogswell  Esq,  Capt.  Joseph  Farley,  Hon. 
John  Heard,  and  Capt.  Ammi  R.  Smith.  The  Hon.  Timo- 
thy Pickering  of  Salem  was  chosen  President,  and  a  long  and 
spirited  Address  reported  by  a  Committee,  was  adopted. 
The  15***  nnicle  was  as  follows: 

That  the  unequalled  profligacy  of  the  French  government, 
its  defiance  and  contempt  of  all  the  obligations  of  justice 
and  truth,  joined  to  the  prevalent  infidelity  and  general 
prostration  of  morals  in  the  French  nation,  present  France 
as  an  object  of  horror  to  the  civilized  and  Christian  world. 
In  this  view,  therefore,  we  also  express  our  detestation  of 
the  war  declared  by  our  rulers  against  Great  Britain,  as 
thereby  we  become  associated  with  France,  and  because  the 
war  in  its  progress  will  naturally  produce  an  alliance  with 
her  that  will  prove  fatal  to  our  religion,  liberties  and  in- 
dependence. This  voluntary,  this  chosen  connection  with  a 
government  and  people  so  perfidious,  profligate  and  corrupt 
is  of  itself  sufficient  to  draw  down  upon  our  Country  the 
judgments  of  Heaven  .  .  .  .^* 

The  Governor  appointed  July  23,  1812,  as  a  Public  Fast 
day,  in  consequence  of  the  Declaration  of  War.  The  minis- 
ters spoke  that  day  with  no  uncertain  sound.  Dr.  Parish 
thundered  his  "Protest  against  the  War"  from  his  pulpit  in 

»  The  Salem  Gazette,  July  23,  1S12. 


418        IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

the  Byfield  parish,  in  a  sermon  which  soon  was  published  in 
a  second  edition. 

Never  was  a  crisis  more  serious  in  human  affairs ;  never 
was  a  day  so  momentous  to  the  happiness  of  individuals  or 
the  nation.  The  proclamation  is  published;  the  country, 
the  world  are  in  motion.  Families  are  dividing  and  mar- 
shalling themselves  on  opposite  sides. 

*  ♦         *         *         * 

If  you  commence  the  war,  you  understandingly  abandon 
your  independence  and  your  freedom.  If  you  commence 
the  war,  this  tyranical,  cruel,  miserable  state  of  things  be- 
comes fixed  and  permanent,  as  the  miseries  of  Holland  and 
Prussia  and  Germany.  Then  no  more  petitions,  no  more 
assemblages  of  the  people  to  manifest  their  patriotism.  Al- 
ready is  it  high  time  that  petitions  and  remonstrances 
should  be  laid  aside.  You  have  thrown  away  enough  by 
sending  them  to  the  Potomac  to  form  carpets  for  her  pal- 
aces. Go  and  petition  the  grave  to  close  her  gates,  and  to 
admit  no  more  of  your  dear  friends.  Go  and  implore  grim 
Death  to  cast  away  his  quiver  and  his  fatal  arrows ;  if  you 
succeed  in  moving  the  cold  ear  of  Death,  then,  and  not  till 
then,  renew  your  petitions  to  your  Rulers,  ply  them  with 

new  prayers  and  supplications. 

*  *         *         *         ^ 

Long  have  you  expected  relief  from  their  fatal  measures, 
long  have  you  submitted  with  the  patience  of  Issachar,  who 
like  a  stupid  ass,  bowed  down  between  two  burdens.  And 
still  do  you  hope,  and  hope,  and  hope  for  a  change  of  meas- 
ures, in  the  French  citizens,  the  Gallatins,  the  Jeffersons, 
the  Burrs,  and  Madisons  of  the  country  ?  You  may  as  well 
expect  that  the  freezing  blasts  of  winter  will  cover  your 
fields  with  corn,  your  gardens  with  blossoms.  They  will  as 
soon  give  liberty  to  their  African  slaves,  as  unembarrassed 

commercn  to  their  New  England  subjects. 

***** 

This  nefarious  declaration  of  war  is  nothing  more  nor 
less  than  a  licence  given  by  a  Virginian  vassal  of  the  French 
Emperor  to  the  English  nation  authorizing  them  in  legal 
form  to  destroy  the  prosperity  of  Xew  England.. 

You  will  soon  see,  not  a  band  of  Britons,  but  a  meager. 


THE  NEW  OENTUKY.     WARS  AND  RUMORS  OF  WARS.       419 

famished,  hungry  horde  of  savage  Erenchmen,  with  the  pro- 
fession of  friends,  but  the  action  of  demons:  with  the  voice 
of  lambs,  but  the  spirits  of  tygers.  So  they  entered  Hol- 
land and  IS'aples  and  Switzerland  and  Germany  and  Prus- 
sia and  Rome  and  Venice  and  Spain.  They  went  to  give 
them  liberty;  they  stayed  to  make  them  slaves;  they  went 
in  the  garb  of  friends,  they  stayed  to  rob  their  fields,  to 
plunder  their  houses,  their  banks,  their  churches,  to  ravish 
their  women,  to  murder  their  men,  to  ruin  their  country. 
So  will  it  be  here,  if  you  allow  the  wretches  to  tread  on  your 
ground  or  to  breathe  your  air.  They  will  then  drive  you 
from  your  houses;  they  will  drag  your  sons  in  chains  to 
their  armies;  universal  plunder  will  desolate  the  country. 
Famine  and  death  will  close  the  scene. 

Mr.  Uriah  Spofford  of  Appleton,  Wisconsin,  whose  child- 
hood and  young  manhood  were  spent  in  Ipswich,  published 
some  very  interesting  Reminiscences^®*  of  this  period.  He 
recalls  that  there  were  three  companies  of  militia.  The 
first  company,  commanded  by  Nathaniel  Lord,  Robert  Kim- 
ball, Ensign,  included  all  the  men  on  the  south  side  of  High 
Street,  and  "around  the  comer,  all  on  the  right  hand  run- 
ning south  [i.  e.  Iforth  Main  Street],  all  on  Topsfield  Road 
from  the  Stone  Bridge,  and  the  men  at  Turkey  Hill,  New 
Boston  and  Pine  Swamp." 

In  the  second  company,  of  which  Joseph  Whittier  was 
Captain,  were  enrolled  all  the  men  living  on  the  hill  side 
of  High  St.  "and  on  the  left  hand  running  south  from  the 
comer  [i.  e.  North  Main  St.],  down  opposite  the  Jail  Lane 
[Green  St.],  and  all  east  of  that  including  Plum  Island." 
The  third  company,  Capt.  Humphrey  Lakeman,  John 
Brown,  Lieut,  included  all  the  men  who  lived  south  of  the 
Stone  Bridge,  including  Windmill  Hill,  Candlewood,  and 
Argilla.  John  T.  Spofford  was  fifer,  Charles  Kimball,  drum- 
mer of  one  of  the  High  Street  companies.  Soon  after  the 
Declaration  of  War,  a  company  of  Conditional  Exempts  was 

»^  Published  In  the  Ipswich  Chronicle,  1882. 


420         IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

formed,  which  numbered  about  75  men.  Major  Joseph 
Swasev  was  the  Commander,  Col.  Jos.  Hodgkins,  1'*  Lieut. 
Jabez  Farley,  2*'*  Lieut,  Col.  Thomas  Wade,  Orderly  Ser- 
geant. They  drilled  at  the  Court  House.  There  was  an- 
other company  of  30  men  in  Linebrook,  t^\'0  at  Essex,  one 
each  in  Hamilton,  Topsfield  and  Rowley. 

The  winter  of  1812  was  uneventful  but  the  spring  of  1813 
brought  the  war  home  to  Ipswich.  Young  Richard  Dummer 
Jewett,  son  of  Richard  Dummer  Jewett,  then  in  his  twenty- 
first  year,  had  shipped  on  a  privateer  brig  which  sailed  from 
Boston.  His  letters  to  his  parents  brought  the  sad  tidings 
of  his  capture  and  his  detention  in  the  prison  at  Bridgetown, 
Island  of  Barbadoes. 

Barbadoes  Prison,  March  6,  1813. 
Sir: 

.  .  .  We  sailed  from  Boston  27"*  wind  free  steering  East 
until  we  made  the  island  of  Maderia  wFhjere  we  Cruised 
a  few  days  and  captured  a  brig  and  schooner  loaded  with 
fish  &tc.  of  which  we  send  to  France  ....  then  sailed  for 
the  Coast  of  Africa  we  made  the  land  of  Senegall  then 
stering  for  the  Cape  de  Verd  island  we  arrived  at  the 
island  of  St.  Yago  and  watered  then  sailed  for  the  West 
India  Islands  two  days  out  January  9***  Captured  the 
British  ship  J^eptune  from  London  bound  to  Rio  jenero  with 
brandy  wine,  bale  goods,  silver  plate  etc.  Capt.  Lord  went 
on  board  and  sailed  for  America 

Saturday  evening,  seven  days,  between  seven  and  eight  we 
saw  a  sail  upon  our  lee  bow  we  then  kept  away  for  her 
till  perceived  her  to  be  a  large  ship  then  hauling  our  wind 
and  making  all  sail  she  then  giving  chase  after  us,  and  come 
up  with  us  fast,  gave  us  a  gun  in  one  hour  and  a  half  she 
came  along  side  of  us  (by  this  time  we  had  taken  in  sail 
and  saw  all  clear  for  action  but  to  no  use)  then  gave  us 
a  broadside  and  two  volleys  of  musketry.  Mr.  John  Foot 
of  T^ewburyport  had  his  leg  shot  off  Mr  Smith  of  Mar- 
blehead  was  wounded  and  died  the  day  following  ....  she 
proved  to  be  his  majesty's  frigate  surprize  of  47  gims  forty 
five  days  of  her   stocks  one   of  the   fastest  sailors   in   the 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.     WARS  AND  RUMORS  OF  WARS.       421 

navy,  she  then  took  our  men  on  board  and  proceeded  with 
the  brig  to  barbadoes,  January  26^  committing  us  to 
Prison  w[hjere  I  now  remain,  March  6.  the  privateer 
Yankee  of  Xewburyport  is  here  ship  John's  crew  of  Salem 
is  here  about  five  hundred  prisoners  on  board  of  the  prison 
ship  and  here  nt  the  goal.  Mr.  Pulcifer^*^  is  well  and  all 
onr  crew,  no  exchange  here  yet  some  prisoners  have  been 
here  six  months.  Mr.  Ebenezer  Clinton  is  here  and  well 
was  taken  15*^  of  August  please  to  remind  Mr.  Dodge  if 
any  prizes  arrive  shew  him  the  same  if  you  please.  Give 
iny  love  to  all  Enquiring  friends. 

I  remain 

Richard  D.  Jewett 
We  have  heard  of  a  Carteel  arriving  at  some  of  the  lee- 
ward islands     not  known  if  it  be  true  or  not.     if  not  we 
think  the  states  must  be  damned  slack  in  the  stays     it  is 
j)oor  encouragement  for  privateer's  men. 

Mr.  Jewett  wrote  again  from  Bridgetown  Prison  on  Jime 
15***,  1813.  He  had  then  been  in  prison  a  hundred  and 
forty  days  and  had  lost  hopes  of  being  exchanged.  The 
crews  of  the  privateers  '^Providence"  of  Providence;  "Block- 
nde"  of  New  Haven ;  ^* Yankee"  and  "Decatur"  of  Newbury 
and  "John"  of  Salem  were  all  in  the  prison.  A  petition 
for  relief  had  been  sent  to  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
but  no  reply  had  been  received.     It  was  signed, 

So  I  remain  and  am  like  to  remain.  God  knows  when  I 
shall  return.     I  am 

Yours 

Richard  Dummer  Jewett. 

Relief  was  nearer  than  he  anticipated.  He  was  in  Bos- 
ton on  November  25*^,  wrote  on  Dec.  7"*  that  he  was  about 
sailing  for  New  Orleans  and  arrived  in  that  port;  but  sail- 
ing again,  no  further  tidings  ever  reached  his  home. 

Major  Robert  Farley  was  appointed  Colonel  in  the  United 

"  Probably  Ebenezer  Pulcifer,  son  of  David. 


422         IPSWICH,  IN  THE  MASSACHUSETTS  BAY  COLONY. 

States  twelve  months  army  in  March,*^  1813,  and  a  levy 
of  troops  was  probably  made  in  the  local  militia.  On  Thurs- 
day, May  13"*,  1813,  two  British  frigates  chased  a  wood 
coaster  into  Sandy  Bay,  now  called  Rockport,  and  fired  fif- 
teen or  twenty  shots  without  effect.  On  the  following  Sun- 
day morning,  the  French  privateer  corvette,  "Invincible  Xa- 
poleon,"  270  tons,  which  had  been  captured  by  a  British  ship 
and  taken  from  her  by  a  Salem  privateer,  was  chased  by  the 
English  frigates  "Shannon"  and  "Tenedos."  She  was  run 
ashore  on  Iforman's  Woe  and  abandoned  by  her  prize  crew. 
The  boats  from  the  frigates  hauled  her  off,  but  the  Glouces- 
ter militia  rallied  and  fired  upon  them.  The  heavy  cannon- 
ade of  the  frigates  must  have  caused  general  alarm.*®  On 
Wednesday,  May  26*\  a  letter  of  marque  schooner  was 
chased  ashore  a  little  south  of  Squam  light  by  an  English 
brig  of  war. 

The  schooner  "Sally"  of  Barnstable  arrived  at  Ipswich 
on  Thursday,  July  8***,  1813,  having  been  boarded  about 
20  leagues  from  Cape  Ann  by  H.  M.  Ship  "La  Hogue," 
which  put  on  board  several  masters  of  vessels  which  had  been 
captured.  The  Captain  then  released  the  "Sally"  after  hav- 
ing endorsed  her  register,  to  the  effect  that  "in  consequence 
of  depredations  by  American  privateers  on  fishing  and  coast- 
ing vessels  of  Nova  Scotia,  British  cruisers  will  destroy 
every  description  of  American  vessels,  flags  of  truce  only 
excepted."^®  An  Act  to  authorize  a  Corps  of  Sea  Fencibles 
was  passed  on  July  26***,  which  provided  that  the  President 
might  raise  not  exceeding  ten  companies  of  90  men  to  be 
used  on  land  or  sea. 

An  English  brig  was  on  the  coast  again  in  late  October 
and  chased  a  dozen  coasting  vessels  into  Squam  one  Saturday 
afternoon,  and  captured  and  burned  a  sloop  on  Sunday  morn- 
ing.2^     Young  men  were  offered  generous  wages  to  enlist  in 

"The  Essex  Register,  March  24,  1813. 
»  The  Essex  Rejrlster,  Maj'  19,  1813. 
"•The  Essex  Register,  July  14,  1818. 
"  The  Essex  Register,  Nov.  8,  1812. 


THE  NEW  CENTURY.     WABS  AND  BUMOBS  OF  WABS.       4:23 

the  40*^  Kegiment  Regular  Infantry,  $16  bounty,  $24  ad- 
vance pay,  $8  a  month  regular  wages,  warm  clothing,  good 
rations,  and  at  the  end  of  the  war,  160  acres  of  land.^^ 
The  year  ended  with  a  Proclamation  of  an  Embargo  on  Dec. 
17*"*,  which  forbade  all  vessels  to  sail  except  privateers. 

One  event  of  the  closing  months  of  the  year  1813,  in 
which  Ipswich  had  only  an  incidental  part,  brought  the 
name  of  the  town  into  a  very  conspicuous  place  in  the  hot 
newspaper  controversies  which  enlivened  the  winter  months. 
In  the  Essex  Register  of  Saturday,  October  9,  a  significant 
item  appeared,  headed  ^T?etaliation." 

On  Thursday  last,  ten  English  prison